Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ročník 104
číslo 3



I. Anarchie a anarchismus v Evropě, zejména v Rusku 18. až 20. století (historické, literárněvědné a filozofické reflexe)
Anarchy and anarchism in Europe, especially in Russia of the 18th to 20th century (historical, literary and philosofical reflections)
Анархия и анархизм в Европе, главным образом в России в XVIII - XX вв. (историческая, литературоведческая и философская рефлексия)

1. TOMEK Václav
K charakterizaci anarchismu 19. století prostřednictvím jeho vybraných osobností
s. 487–515

ТОМЕК Вацлав
К характеризации анархизма XIX в. посредством его избранных представителей

To the characterization of the anarchism of the 19th century through its selected figures

In the second half of the 19th century, anarchism presents itself in certain characteristic signs and manifestations. Although the representatives of anarchism themselves willingly emphasize the originality of their ideas and their resistance to doctrine, their ideas come closer in the radical critique of economic and social relations, in the criticism of the Church and religion, as well as the sharp criticism of the other political parties, but at the same time they differ in their individual accents of their negation of the existing circumstances. The anarchistic level of their critique leads them from individual negation all the way to demands for a radical transformation of society, to different ideas about the nature of revolutionary behaviour, and the character of revolutionary change. From there, various forms and concepts of the future “post-revolution” society, visions of the anticipated freedom, on the character of the new social relations developed. For the characterization of the anarchism of the given period, the personalities of its French representative Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, the Russian revolutionary Mikhail Bakunin, the former German MP Johann Most, the original scientist Peter Kropotkin and the university educated German socialist Gustav Landauer and the entirely differently thinking Young Hegelian Max Stirner were chosen.

Keywords: anarchism, individuum, revolution, freedom

Opoziční inteligence za vlády Kateřiny II. a Alexandra I. jako předchůdce ruských anarchistů. Příklad Alexandra Nikolajeviče Radiščeva a Nikolaje Ivanoviče Turgeněva
s. 517–531

Оппозиционная интеллигенция во времена правления Екатерины II и Александра I как предшественник русских анархистов. Пример Александра Николаевича Радищева и Николая Ивановича Тургенева

The opposition intelligentsia during the reign of Catherine II and Alexander I as forerunners of the Russian anarchists: The example of Alexander Nikolayevich Radishchev and Nikolay Ivanovich Turgenev

Within the search for the roots of the Russian anarchistic movements, the study deals with the early aristocratic intelligentsia during the reign of Catherine II and Alexander I. Based on a biographic summary of the activity and analyses of the work of the writer of Catherine’s time Alexander Nikolayevich Radishchev and the participant of the Dekabrist movement at the beginning of the 19th century Nikolay Ivanovich Turgenev, the aim of the study is to prove the existence of the forming class of the intelligentsia and its clear influence on the subsequent Russian social or liberal movements, including the anarchists. The study points out mainly the problematic issue of serfdom, the critique of this phenomenon and the effort for its abolition. The question of serfdom is shown in the study as a theme, which most connected the early Russian intelligentsia and the anarchistic movement.

Keywords: Alexander Nikolayevich Radishchev, Nikolay Ivanovich Turgenev, intelligentsia, opposition, serfdom

3. VLČEK Radomír
Od Karakozova ke Kropotkinovi. Ruský anarchismus 60. a 70. let 19. století
s. 533–558

ВЛЧЕК Радомир
От Каракозова к Кропоткину. Русский анархизм 60-70-х лет XIX в.

From Karakozov to Kropotkin: Russian anarchism of the 1860s and 1870s

The aim of the study is a discussion of the roots of Russian anarchism and its transformations in the course of the 1860s and 1870s. In the sense of the observation of anarchism in Russian space, the work has an analytical character. At the same time, it contains elements of synthesis and comparison, which place it into the wider European contexts. The study relies mainly on the primary literature, the authors of which were the followed Russian anarchists and the edited sources, but it respects the conclusions of the secondary literature, especially of neglected Russian provenience in the Czech milieu.

