Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

SLOVANSKÝ PŘEHLED
2020
ročník 106
číslo 1



OBSAH / CONTENTS / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ


STUDIE / STUDIES / СТАТЬИ

KOŁAKOWSKI Piotr
Polská vojenská rozvědka a její spolupráce s 2. (zpravodajským) oddělením Hlavního štábu Československé armády v letech 1927–1936
s. 7–30

The Polish Military Intelligence Service and its Cooperation with the 2nd (Intelligence) Division of the Czechoslovak Army Headquarters in the Years 1927–1936

КОЛАКОВСКИЙ Петр
Польская военная разведка и ее сотрудничество со 2-м (разведывательным) отделом Главного штаба Чехословацкой армии в 1927–1936 гг.

The article discusses various aspects of the cooperation between the Polish intelligence service and the Czechoslovak 2nd Division in the interwar period. Their contacts primarily consisted of exchanges of information about Germany, and to a lesser extend about the Soviet Union. They represent a backstage for the founding and activities of the Polish military intelligence service office in Prague, which passed along messages while also tracking the Ukrainian emigration during the period of the First Czechoslovak Republic. Cooperation between the intelligence headquarters was maintained even though Poland and Czechoslovakia had political and military opinions at variance. The article systematizes, clarifies and elaborates the information that been available to date on this subject.

Keywords: Polish military intelligence, 2nd Division of the Czechoslovak Army Headquarters, intelligence services cooperation


PELIKÁN Jan – VOJTĚCHOVSKÝ Ondřej
Na konci cesty. Československo-jugoslávské vztahy ve druhé polovině 80. let
s. 31–88

At the End of the Road: Czechoslovak-Yugoslav Relations in the Second Half of the 1980s

ПЕЛИКАН Ян — ВОЙТЕХОВСКИЙ Ондржей
В конце пути. Чехословацко-югославские отношения во второй половине 80-х лет´

This study engages with the last stage of Czechoslovak-Yugoslav relations in the era of left-authoritarian regimes. Primarily on the basis of analyses of archival documents that were created through the activities of corresponding party and state institutions in both countries, it deals with transformations in the character of the bilateral contacts and their most important spheres. It demonstrates that already by the end of the first half of the 1980s any remaining distrust and ideologically-motivated suspicion that had been typical in these bilateral relations since the rift between Stalin and Tito, or more precisely, since the renewal of relations in 1954, had disappeared.  Cooperation between the two countries had been further complicated to varying extents by problems of a secondary or rather tertiary degree of importance, such as the Czechoslovaks’ strongly negative balance in payments, the ongoing numerous emigration of citizens of the ČSSR to countries in the West through Yugoslav territory, and Belgrade’s dissatisfaction with the number of students of Yugoslav studies in Czechoslovak universities. As a consequence of Gorbachev’s reform, the Czechoslovak leadership was increasingly isolated from the rest of the world and feverishly sought a new political concept that would enable it to hold onto its political dominance; thus, it attempted to carry several aspects of Yugoslav socialist self-management into its governing bodies. Some of Czechoslovakia’s top political functionaries even began to look upon socialist Yugoslavia as a potential close ally, with which a more intense bilateral cooperation would replace relationship with states in the Soviet sphere of influence that were problematic or already petering out.

Keywords: Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, relations, perestroika, collective leadership, inspiration, reforms, self-management, crisis


SZCZEPAŃSKA-DUDZIAK Anna
Regaining Trust: The Work of Communist Poland’s Foreign Service in Czechoslovakia in the 1980s
s. 89–112

ЩЕПАНЬСКАЯ-ДУДЗЯК Анна
Восстановление доверия: работа дипломатической службы коммунистической Польши в Чехословакии в 80-е гг.

