Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ročník 105
číslo 3



ŠAUR Josef
Ruské liberální myšlení 50. a 60. let 19. století: historiografie konceptualizace (do rozpadu SSSR)
Russian Liberal Thinking in the Eighteen Fifties and Sixties: Historiography of Conceptualisation (until the Dissolution of the USSR)

ШАУР Йозеф
Русское либеральное мышление 50-х и 60-х гг. XIX в.: историография концептуализации (до распада СССР)
s. 365–396

This paper maps the historiography of the concept of early Russian liberalism in Soviet and English language specialist literature from the nineteen fifties until the end of the nineteen eighties, whereas some of the traits of this phenomenon, which remain valid to date, where endorsed in historical science during this period.  This particularly includes the fact that liberal ideology was formulated in Russia in the middle of the nineteenth century. The most significant representatives of this movement were B. N. Čičerin and K. D. Kavelin, to whose philosophy of history early Russian liberalism was related. Its weakest point was the political component, because this differed the most from classic European liberalism as a result of the difference between the West European and Russian political and social environments. This is why liberal influences in the Russian environment must be sought outside the political sphere, in literary criticism and journalism (the works of P. V. Annenkov and V. P. Botkin), as well as in history. While Soviet researchers chiefly interpreted the works of individual representatives of early Russian liberalism in detail, English language authors concentrated on clarification of the particularities of early Russian liberalism and its position within the context of the development of European thinking.

Keywords: Russia, liberalism, historiography, history of thinking, 19th century

НЕНАШЕВА Зоя Сергеевна
Чехи в России в годы Великой войны: между православием и католицизмом

NĚNAŠEVA Zoja Sergejevna
Czechs in Russia during the Period of the First World War: between Orthodox and Catholic Faith
s. 397–418

This paper focuses on the efforts of functionaries of the Russian Orthodox Church to propagate the Orthodox faith among Catholic Czechs who came to the territory of the Russian Empire during the 19th century and the first decades of the 20th century, with the goal of achieving their conversion from Catholicism to the Orthodox faith. The period of the so-called Great War or First World War is the focus of attention, but only until the autumn of 1917 with regard to the political changes taking place in the Russian Empire. The efforts of Orthodox preachers and other functionaries of the Russian Orthodox Church to influence the spiritual profile of Catholic Czechs, who were joined by defectors from the Austrian-Hungarian armies and prisoners of Czech nationality at the time, culminated during the World War. As sour ces of Russian and other provenience demonstrate, not even the universal support of the Petrograd Holy Synod assured the success of these efforts. The paper also demonstrates that the entire matter was meticulously monitored by the Papal Curia. This paper, which is of an analytical nature, is valuable due to the newly discovered sources, which correspond with the conclusions of existing literature about the conversion of Czechs in Russia to the Orthodox faith to a specific degree.

Keywords: Czechs, orthodox, Catholicism, POWs, Russian Orthodox Church, foreign ministry, Vatican, Czech volunteer militias

NYKL Hanuš
Zkoumání ruské exilové filosofie v meziválečném Československu: kritické vymezení diskursu
Examination of Russian Exile Philosophy in Inter-war Czechoslovakia: Critical Definition of Discourse

НИКЛ Гануш
Исследование русской эмигрантской философии в межвоенной Чехословакии: критическое разграничение дискурса
s. 419–433

In relation to Russian aid action provided to the Czechoslovak government there was also a large number of philosophers active in our country among the Russian scientists in exile. Several summarising papers were published on this topic, which endeavour to define the research field of Russian exile philosophy in the Czechoslovak Republic. A great number of figures from Russian life in exile were previously classified as philosophers. This paper critically evaluates their links to philosophy and determines the criteria according to which individual figures are or are not considered Russian philosophers in the author’s opinion. He comes to the conclusion that only approximately a third of the mentioned figures can be considered philosophers, while most of them are classified in other fields of human activities. The activities of some are linked to philosophy, while others can be considered interested in philosophy. Regardless of this critical reduction, the number of Russian philosophers in inter-war Czechoslovakia remains substantial, however, it is not possible to identify any common movement that originated within the terms of this discourse in our country.