Keywords: Russia, history of Russia, 19th century, anarchism, nihilism, Karakozov, Kropotkin, Bakunin.

4. РОКИНА Галина Викторовна – ТАЙГИЛЬДИН Андрей В.
Идея славянской федерации в теории русского анархиста Михаила Бакунина
s. 559–568

ROKINA Galina Viktorovna – TAJGILDIN Andrej V.
The evolution of the opinions of Michail Bakunin: From the thoughts of the Slavonic Federation and Pan-Slavism to anarchism
The article analyses the theoretical approaches and practical activities of M. Bakunin on the issue of the federation of Slavic peoples. The paper analyses the origins and evolution of his views on political pan-Slavism.

Keywords: Michail Bakunin. Slavonic Federation, political pan-Slavism, Slavonic reciprocity, Slavic Congress in Prague.

5. HANUŠ Jiří
Zápas proti chaosu ve světě i v českém prostoru. Rio Preisner a jeho chápání anarchismu
s. 569–579

Схватка против хаоса в мире и в чешском пространстве. Рио Прейснер и его понимание анархизма

The struggle against chaos in the world and in Czech space: Rio Preisner and his understanding of anarchism
This article on the understanding of anarchism in the work of Rio Preisner (1925–2007), theoretician, Germanist, translator and poet, wants to point out the character and scope of his production and focus on the question of how Preisner understood anarchy and anarchism, first in the background of his translation of the work of Hermann Broch and later in his analysis of totalitarianism.

Keywords: Anarchism; Czech exile; Catholicism; critique of totalitarianism

6. DOHNAL Josef
Obraz teroristy v povídkách Leonida Andrejeva
s. 581–597

Образ террориста в рассказах Леонида Андреева

The image of a terrorist in the short stories of Leonid Andreyev

The treatise is devoted to three short stories by Leonid Nikolaievich Andreyev, in which figures connected with a terrorist movement appear. The writer creates the short stories as models of extreme situations, which he uses to verify the degree to which the position of the warrior against Tsarist autocracy provides the right to regard himself as a person with a higher mission different from the other, “ordinary”. The analysis of the text of the short stories shows that he rejects the “superiority” of the terrorists to the rest and to a certain extent casts doubt on the effectiveness of terrorist acts.

Keywords: L. N. Andreyev, terrorism, short story, Russian literature of the beginning of the 20th century, extreme situation

Anarchie, anarchismus a ruská literatura
s. 599–641

Анархия, анархизм и русская литература

Anarchy, anarchism and Russian literature

The study follows the relationship of the terms “anarchy” and “anarchism” in the reflection of Russian literature, namely from the perspective of cultural sciences. The author provides a synopsis of the basic manifestations of anarchy and anarchism in Russian literature from the 19th century to today and guides the reader through its metamorphoses and transformations.

Keywords: anarchy, anarchism and Russian literature

8. KRČÁL Petr – NAXERA Vladimír
Několik poznámek k dialektice současného anarchismu
s. 643–654

КРЧАЛ Петр – НАКСЕРА Владимир
Несколько замечаний к диалектике современного анархизма

Several notes on the dialectics of contemporary anarchism

The text presented deals with the problem of anarchism as a political ideology. The text is divided into two parts. In the first, we focus on anarchism as an ideology and its different forms (right-wing and left-wing anarchism), which significantly differ from one another. in the second part, using optics of critical social sciences, we devote ourselves to how these forms of anarchism are perceived by the state bodies, where we select the current Czech Republic as the illustrative example, which thanks to the context of neoliberal political practice shows a fundamentally different position to both mentioned forms.

