Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

SLOVANSKÝ PŘEHLED
2018
ročník 104
číslo 1



OBSAH / CONTENTS / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

STUDIE / STUDIES / СТАТЬИ


DOUBEK Vratislav
Mezi válkou a terorem: Tomáš G. Masaryk, Boris V. Savinkov a Michail A. Muravjov
s. 9–33

ДОУБЕК Вратислав 
Между войной и террором: Томаш Г. Масарик, Борис В. Савинков и Михаил А. Муравьев

Between War and Terror: Tomáš G. Masaryk, Boris V. Savinkov, and Mikhail A. Muravyov

This study summaries and evaluates reflections on the relationship between T. G. Masaryk and the Russian politician Boris Savinkov in the Czech literature on Masaryk. It mainly focuses on two key stages: first, the period of the First World War, when Masaryk was financially supporting B. Savinkov’s terrorists and was therefore assigned a share of the responsibility for the assassination of V. I. Lenin; then, after 1918, when T. G. Masaryk acceded to the leadership of the Czechoslovak Republic and supported the exile activities of Savinkov and his family. In the analytical part of the study, there is an examination of the historical-military, political, and ideological context of Masaryk’s relationship with Boris Savinkov, as well as suggestions for other possibilities of ways to interpret Masaryk’s relationships with the SR (socialist-revolutionary) circles in the first half of 1918, with particular regard to the officer Mikhail S. Muravyov.

Key words: Tomáš G. Masaryk, Boris V. Savinkov, Mikhail S. Muravyov, Czechoslovak legions, SR


GASIOR Grzegorz
Ostře sledovaní železničáři. Železniční úřady a národnostní otázka v československé části Těšínského Slezska počátkem 20. let 20. století
s. 35–71

ГАСИОР Гжегож
Железнодорожники под пристальным наблюдением. Железнодорожные управления и национальный вопрос в чехословацкой части Тешинской Силезии в начале 20-х лет XX в.

Closely Watched Railway Workers: Railway Authorities and the Ethnic Question in the Czechoslovak Part of Cieszyn Silesia in the Beginning of the 1920s

In 1920 Cieszyn Silesia was divided between Czechoslovakia and Poland. One of the challenges for the Czechoslovak authorities was integration of this territory, which was largely inhabited by Polish and German populations. Most of the workers on the railways there, such as those on the important Košice-Bohumín track, were also Poles and Germans. In the beginning of the 1920s, the Czechoslovak railway authorities were attempting to diminish the influence of ethnic minorities in the region and to install Czechs into supervisory positions. They thus adopted a policy of transferring some of the railway employees of Polish and German ethnicity into the interior of the country. However, those who had sent their children to Czech schools were usually exempt from this policy.

Key words: History, 20th century, Czechoslovakia, Cieszyn Silesia, railways, ethnic minorities


HORÁK Slavomír
Vznik a vývoj bucharského de facto státu
s. 73–93

ГОРАК Славомир
Возникновение и развитие бухарского де-факто государства

The Origin and Development of the Bukhara De Facto State

In the years 1920–1924, the Bukharan People’s Republic was considered by the Russian Bolshevist leadership as a transitional state in a stage between the fall of the emirate and incorporation into Soviet Russia (later, the Soviet Union). However, if we look at the developments in Bukhara (and later, also in Khorezm) from a Bukharan domestic political perspective, we see that this was also a matter of fulfilling one of the goals of the Jadid movement: founding a modern republic. This state effectuated its own domestic and foreign policies and was even recognized de facto (although only provisionally) by Russia (RSFSR), Afghanistan, and other states to a certain extent. The Bukharan Republic thus fulfilled many of the criteria for de facto states (although the concept was constructed later). The text compares the different perceptions of this state from the perspective of its domestic elite and the patron state of Bolshevist Russia, and it shows the main reasons for the demise of this configuration. It argues that, with regard for the domestic situation (the Soviet decision about national delimitation), the Jadid ideal of the modern state was transformed into the later Uzbek SSR, and thus became the antecedent of today’s Uzbekistan. The process of national delimitation took place at the level of Central Asian territorial commissions, in which Bukharans led by Fayzulla Khodzhayev had significant influence. It was actually the personal change of Khodzhayev’s opinion that serves as a further argument to explain the Bukharan Republic’s transformation into the Uzbek SSR, which took over a critical part of today’s Central Asia, including the most important political, economic and social centers of the time.