Keywords: Russian philosophy, Russian emigration, history of science

ZEMÁNEK Ladislav
Právní socialismus Sergeje Gessena
Sergej Gessen’s Legal Socialism

ЗЕМАНЕК Ладислав
Правовой социализм Сергея Гессена
s. 435–455

This paper is dedicated to the political and legal philosophy of S. I. Gessen. Its goal is to analyse, criticise and interpret key concepts the author works with. Therefore attention will be paid to the following issues in the following order: (1) anti-utopianism, in which Gessen’s basic methodological  approach is evident, this being the endeavour to utilise the positive elements of facticity (liberalism) and develop them within a new, socialist framework, (2) criticism of legal positivism and the related defence of natural law, (3) criticism of social liberalism (P. I. Novgorodcev) through the prism of Gemeinschaft, inter-subjectivity and participation, (4) criticism of Marxism, particularly economic determinism, social revolution and class struggle, (5) human rights, (6) the author’s concept of socialism, particularly in the field of law, the state and the economy and (7) the concept of the “new medieval age”. The paper primarily shows that Gessen can be classified in the Russian liberal-socialist paradigm (B. A. Kisťakovskij, G. D. Gurvič) and that his theories create opportunity for synthesis of liberal, socialist and conservative elements, which makes it an inspirational contribution, which can be used to criticise current practice and formulations corresponding to normative visions.

Keywords: S. I. Gessen, legal socialism, social liberalism, political philosophy, legal philosophy, Marxism, human rights, rule of law

Působnost ruského exilového nakladatelství Plamja v Československu
The Activities of the Russian Exile Plamja Publishing House in Czechoslovakia

Деятельность русского эмигрантского издательства Пламя в Чехословакии
s. 457–474

This paper is devoted to an important chapter in the history of Russian inter-war emigration to Czechoslovakia, which are the activities of the Plamja publishing house. This was a crucial institution of Russian exile and its activities are the key to understanding this phenomenon. The publishing house’s activities have only been summarised previously and there is a shortage of more detailed and critical analysis. However, this is impossible without an analysis of the role of its leading figure, professor of Charles University, Jevgenij Alexandrovič Ljackij. Materials from the Literary Archive of the Memorial of National Literature, where Ljackij’s materials are kept, including the archive of the Plamja publishing house, and also available articles on this topic, were used to execute this study.

Russian inter-war emigration, publishing activities, J. A. Ljackij, Plamja

Soviet Marxist Perceptions of Religion: Ideological, Legal, and Pragmatic Perspectives

Советское марксистское восприятие религии: идеологические, правовые и прагматические перспективы
s. 475–508

This article explores the Soviet Marxist perceptions of religion, based on an examination of Marx’s theory of religion. Central to the classical Marxist theory of religion is the atheist worldview, which deems that it is not religion that creates man but man who creates religion. Although Marx believed that religion was ‘the opium of the people’ and a powerful device whereby the ruling class manipulated the working class, Marx did not favour the forcible destruction of religion. He was cognizant of the benign social and cultural dimensions of religion, which were useful to individuals and social groups before religion would eventually ‘wither away’. As the first state to put the Marxist theory of religion into practice, the Soviet Marxist understanding of religion and the Soviet policy towards the Russian Orthodox Church had considerable influence on other socialist states such as China. By analysing Lenin’s and Stalin’s work on religion, and the legislation and regulations concerning religion in the Soviet Union, this article demonstrates that the atheist struggle against religion was considered by the Soviet Union to be an important component of the ‘class-struggle’ and a prerequisite for the ‘proletarian dictatorship’. The article also suggests that the making of the Soviet policy towards religion was not exclusively driven by atheist communist ideology, but had a strong element of pragmatism when the regime needed the support of believers, especially in turbulent times of economic crisis, war and expansion during the Second World War and in its immediate aftermath.