Keywords: Anarchism, Extremism, Libertarianism, Socialism, Neoliberalism, Political Ideologies

II. Ruské revoluce 1917
The Russian Revolution of 1917
Русская революция 1917

1. VYDRA Zbyněk 
Nekonečný příběh? Ruská revoluce podle současné anglosaské historiografie
s. 657–676

ВЫДРА Збынек
Бесконечная история? Русская революция с точки зрения современной англосаксонской историографии

The study deals with contemporary Anglo-Saxon historiography and its interpretation of the Russian Revolution (1917). The author analyses and evaluates the current trends in Anglo-Saxon historiography using the example of four new syntheses of the history of the revolution from 2017–2018.

Keywords: Russia, revolution, 1917, Anglo-Saxon historiography

Revizionismus a studium říjnové revoluce 1917
s. 677–722

Ревизионизм и изучение Октябрьской революции 1917 г.

Revisionism and the study of the October Revolution of 1917
The article focuses on the stream of the historical study of Russian and Soviet history labelled as revisionism in Western historiography, where it pays special attention to the research of the October Revolution in 1917. It discusses the circumstances of the rise of revisionism in American historiography from the end of the 1960s to the mid-1980s. In the second part, selected starting points of revision are compared and distinguished in terms of ideal type from the previous totalitarian interpretation. The text points to differences in approaches and interpretations by revisionists, but at the same time emphasizes their unifying interest in the neglected social and economic conflicts in Russian society since the beginning of the 20th century and the interaction of social groups, political parties and state power. It also reminds us of the revisionist thesis that we cannot understand the events of October only through the ideological influence of the Bolsheviks or their allegedly conspiratorial efforts to acquire power. The revisionists, through archival research, have shown that the Bolsheviks gained greater and authentic support from the Petrograd masses before the overthrow of the Provisional Government than has been admitted until now.

Keywords: revisionism, American historiography, Russia, October Revolution of 1917, Bolsheviks, political and social history

3. NYKL Hanuš
Reflexe ruské revoluce v memoárech ruských filosofů-emigrantů
s. 723–738

НИКЛ Гануш
Рефлексия русской революции в мемуарах русских философов-эмигрантов

Reflection of the Russian Revolution in the memoirs of Russian philosophers – emigrants

Russian intelligentsia was a socially engaged group with a clearly specified attitude to the Czarist regime. As such, it fought for a radical change in the social order ideologically and often even with concrete steps. Russian philosophers were an integral part of the Russian intelligentsia and shared its group, mainly pro-revolution setting. At the same time, their conviction went through major transformations crowned in emigration from the beginning of the 20th century. With the philosophers, these metamorphoses are associated also with the overall change of the philosophical-religious beliefs. The paper deals with the relation to the Russian Revolution of 1917, as it is reflected in the memorial texts of three famous Russian philosophers, Sergei N. Bulgakov, Nikolai A. Berdyaev and N. O. Lossky. Whereas Bulgakov presents a series of memoir essays, three of which concern the revolutionary period, Berdyaev and Lossky are the authors of complete memoirs, where special chapters are reserved for 1917. The changes of the attitudes of the individual thinkers towards the Russian Revolution are mainly analysed in the article.

Keywords: Russian Revolution 1917, Russian philosophers, memories, S. N. Bulgakov, N. A. Berdyaev, N. O. Lossky

Rok 1917 a ruská diplomácia (Z memoárov ruského diplomata Georgija Nikolajeviča  Garina-Michajlovského)
s. 739–753

Год 1917 и русская дипломатия (Из мемуаров русского дипломата Георгия Николаевича Гарина-Михайловского)

1917 and Russian diplomacy (From the memoirs of the Russian diplomat Georgy Nikolayevich Garin-Mikhailovsky)
The February Revolution in Russia in 1917 sparked a broad international response and was also a breakthrough in Russia’s internal development. The main question of Russian foreign policy during the Provisional Government was the question of Russia’s further participation in the war. The paper focuses on approaching the main directions of Russian foreign policy in the period from February to October 1917 and analyzing the situation at the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs as it was captured in the memoirs of the Russian diplomat Georgy Nikolayevich Mikhailovsky.