The deepening socio-political crisis in the Polish People’s Republic during the early1980s was closely monitored in Eastern Bloc countries, and led to Poland’s temporary isolation on the international stage. Mutual relations between Warsaw and Prague were characterised by a lack of trust from the Communist Party leadership, which had not forgotten their own experience during the Prague Spring and were afraid that a movement like Solidarity would find its way into Czechoslovakia. In order to counter this, the Polish government undertook explanatory actions aimed at restoring confidence in Poland as an ally. The main research aim of the article is to analyse the activities of the embassy of the Polish People’s Republic in Prague, the consulates general in Ostrava and Bratislava, and the Polish Information and Culture Centres in Prague and Bratislava in the 1980s. It then answers the following questions: what problems in bilateral relations did these institutions face, what means did they use to restore the state of Polish-Czechoslovak relations to those existing before 1980, and who was their intended audience? An interpretation of archival sources and an analysis of the literature shows that the work of the Polish foreign service in Czechoslovakia was focused on several problems – counteracting unfavourable propaganda with regard to Poland, recovering from isolation, and restoring political, economic, cultural and academic contacts, as well as fulfilling a pastoral role for Polish workers employed in Czechoslovakia and for Polish tourists. Despite the Czechoslovak communists’ declared support for cooperation and the above-standard activities of the Polish institutions, it was not possible to restore the state of relations which had existed in the 1970s until the end of the 1980s; a further obstacle was Prague’s fear of the effects of the reforms being carried out in Poland.

Keywords: Polish foreign service; Polish-Czechoslovak relations; Polish diplomacy; international relations in the 20th century


LESHKOVA Olga
Pre-Petrine National History in Russian Historical Memory and Symbolic Politics: a Case of the Time of Troubles
s. 113–140

ЛЕШКОВА Ольга
Допетровская национальная история в русской исторической памяти и символической политике: на примере Смутного времени

This study is dedicated to analysis of the role of the history of the ancient Rus’ nation in historical memory and the symbolic politics of modern Russia. In recent years, Russian elites have been attempting to create a stable and unified “model” view of national history, which should create a reliable ideological foundation for consolidation of the nation around the current political regime, ensure its historical legitimacy, and represent it as an integral part and logical continuation of a glorious historical past full of victories. The semantic center of Russia’s symbolic politics today is the cult of the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945). Interest in older historical eras is noticeably weaker, and tends to follow current political events. However, by contrast, the Time of Troubles (Smuta in Russian) at the beginning of the 17th century represents a clear exception, as it is the only historical event in prerevolutionary history that is regularly celebrated at the state level. The goal of this study is to analyze the dynamic of how the mythology of the Time of Troubles has developed, particularly about the events associated with driving the Polish-Lithuanian troops out of Moscow in 1612, and investigating how this mythology functions in the political and social conditions of modern Russia. 

Keywords: modern Russia, symbolic politics, Time of Troubles



MATERIÁLY A DOKUMENTY / CONTRIBUTIONS AND DOCUMENTS / МАТЕРИАЛЫ И ДОКУМЕНТЫ

KALETA Petr
Kalmyk émigrés in Prague and their cultural activities
s. 141–157

КАЛЕТА Петр
Калмыцкие эмигранты в Праге и их культурная деятельность

The members of Prague’s Kalmyk community, which in the interwar period numbered more than one hundred individuals, came to Czechoslovakia in the 1920s as part of the large wave of émigrés from Russia for whom the Czechoslovak state organized the “Russian Aid Operation” in 1921. One of the central figures of the local Kalmyk community was Badma Ulanov, who was a principal organizer of Kalmyk cultural, scholarly, and publishing activities in Czechoslovakia. The Kalmyk community in Czechoslovakia was active in writing and publishing, and in putting out magazines and books whose range included fiction, nonfiction, and works that describe folk customs. Thanks to these diverse activities, Prague’s Kalmyk community was the main cultural and scholarly center for all Kalmyk émigré communities in Europe (the largest of which were located in Yugoslavia, France, and Bulgaria). One researcher in the field of Kalmyk studies who was in contact with the Prague Kalmyk community and who supported them in their academic endeavors was the Polish Mongolist Władysław Kotwicz. 
Key words: Kalmyks, Czechoslovakia, Prague, emigration, cultural activities, Władysław Kotwicz



RECENZE / REVIEWS / РЕЦЕНЗИИ

Alexander GOGUN, Stalinova komanda. Ukrajinské partyzánské jednotky v letech 1941–1944
(Vlasta Kordová)
s. 159–173