Keywords: Marxism, USSR, Lenin, Stalin, religion

RACYN Michal
Tendence a proměny ve výzkumu eurasijských koncepcí po rozpadu SSSR
Tendencies and Transformations in Research of Eurasianist Movement Following the Dissolution of the USSR

Тенденции и метаморфозы в исследовании евразийских концепций после распада СССР
s. 509–526

This paper focuses on analysis of the main tendencies in academic research of Eurasianist movement during the period from the dissolution of the Soviet Union to the present day. It particularly focuses on transformations of discourse formulated within the terms of extensive secondary literature devoted to inter-war Eurasianism, present-day neo-Eurasianism and also the thoughts of Soviet historian and ethnologist Lev Nikolajevič Gumiljov (1912–1992). On the basis of thorough comparison of the submitted information it was possible to observe several marked shifts, particularly in evaluation of the relationship between leading representatives of the inter-war Eurasianist movement, the works of  L. N. Gumiljov and the present-day activities of Aleksander Dugin (*1962). This article is supplemented by a case study based on analysis of archive material from the Slavonic library and related primary literature. This paper describes the efforts of A. Dugin to artificially reinforce the continuity between Eurasianism and neo-Eurasianism and also its influence on formation of academic discourse in the research of the specific issue.

Keywords: Eurasianism, neo-Eurasianism, P. N. Savickij, L. N. Gumiljov, A. Dugin

ŠMÍD Tomáš – ŠMÍDOVÁ Alexandra
Donetsk People’s Republic as de facto state

Александра Донецкая Народная Республика как де-факто государство
s. 527–549

The political crisis in Ukraine, which grew into an armed conflict in the Donbass in 2014, was one of the reasons for the emergence of secessionist entities in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions .This study deals with the de facto state concept. The authors apply this phenomenon to the case study of the Donetsk People’s Republic. This paper relies largely on a theoretical framework of state failure concepts by authors Scott Pegg, David Lynch, Pål Kolstø and others. In addition, we also use the Montevideo convention qualifications. The authors have used data sourced from respondents living in the territory of the Donbass to answer their research questions.

Keywords: Donetsk People’s Republic, Ukraine, de facto state, statehood, Montevide


Bc. Karolína Konvalinková
Ústav východoevropských studií
Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy
Nám. Jana Palacha 2, 116 38 Praha 1

doc. Zoja Sergejevna Něnaševa, CSc.
Katedra dějin jižních a západních Slovanů
Fakulta historie, Moskevská státní univerzita M. B. Lomonosova ¨
Lomonosovkij prospekt 27, 119991 Moskva, Ruská federace

doc. PhDr. Hanuš Nykl, Ph.D.
Ústav východoevropských studií
Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy
Nám. Jana Palacha 2, 116 38 Praha 1
Slovanský ústav AV ČR, v. v. i.
Valentinská 1, 110 00 Praha 1

Mgr. Michal Racyn
Ústav slavistiky Filozofická fakulta Masarykovy univerzity
Arna Nováka 1, 602 00 Brno

Mgr. Josef Šaur, Ph.D.
Ústav slavistiky Filozofická fakulta Masarykovy univerzity
Arna Nováka 1, 602 00 Brno

Mgr. Alexandra Šmídová
Fakulta sociální studií Masarykova univerzita
Joštova 10, 602 00 Brno

Mgr. Tomáš Šmíd, Ph.D.
Fakulta sociální studií Masarykova univerzita
Joštova 10, 602 00 Brno

PhDr. Ladislav Zemánek
Ústav světových dějin
Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy
Nám. Jana Palacha 2, 116 38 Praha 1

Dr Wei Wang PhD
Faculty of History, Nankai University
38 Tongyan Road, Jinnan District Tianjin, China, 300350