Keywords: Russia, 1917, Provisional Government, foreign policy, diplomacy, G. N. Mikhailovsky

5. ŠMÍD Marek
Od encykliky Qui pluribus k encyklice Ad beatissimi apostolorum. Vztah Svatého stolce ke komunizmu v období před bolševickou revolucí v roce 1917
s. 755–770

ШМИД Марек
От энциклики Qui pluribus к энциклике Ad beatissimi apostolorum. Отношение Святого Престола к коммунизму в период перед большевистской революцией 1917 г.

From the encyclical Qui pluribus to the encyclical Ad beatissimi apostolorum: The relationship of the Holy See to communism in the period before the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917

The study presented deals with the relationship of the Catholic Church to the ideology of Communism. It is a relatively long and complex “story” of clashes, which has several levels – political, religious, economic, social and societal. It is possible to date its beginning to the middle of the 19th century, when the two sides confronted each other for the first time and openly, and when unsustainable difficulties for mutual good relations arose, because relations very soon moved from the political-religious plane to the economic and social sphere, considering the numerous working classes, when both sides tried to solve the social question on the basis of their own principles and beliefs. The ascension of Communism to power in Russia in 1917 deepened these conflicts, because the radical left-wing regime acted openly against the Church and severely restricted religious life in Russia. The popes of the first half of the 20th century thus firmly and repeatedly rejected Communist ideology, as evidenced by numerous encyclicals, most notably in 1937 when Pope Pius XI described communism as a dangerous, godless system that seeks a complete disruption of the social order and completely defies the Christian way of life.

Keywords: Vatican, communism, socialism, social question, 19th century

Never-ending story? The Russian Revolution according to contemporary Anglo-Saxon historiography

III. Česká historická rusistika
Czech historical Russian studies
Чешская историческая русистика

1. VYDRA Zbyněk 
Kulturní dějiny šlechty v pozdní éře carského Ruska – opomíjené téma historiografie?
s. 773–801

ВЫДРА Збынек
Культурная история дворянства в поздней эре царской России — игнорируемые темы историографии?

The study deals with the topic of the cultural history of the nobility in Late Czarist Russia (1861–1917). In the first part, the author draws attention to the different definitions of nobility in the context of the estates’ organization of Russian society and in particular addresses the suitability of the term aristocracy in Russia. The second part of the study presents an overview of existing historiography on the nobility, especially in the field of cultural history. the main research directions and trends are shown here and the problem of the long-dominating orientation of the historians on the period of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century are also presented. The third part is a critical overview of the sources of the cultural history of the nobility, and especially the sources of a personal nature. In the final, fourth section, the author discusses the possibilities of further research.

Keywords: Russia, cultural history, nobility, 19th century, 1861–1917

2. MASAŘ Tomáš
Finské velkoknížectví v 19. století, na rozcestí mezi Východem a Západem
s. 803–824

Великое княжество Финляндское в XIX в. на перепутье между Востоком и Западом

The Grand Duchy of Finland in the 19th century, at the crossroads between East and West

The aim of the study is to map the development of the Finnish he perception of the Russians and the Russian Empire during the Russian rule of the Grand Duchy of Finland between 1809 and 1917. In the course of the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period, the territory of today’s Finland became a component of the Western civilization circle and its eastern borders became the utmost boundary, beyond which according to Finns there was only barbarism and chaos. The Finnish perception of themselves as a part of the civilized West was then to a significant degree built precisely on the contrast to the barbaric East, but this concept had to be re-evaluated after 1809 when the Grand Duchy of Finland became a component of the Russian Empire. Just changing the perception of the age-old enemy and orientation to the new capital city of Saint Petersburg can be an interesting example of adaptation to the newly emerging conditions and acclimatisation to the current political reality. However, the relationship with the Czarist empire was another change at the turn of the 20th century, this time for the worse. At this point, however, the Finns were a self-confident and fully developed nation that refused to accept the limitations of autonomy and russification of their country. There followed almost two decades of passive resistance and political struggle against the Russian government, which only ended with the revolution in 1917.