Artur MARKOWSKI, Przemoc antyżydowska i wyobrażenia społeczne. Pogrom białostocki 1906 roku
(Zbyněk Vydra)
s. 173–179

Elena MANNOVÁ, Minulosť ako supermarket? Spôsoby reprezentácie a aktualizácie dejín Slovenska
(Tereza Juhászová)
s. 179–182

BRÁDLEROVÁ, Daniela, Vojáci nebo podnikatelé? Hospodářské a finanční aktivity československých legií během jejich anabáze v Rusku a na Sibiři
(Ondřej Varaďa)
s. 182–187

Milan BALABAN, Podnikání firmy Baťa v Jugoslávii
(Milan Sovilj)
s. 187–194

Rexhep QOSJA, Dëshmitar në kohë historike. Libri i tetë: Koha e protektoratit (1999–2001)
(Mihail Ceropita)
s. 194–197

Sabile KEÇMEZI-BASHA, Kosova 1945–1990 (Vështrim historiko-politik)
(Mihail Ceropita)
s. 197–200



ZPRÁVY / NOTICES / СООБШЕНИЯ
s. 201–206



ZPRÁVY Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA / REPORTS FROM THE SCHOLARLY LIFE / CООБЩЕНИЯ ИЗ НАУЧНОЙ ЖИЗНИ

První ročník mezioborové konference Studentské dialogy o východní Evropě (Brno – Olomouc – Praha)
The first annual interdisciplinary Student Dialogues on Eastern Europe conference (Brno – Olomouc – Prague)
(Marek Příhoda)
Первый год междисциплинарной конференции Студенческие диалоги в Восточной Европе (Брно — Оломоуц — Прага)
(Марек Пршигода)
s. 207–210

Rusko ve 20. století – kontinuita a diskontinuita
Russia in the 20th Century – Continuity and Discontinuity
(Lenka Vlčková Kryčerová)
Россия в ХХ веке — континуум и дисконтинуум
(Ленка Влчкова Кричерова)
s. 211–212

Promýšlet Evropu 20. století: Mezníky vzpomínané a zapomínané
Rethinking 20th-Century Europe: Milestones Remembered and Forgotten
(Tereza Richtáriková)
Продумать Европу ХХ столетия: Вехи вспоминаемые и забытые
(Тереза Рихтарикова)
s. 213

Rok 2019 na Kašubsku
The Year 2019 in Kashubia
(Dariusz Szymikowski)
2019 год в Кашубии
(Дариуш Шимиковский)
s.213–215



SEZNAM AUTORŮ


prof. PhDr. Petr Kaleta, Ph.D.
Katedra historie, Pedagogická fakulta
Masarykova univerzita
Poříčí 9, 603 00 Brno
kaleta@ped.muni.cz

prof. dr. hab. Piotr Kołakowski
Instytut Historii, Akademia Pomorska w Słupsku
ul. Arciszewskiego 22 a, 76-200 Słupsk, Polska
kolakowski.piotr@wp.pl

Mgr. Olga Leshkova
Ústav východoevropských studií, Filozofická fakulta, ¨
Univerzita Karlova, Praha
Náměstí Jana Palacha 2, 116 38 Praha-Staré Město
leshkova@seznam.cz

prof. PhDr. Jan Pelikán, CSc.
Katedra jihoslovanských a balkanistických studií, Filozofická fakulta,
Univerzita Karlova
Náměstí Jana Palacha 2, 116 38 Praha-Staré Město
jan.pelikan@ff.cuni.cz

prof. US dr. hab. Anna Szczepańska-Dudziak
Instytut Historii i Stosunków Międzynarodowych,
Uniwersytet Szczeciński
ul. Krakowska 71-79, 71-017, Szczecin, Polska
anna.szczepanska-dudziak@usz.edu.pl

PhDr. Ondřej Vojtěchovský, Ph.D.
Ústav pro studium totalitních režimů
Siwiecova 2, 130 00 Praha 3
ondrej.vojtechovsky@ustr.cz