Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ročník 106
číslo 3



ŠMÍD Marek
Katolická církev v Rusku před bolševickou revolucí a po ní
Roman Catholic Church in Russia Before The Russian Revolution and After

ШМИД Марек
Католическая церковь в России перед большевистской революцией и после нее
s. 415–431

This contribution to the discussion about the continuity of Russian (or Soviet) history focuses on the transformation of Roman Catholic Church in Russia (or the Soviet Union) before the October Revolution of 1917 and in the era that followed. It is based mainly on the knowledge of Vatican Archives and published primary sources which are then confronted with a wide array of secondary sources, mainly of British and Italian origin, summarizing the topic from the viewpoint of Western historiography. Although lacking the accent on Russian sources, it is focused on the political and religious situation in Russia in the time since the turn of the 19th and 20th century until 1920s, as seen by the Holy See. The article introduces the reader to the religious life in the country – with a further focus on Roman Catholic Church and its prominent dignitaries and personas – while taking into account the transformation of the Catholic Church in the first decade of the 20th century that has seen the Holy See hoping to be able to convert Russia to Catholicism. It also explains the animosity of Russians towards the Roman Catholicism which escalated in physical elimination of its officials in the 1920s, followed by effective elimination of the Church as a whole in 1930s.

Keywords: Russia, the Bolshevik Coup, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, Soviet-Vatican diplomacy, the Holy See

VYDRA Zbyněk 
Šlechtická usaďba v Rusku 20. století jako příklad kontinuity a discontinuity
Countryside Mansions of The 20th Century Russian Nobility as An Example of Continuity and Discontinuity

ВЫДРА Збинек
Дворянская усадьба в России ХХ века как пример континуума и дисконтинуума
s. 433–463

Family mansions have traditionally played a central role in aristocratic family memory. Russian nobility was no exception to this, with country estates (usaďby) playing a special role. The country estate was a place where the aristocrats spent a substantial part of their childhood, a place of pleasant memories, and a sort of constant in family life across the generations. Thus, it was kept in family memory and had a secure place in it. At the same time, the estate itself was a place of memory, for it kept memories of previous generations of the family. Therefore, the paper deals with two fundamental problems. The first one is the role of a country mansion in ancestral memory, especially how a memory of a particular mansion have been passed down between the generations and how the image of a family mansion as a “nest” has transformed in the turbulent times of the late 19th century, through revolutions and up until the present times. The second one is a broader public discourse about nobility, its history and place in society. This discourse is presented through the image of country estates in the collective memory of nobility and the historical memory of society. The intention was to demonstrate the continuity and discontinuity in memory in the 20th century; therefore the article is divided into three parts: country estate in the collective memory in Imperial Russia, in the Soviet era, and in post-Soviet times. The article is based mainly on personal sources (unpublished diaries from Russian archives, correspondence, memoirs, etc.).

Keywords: Russia, 20th century, Russian nobility, country estates, collective memory, historical memory

Kontinuita ruských dějin – dvě anexe Krymského poloostrova a jejich reflexe v literárních a publicistických textech
Continuity of Russian History – The Twin Annexations of Crimean Peninsula and Their Reflection in Literary and Journalist Texts

Континуум русской истории — две аннексии Крымского полуострова и их рефлексия в литературных и публицистических текстах
s. 465–500

The article compares the predispositions and circumstances of Russian annexations of Crimea in the years 1783 and 2014. It illustrates the blatant similarities in the official rhetoric observed on the example of literary works from both eras. Primarily, it concerns Gavrila Derzhavin’s ode Na priobretenije Kryma and Chersonida, a narrative poem by Semyon Bobrov, of which both reflect the so-called Greek plan, a political and cultural programme of Catherine the Great. Contemporary works are represented by Krym kak predčuvstvije, a collection of short stories by Elena Yablonskaya, with poetry reflected including the so-called geopoetics of Igor Sid and his group, as well as other propagandist and nationalist poems by various authors. While in the era of Catherine the Great the focus of the works was on reclaiming Crimea diplomatically and calling up the Russian claims to Ancient and Greek heritage, in our days we see more of a primitive ly propaganda with strong nationalistic elements that relies heavily on communication technology.