Key words: Central Asia, Bukhara, Bukharan Republic, Uzbek SSR, de facto states, Soviet Union


PELIKÁN Jan
Reflexe národnostní situace v Chorvatsku v první polovině roku 1971 záhřebským deníkem Vjesnik a bělehradským listem Politika
s. 95–133

ПЕЛИКАН Ян 
Рефлексия национальной ситуации в Хорватии в первой половине 1971-го года в загребской ежедневной газете Весник и в белградской газете Политика

Reflections on the Ethnic Situation in Croatia in the First Half of 1971 by the Zagreb Daily Vjesnik and the Belgrade Newspaper Politika

This study is a contribution to the analysis of the development of ethnic relations in Croatia during the period of the so-called “mass movement”. Its primary aim is to describe to what extent problems associated with the ethnic question were present in the public sphere in the second-largest republic of the Yugoslav Federation in the first half of 1971. On the basis of detailed analysis of all of the formats of text published in Vjesnik, the most important Croatian daily newspaper, we have attempted to determine to what extent the population of Croatia in the first six months of 1971 had the possibility of acquiring information about inter-ethnic relations within the framework of their own republic from this daily paper. For comparison, we have supplemented the research with analysis of texts published in the period studied by by the most significant Serbian daily Politika that relate to the ethnic question in Croatia.

Key words:
ethnic relations, Croatia, Yugoslavia, 1971, press, Vjesnik, Politika



MATERIÁLY A DOKUMENTY / CONTRIBUTIONS AND DOCUMENTS / МАТЕРИАЛЫ И ДОКУМЕНТЫ

FRIEDL Jiří
“Palestine must be the ultimate goal”. Count František Schönborn’s report of September 1945 on Jewish refugees from Poland in Czechoslovakia
s. 135–158

ФРИДЛ Иржи
„Палестина должна быть конечной целью“. Сообщение графа Франца Шёнборна в сентябре 1945 о еврейских беженцах из Польши в Чехословакии

“Palestine Must Be the Ultimate Goal”: Count František Schönborn’s Report of September 1945 on Jewish refugees from Poland in Czechoslovakia

Immediately after the end of the Second World War, Europe had to cope with a serious problem – the repatriation of displaced persons. Besides this, we may also track a flow of migration by Jewish refugees out of Poland. It was made up of Jews who had survived the holocaust, but because of the strong anti-Semitic atmosphere in Poland, and also because they were under the influence of Zionist ideas, they were fleeing to Palestine. Some of them took a route through Czechoslovakia. This migratory movement was already fairly strong in the first months after the war. Count František Schönborn, who at that time was serving in the Czechoslovak Army as a first lieutenant for repatriation, was well aware of the gravity of this problem. He therefore decided to inform the International Red Cross about it and suggested setting up a system of holding and transit camps on Czechoslovak territory for these refugees. The reproduced text of his letter at the end of this article shows how this member of the Czech aristocracy was aware of the gravity of the situation and managed to aptly describe it. In some regards it bears witness to the author’s foresight because a system of holding camps really was created in Czechoslovakia in 1946. Schönborn’s letter was also well received in Zionist circles.

Key words: Czechoslovakia, Polish Jews, František Schnönborn-Bricha



RECENZE / REVIEWS / РЕЦЕНЗИИ

GRAČOV Andrej, Zkáza Sovětského svazu. Vzpomínky účastníka událostí, které dodnes ovlivňují světové dějiny
(Radomír Vlček)
s. 159–162

KALETA Petr, Tajemné etnikum z Krymu. Osudy příslušníků karaimské emigrace do meziválečného Československa
(Marcel Černý)
s. 163–166

ŘOUTIL Michal – KOŠŤÁLOVÁ Petra – NOVÁK Petr, Katastrofa křesťanů. Likvidace Arménů, Asyřanů a Řeků v Osmanské říši v letech 1914–1923
(Bohuslav Litera)
s. 167–169

UHLÍŘ Dušan, Čas kongresů a tajných společností
(Radomír Vlček)
s. 169–173

Tony JUDT, Penzión spomienok
(Matej Berlanský)
s. 174–178

Ilona VAŠKEVIČIŪTĖ (red.), Pabaisko mūšis ir jo epocha
(Jindřich Čeladín)
s. 178–183

Tadeusz RUZIKOWSKI (ed.), Pion walki z podziemiem niepodległościowym RBP/MBP 1944–1954
(Adam Zítek)
s. 183–186