Keywords: Grand Duchy of Finland, Russia, Fennomans, Russification

Československo-sovětský institut ČSAV v prvním desetiletí tzv. normalizace a jeho rusistická bádání
s. 825–851

Чехословацко-советский институт ЧСАН в первом десятилетии т.н. нормализации и его исследования в русистике

Czechoslovak-Soviet Institute of the CSAS in the first decades of so-called normalization and its Russian studies research
Based on a study of the sources, the treatise provides an image of the Czechoslovak-Soviet Institute of the CSAS and its Russian studies themes in the first decade of the so-called normalization process with regard to the starting points of the research, thematic focus and personnel staffing. The influence of the political situation is considered in the study. Since there were a total of three of the Czechoslovak-Soviet institutes of this name developing Russian studies themes, the genesis of these workplaces and transformation of their thematic focus is also explained.

Keywords: Russian studies, Czechoslovak-Soviet Institute, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Czechoslovakia, USSR, 1970s, Václav Král

The cultural history of the nobility in the late era of Czarist Russia – a forgotten topic of historiography?


prof. PhDr. Josef Dohnal, CSc.
Ústav slavistiky
Filozofická fakulta Masarykovy univerzity
Arne Nováka 1, 602 00 Brno

prof. PhDr. Jiří Hanuš, Ph. D.
Historický ústav
Filozofická fakulta Masarykovy univerzity
Arne Nováka 1, 602 00 Brno

doc. PhDr. Ľubica Harbuľová, CSc.
Inštitút histórie, Filozofická fakulta,
Prešovská univerzita v Prešove
Ul. 17. novembra 1, 080 78 Prešov, Slovensko

Mgr. et Bc. Anežka Hrebiková
Masarykův ústav a archiv AV ČR, v. v. i.
Gabčíkova 10, 182 00 Praha 8
Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy, Praha
Náměstí Jana Palacha 2, 116 38 Praha 1

Mgr. Vít Klepárník, Ph. D.
Pracoviště historické sociologie
Fakulta humanitních studií UK Praha
U Kříže 8, 158 00 Praha 5

PhDr. Petr Krčál, Ph. D.
Katedra politologie a mezinárodních vztahů
Filozofická fakulta Západočeské univerzity v Plzni
Univerzitní 8, 301 00 Plzeň

Mgr. Tomáš Masař, Ph. D.
Ústav světových dějin, Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy, Praha
Náměstí Jana Palacha 2, 116 38 Praha 1

PhDr.Vladimír Naxera, Ph. D.
Katedra politologie a mezinárodních vztahů
Filozofická fakulta Západočeské univerzity v Plzni
Univerzitní 8, 301 00 Plzeň

doc. PhDr. Hanuš Nykl, Ph. D.
Ústav východoevropských studií
Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy, Praha
Náměstí Jana Palacha 2, 116 38 Praha 1
Slovanský ústav AV ČR, v. v. i.
Valentinská 1, 110 00 Praha 1

prof. Galina Viktorovna Rokina
Кафедa всеобщей истории,
Марийский государственный университет,
424000, Yoshkar-Ola, pl. Lenin 1, Мари, Россия

doc. PhDr. et PaedDr. Marek Šmíd, Ph. D.
Historický ústav, Filozofická fakulta Jihočeské univerzity v Českých Budějovicích
Branišovská 31a, 370 05 České Budějovice

PhDr. Václav Tomek, CSc.
Filosofický ústav AV ČR, v. v. i.,
Jilská 1, 110 00 Praha 1

doc. PhDr. Helena Ulbrechtová, Ph. D.
Slovanský ústav AV ČR, v. v. i.
Valentinská 1, 110 00 Praha 1

doc. PhDr. Radomír Vlček, CSc.
Historický ústav Akademie věd ČR, v. v. i., pobočka Brno
Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno

Mgr. Lenka Vlčková Kryčerová

Mgr. Zbyněk Vydra, Ph. D.
Ústav historických věd
Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Pardubice
Studentská 84, 532 10 Pardubice