Keywords: Crimean peninsula, the annexation of Crimea, Russian literature, Russia, Ukraine

MOKRYK Radomyr
Kulturní politika po 20. sjezdu Komunistické strany SSSR: reflexe v sovětské Ukrajině
Cultural Policy After The 20th Congress of The Communist Party of The Soviet Union: Reflexion in Soviet Ukraine

МОКРИК Радомир
Культурная политика после XX съезда Коммунистической партии СССР: рефлексия в советской Украине
s. 501–524

The article covers the main attributes of cultural policy in Soviet Ukraine after the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1956. It analyses the official literary concept of the socialist realism, focusing on the internationalist principle in wider political context. The study presents the gradual formation of an alternative discourse in the Soviet culture, represented in Soviet Ukraine by works of the younger generation of so-called “Generation of the sixties”. The two discourses interlinked under the specific conditions of the Khrushchev Thaw gave birth to a curious phenomenon of a hybrid culture of National Communism. The article defines the main phases of the development of the alternative discourse of Soviet culture in Ukraine during the Thaw and the gradual development of the „Generation of the sixties“ from Soviet class identity towards a national one that later took form of anti-Soviet and anti-Imperial opposition.

Keywords: the 20th century, the Khrushchev Thaw, socialist realism, dissent, colonialism, Soviet identity

Ruská revoluce v literárním obraze Třetí roty 1917–1918
The Russian Revolution and its Literary Depiction in The Third Company (1917–1918)

Русская революция в литературном образе Третьей роты 1917–1918
s. 525–546

Czech literary fund is plentiful in testimonies about the Russian Revolution. In many cases, these literary works have been written by direct participants (or, at the very least, witnesses) of events in revolutionary Russia. One of these participants was Josef Kopta (1894–1962), a writer that joined the Czechoslovak Legion in Russia. His novel, The Third Company (1924), has enjoyed a widespread publicity, as evidenced by the sheer amount of editions published. Based on this, we can presume that Kopta’s work has influenced the very discourse of understanding the Russian Revolution in inter-war Czechoslovakia and its society and, mainly, solidified the collective memory of members of the Legion. Using latest narratological approaches, this study aims to demonstrate the possibilities of analysing narrative texts from or about the Legions, the focus of this study being the depiction of the Russian Revolution as understood by characters and the narrator of Kopta’s novel. Furthermore, this study also hopes to draw attention to the numerous unexplored eye-witness testimonies about the events in revolutionary Russia present in Czech literary works.

Keywords: the Czechoslovak Legion, literary works of the Legions, the Russian Revolution, Josef Kopta, The Third Company, narratology

ŠVEC Luboš
Demontáž sovětského dějinného paradigmatu v Lotyšsku na konci 80. let 20. století: některé aspekty kontinuity a diskontinuity
Deconstruction of The Soviet Historical Paradigm in Latvia in Late 1980s: Aspects of Continuity and Discontinuity

ШВЕЦ Любош
Демонтаж советской исторической парадигмы в Латвии в конце 80-х гг. XX в.: некоторые аспекты континуума и дисконтинуума
s. 547–567

The article focuses on the turning point in the deconstruction of the Soviet paradigm in Latvian historiography at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s and draws attention to and analyses the relevant aspects of this process. It aims to explain the form in which deconstruction took place, which topics became key in the discussion, whether the old ones remained and were reinterpreted or new issues arose. Last, but not least, the question of transformation raises the question of continuity and discontinuity between interwar Latvia, Soviet Latvia, and re-established Latvia at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s, in terms of topics, personnel and structure. The paper will analyze how, in reaction to the crisis of Soviet historiography, Latvian historians were gradually opening discussions regarding various previously taboo historical topics and how they moved on from the critique of Stalinism and Neo-Stalinism within Gorbachev’s perestroika to the concept of national history in the European context and to the rejection of Soviet annexation of Latvia.