Dan GAWRECKI, Jazyk a národnost ve sčítáních lidu na Těšínsku v letech 1880–1930
(Jiří Friedl)
s. 187–193

Katica JURČEVIĆ – Ozana RAMLJAK – Zlatko HASANBEGOVIĆ (eds.), Hrvatska i Turska: povijesno-kulturni pregled
(Mihad Mujanović)
s. 194–199


ZPRÁVY / NOTICES / СООБШЕНИЯ
s. 201–211


ZPRÁVY Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA / REPORTS FROM THE SCHOLARLY LIFE / CООБЩЕНИЯ ИЗ НАУЧНОЙ ЖИЗНИ

Životní jubilea dvou předních českých balkanistů (Miroslav Šesták, Miroslav Tejchman)
Milestones for Two Leading Czech Balkanists (Miroslav Šesták and Miroslav Tejchman)
(Ladislav Hladký)
Жизненные юбилеи двух ведущих чешских балканистов (Мирослав Шестак, Мирослав Тейхман)
(Ладислав Гладки)
s. 213–215

Stanisław Bylina – polský historik, bohemista a přítel
Stanisław Bylina – Polish Historian, Bohemist, and Friend
(Jaroslav Pánek)
Станислав Былина – польский историк, богемист и друг
(Ярослав Панек)
s. 215–218

Piotr S. Wandycz (1923–2017)
Piotr S. Wandycz (1923–2017)
(Igor Lukeš)
Петр С. Вандыч (1923–2017)
(Игорь Лукеш)
s. 218–221

Mezinárodní projekt Střední Evropa a balkánští muslimové
International Project Central Europe and Balkan Muslims
(Ladislav Hladký)
Международный проект Центральная Европа и балканские мусульмане
(Ладислав Гладки)
s. 221–222

Islamofobie ve střední Evropě / Islamophobia in Central & Eastern Europe: Theoretical Implications and Empirical Findings. Zpráva z konference univerzity v Lipsku, vědecký kampus EEGA
Islamophobia in Central & Eastern Europe: Theoretical Implications and Empirical Findings. Report From the Conference at the University in Leipzig Held at the EEGA ScienceCampus
(Přemysl Rosůlek)
Исламофобия в Центральной Европе / Islamophobia in Central & Eastern Europe: Theoretical Implications and Empirical Findings. Сообщение с конференции университета в Лейпциге, научный кампус EEGA
(Пршемысл Росулек)
s. 222–227

Historia Slavorum Occidentis: the journal’s history and development prospects
(Marcin Danielewski)
Historia Slavorum Occidentis: the journal’s history and development prospects
(Марцин Данилевски)
s. 227–229

Mezinárodní konference Za obzory revoluce v Rusku. Narativy, prostory, koncepce. 100 let od události
International Conference ʻZa obzory revoluce v Rusku. Narativy, prostory, koncepce. 100 let od událostiʼ (Beyond the Horizons of Revolution in Russia: Narratives, Spaces, Conceptions. 100 Years after the Event.)
(Jan Jindra)
Международная конференция За горизонтами революции в России. Нарративы, пространства, концепции. 100 лет со дня события
(Ян Йиндра)
s. 229–231


SEZNAM AUTORŮ/ LIST OF AUTHORS / СПИСОК АВТОРОB

prof. Mgr. Vratislav Doubek, Ph. D.
Masarykův ústav a Archiv Akademie věd ČR, v. v. i.
Gabčíkova 2362/10, 182 00Praha 8

doc. PhDr. Jiří Friedl, Ph. D., DSc.
Historický ústav AV ČR, pobočka Brno
Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno

dr. Grzegorz Gasior
Katedra Studiów Interkulturowych Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej
Wydział Lingwistyki Stosowanej, Uniwersytet Warszawski
ul. Szturmowa 4, 02-678 Warszawa, Polska

PhDr. Slavomír Horák, Ph.D.
Katedra ruských a východoevropských studií
Institut mezinárodních studií
Fakulty sociálních věd Univerzity Karlovy
U Kříže 661/8, 158 00 Praha 5 – Jinonice

doc. PhDr. Jan Pelikán, CSc.
Katedra jihoslovanských a balkanistických studií
Filozofické fakulty Univerzity Karlovy
Náměstí Jana Palacha 2, 116 38 Praha 1