Keywords: Perestroika, Soviet and national history, Latvian historiography, The Third Awakening, deconstruction of the Soviet paradigm in Latvia, continuity and discontinuity, turn of the 80s and 90s

Historiografický přístup k osobnosti Alexandra Nikolajeviče Radiščeva během 20. a 21. století
Alexander Nikolayevich Radishchev and The Historiographic Understanding of His Life in 20th And 21st Century

Историографический подход к личности Александра Николаевича Радищева в течение XX-XXI вв
s. 569–585

Focus of this article is on the way historians and researchers understand perhaps the most important intellectuals of the era of the rule of Tsarina Catherine the Great – Alexander Nikolayevich Radishchev. The article goes in depth in its analysis of the standpoints of the most influential academic authors of the 20th century towards Radishchev. Based on the academic acclaim of his persona and Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow, his renowned work, the article ponders upon whether his example can be used to illustrate the pattern of historiographic approach towards Russian intelligentsia as such or whether he stands out unprecedented to such a degree as a persona of Russian cultural and social history that no such general claims can be proposed. The study also debates whether the status of Radishchev amongst the Russian intelligentsia is justifiable based on his opinions or whether it comes as a product of Soviet historiography that brought upon Radishchev the profane title of “the first Russian revolutionary”.

Keywords: Alexander Nikolayevich Radishchev, historiography, Russia, Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow, intelligentsia

NYKL Hanuš
Russian Émigré Philosopher Andrei Pavlov and His Concept of T. G. Masaryk

НИКЛ Гануш
Русский эмигрантский философ Андрей Павлов и его концепция Т. Г. Масарика
s. 587–607

The article explores Andrei Tikhonovich Pavlov, Russian émigré philosopher based in interwar Czechoslovakia. There is, as yet, no scientific study dedicated to Pavlov. The available biographical data give an impression of Pavlov as a secondary philosopher, in the shadow of his more renowned colleagues. This paper, based on accessible sources, focuses on Pavlov’s career that equivocated largely between Russian émigré pedagogy and philosophy. It also explores Pavlov’s contribution to philosophy. The most extensive part of his work in this field is dedicated to philosophy of T. G. Masaryk. The paper focuses on Pavlov’s key theses and places them within the context of other studies reflecting Masaryk’s work by the Russian philosophers in exile. Thanks to research made, Pavlov does not seem as “philosopher in a shadow” anymore, but he becomes the one of the most intriguing and, at the same time, most controversial interpreter of Masaryk’s works.

Keywords: Andrei Pavlov, Russian philosophy, T. G. Masaryk, Russian emigration, interwar Czechoslovakia

Rusové a Němci ve vícegeneračním vzpomínání na druhou světovou válku: čí vzpomínky, čí paměť?
Russians and Germans in Multigenerational Recollections of the Second World War: Whose Recollections, Whose Memory?

Русские и немцы в воспоминаниях нескольких поколений о второй мировой войне: чьи воспоминания, чья память?
s. 609–633

The paper examines the ways in which Russians and Germans have been depicted in the recollections on the German occupation of Bohemia and Moravia. It is based on a set of 22 interviews with the participants recalling their own wartime experiences or the stories told in their family. Using content analysis, the paper establishes a negative image of Russians and a rather positive image of Germans across the generations of participants. The study further explores the possible reasons for this “reversal of poles” in contrast to the interpretations of Russians and Germans before the fall of Communism in 1989. The reasons are sought in three areas: the sympathy of Czechs towards the Germans and their antipathy towards the Russians (constantly revealed in public surveys ever since 1989); heavily anti-Communist interpretation of history (or the official memory); and the influence of collective European memory that no longer understands the Germans as the enemy. The study ponders over the mutual influence of individual, family and official memory as a complex process of continuous negotiation about history under the influence of contemporary needs.

Keywords: the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, collective memory, family memory, oral history, historic stereotypes, international relations, Russia, Germany

ZEMÁNEK Ladislav
Proměny ruského liberálního socialismu v 1. polovině 20. století
Transformation of Russian Liberal Socialism in the 1st Half of the 20th Century

ЗЕМАНЕК Ладислав
Преобразования русского либерального социализма в 1-й половине ХХ в.
s. 635–655

The paper analyses a transformation of the Russian liberal socialism in the 1st half of the 20th century, as illustrated with an example of the three selected authors – B. A. Kistyakovski, G. D. Gurvich and M. V. Vishnyak. The study aims to delimit this paradigm, understood in the spirit of T. S. Kuhn, and to conduct an analysis, critique and interpretation of its key concepts with regard to domestic as well as foreign sources of thought. The analysis focuses primarily on the following questions and ways the respective authors approach them: sovereignty of the law, rule of law, natural law, the relationship between an individual and the society or community (in terms of the F. Tönnies’ Gemeinschaft / Gesselschaft duality) and related concepts which Kistyakovski, Gurvich and Vishnyak used when seeking reinterpretation of positive elements of liberalism and capitalism within the socialist framework (social law, economic democracy, communal property or economic society). The paper demonstrates that the Russian liberal socialists were able to make use of liberal, socialist and also conservative concepts, a synthesis of which might contribute to formulation of relevant normative visions and subsequent revision of the social practice.

Keywords: B. A. Kistyakovski, G. D. Gurvich, M. V. Vishnyak, liberal socialism, political philosophy, philosophy of law, rule of law, Marxism, natural law

Od subjektivity k dějinám společnosti? Igal Halfin a formování studií „sovětské subjektivity“ v západní historiografii sovětského Ruska
From Subjectivity to The History of Society? Igal Halfin and The Making of “Soviet Subjectivity” Studies in The Western Historiography of Soviet Russia

От субъективности к истории общества? Игал Халфин и формирование исследований «советской субъективности» в западной историографии советской России
s. 657–698

The study of so-called Soviet Subjectivity belongs to the most visible versions of the linguistic or cultural turn in the Anglophone historiography of Soviet studies, especially during its growth between the mid-1990s and the end of the 2010s. This current of historical research is introduced on the background of new cultural history, the influence of post-structuralism and the writings of the late Michel Foucault. The depicting of the process “subjectivation”, and so-called productive subject in the early works of the leading representatives of the genre – Jochen Hellbeck, Igal Halfin and Oleg V. Kharkhordin, is the way out to the critical debate of the central premises of two subsequent Halfin’s books, Intimate Enemies (2007) and Stalinist Confessions (2009). I do not object to his post-structuralist epistemology but his discursive over-determination, and his explication of the period of the 1920s and 1930s solely through the lenses of the “communist eschatology”. I point out as well that he does not persuasively expound the pivotal category of confession, among else because he does not comply with the principles adhered by Foucault.

Keywords: subject, subjectivity, self, Soviet society, Stalin’s reign, American historiography, Igal Halfin, Jochen Hellbeck, Michel Foucault


Mgr. et Mgr. Anežka Hrebiková
Masarykův ústav a Archiv AV ČR, v. v. i.
Gabčíkova 2362/10, 182 00 Praha 8
Ústav světových dějin, Seminář novověkých dějin
Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy
Nám. Jana Palacha 2, 116 38 Praha 1

Mgr. Vít Klepárník, Ph.D.
Institut veřejné správy a regionálních studií
Masarykův ústav vyšších studií ČVUT v Praze
Kolejní 2637/2a, 160 00 Praha 6

Mgr. Pavel Mertelík 
Ústav historických věd
Fakulta filozofická Univerzity Pardubice
Studentská 84, 532 10 Pardubice

Mgr. Radomyr Mokryk
Ústav východoevropských studií
Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy
Nám. Jana Palacha 2, 116 38 Praha 1

doc. PhDr. Hanuš Nykl, Ph.D.
Ústav východoevropských studií
Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy
Nám. Jana Palacha 2, 116 38 Praha 1

doc. PhDr. Marek Šmíd, Ph.D.
Katedra teologických věd
Teologická fakulta Jihočeské univerzity v Českých Budějovicích
Kněžská 8, 370 01 České Budějovice

doc. Mgr. Radmila Švaříčková Slabáková, Ph.D.
Katedra historie
Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci
Na Hradě 5, 771 80 Olomouc

doc. PhDr. Luboš Švec, CSc.
Katedra ruských a východoevropských studií
Institut mezinárodních studií
Fakulta sociálních věd Univerzity Karlovy
Pekařská 10, 158 00 Praha 5 – Nové Butovice

doc. PhDr. Helena Ulbrechtová, Ph.D.
Slovanský ústav AV ČR, v. v. i.
Valentinská 1, 110 00 Praha 1

Mgr. Zbyněk Vydra, Ph.D.
Ústav historických věd
Fakulta filozofická Univerzity Pardubice
Studentská 84, 532 10 Pardubice

PhDr. Ladislav Zemánek
Ústav světových dějin
Seminář nejnovějších dějin
Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy
Nám. Jana Palacha 2, 116 38 Praha 1