Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

SLOVANSKÝ PŘEHLED
2017
ročník 103
číslo 2


OBSAH / CONTENTS / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

STUDIE / STUDIES / CТАТЬИ

POPEK Krzysztof
Cruel Tormentor or Good Neighbour? Stereotype of the Turk and Bulgarian State Policy towards the Muslim Minority in 1878–1912
s. 261–284

ПОПЕК Кшиштоф
Жестокий мучитель или добрый сосед? Стереотип турка и болгарская государственная политика по отношению к мусульманскому меньшинству в 1878–1912 гг.

Cruel Tormentor or Good Neighbor?
Stereotypes of the Turk, and Bulgarian State Policy towards the Muslim Minority in 1878–1912
The paper presents the problem of the influence of positive and negative stereotypes of the Turk on the Bulgarian state’s policy towards the Muslim minority in 1878–1912. The first part of the text analyses the evolution of the negative stereotype of the Turk as the “cruel tormentor” and the positive one of the “good neighbor” in Bulgarian culture from the beginning of the Ottoman period to the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The second part focuses on the discriminative aspects of Bulgarian minority policy towards the Muslim population that was mostly implemented at the end of the 1870s and the beginning of the 1880s. Part three presents examples of the tolerant attitude by Bulgarian authorities that dominated Sofia’s policy towards the Muslims from the Union from 1885 to the outbreak of the Balkan Wars.
Keywords: Bulgaria, Muslim minority, stereotype, Islam in the Balkans


HOFMEISTEROVÁ Karin
Koncept „symfonie církve a státu“ v srbském prostředí a jeho vliv na utváření postoje Srbské pravoslavné církve k jugoslávské krizi
s. 285–317

ГОФМЕЙСТЕРОВА Карин
Концепт "симфонии церкви и государства" в сербской среде и его влияние на формирование позиции Сербской православной церкви к югославскому кризису

The Concept of “Symphony Between the Church and State” in the Serbian Orthodox Milieu and its Influence on the Serbian Orthodox Church’s Attitude to the Crisis in Yugoslavia
The role of the Serbian Orthodox Church in the violent disintegration of Yugoslavia and its reactions to the atrocities committed during the conflict have been highly controversial in both scholarly and public discourse. In this article, I identify and examine the predominant theoretical concepts upon which the Serbian Orthodox Church based its policies in the period of the late 1980s and 1990s. The notion of symphony between the church and state established during the Byzantine Empire proved to be the cornerstone on which Orthodox churches built their perception of ideal political and social organization as well as their own position in relation to the state and society. The original Byzantine concept has been, however, modified by particular Orthodox churches depending on the historical context in which they developed. The specifics of the symphony adopted by the Serbian Orthodox milieu are analyzed here. Regarding the modification of the concept, I emphasize the importance of two crucial figures of the 20th century’s Serbian orthodox theology: Nikolai Velimirović and Justin Popović. Drawing on rich primary sources, especially journals published by the Serbian Orthodox Church, I argue that the symphony and other theoretical concepts relating to the ideal form of the political and social organization of the state postulated by Velimirović and Popović dominated the Church’s official discourse in the period examined. They also represented the ideological framework that later influenced the Serbian Orthodox Church’s attitudes towards the crisis in Yugoslavia and the consequences of the state’s violent dissolution. To some extent, they still shape the Serbian Orthodox Church’s self-understanding in the conflict.
Keywords: symphony concept, Serbian Orthodox Church, Dissolution of Yugoslavia, Slobodan Milošević.


PÍCHA Vojtěch
Stát v křesťansko-anarchistické ideologii tolstojovce Valentina Bulgakova. Dějiny jednoho pacifismu
s. 319–342

ПИХА Войтех
Государство в христианско-анархистской идеологии толстовца Валентина Булгакова
История одного пацифизма

The State in the Christian-Anarchist Ideology of the Tolstoyan Valentin Bulgakov: The History of a Pacifism
This essay traces the evolution of the attitudes of Valentin Fyodorovich Bulgakov, a Tolstoyan Christian anarchist, pacifist, and Russian emigrant, towards the institution of the state, mainly during his interwar period of exile in Czechoslovakia. Its goal is to capture the way the following influences worked together in shaping his ideological conceptions: the Russian pre-revolutionary and revolutionary milieu translated into the Central European reality of a national state with a liberal democratic regime; the influence of collaboration with western European pacifist organizations; the influence of the atmosphere in an interwar Europe split into defenders and implacable opponents of the Soviet regime; and of course the influence of the social and political development of Europe between the two world wars and during the second of them. The research methodology is based in an analysis of Bulgakov’s journalistic work, organizational activities, and correspondence which is found in the materials from his written estate that are stored in the Memorial of National Literature in Prague, and the Russian State Archive of Literature and Arts in Moscow. These sources are examined in the context of the development of his religiously and secularly-motivated pacifism. From the analysis, it is evident that despite his rigorous insistence of maintaining the principle of not participating in armed activities of the state in the interwar period; a time when, particularly in the 1930s, a substantial part of the pacifist contingent was inclined towards some form of armed resistance to the war, the shock of the Nazi expansion represented a turning point for Bulgakov that marked his retreat from ethical radicalism towards a more conformist defense of the purportedly peaceful politics of the Soviet Union.
Key words: antimilitarism, Bolsheviks, Christian ethics, Christian anarchism, Lev Tolstoy, pacifism, Romain Rolland, Tolstoyanism, Valentin Bulgakov


GUŽVICA Stefan
Books and Rifles: The Political Activity of Yugoslav Communist Students in Prague from 1927 until 1937 (Part II)
s. 343–371

ГУЖВИЦА Стефан
Книги и ружья: политическая активность югославских коммунистических студентов в Праге с 1827 по 1937 гг. (Вторая часть)

Books and Rifles: The Political Activity of Yugoslav Communist Students in Prague from 1927 until 1937 (Part II)
This second part of the article deals with the communist takeover of “Jugoslavija,” the umbrella organization of Yugoslav students in Prague, in 1935. Following their ultimate victory over the monarchists, they continued their agitation in the student dormitory, drawing in large numbers of new communist organizers and sympathizers. Soon after, however, they departed for Spain to fight in the Civil War, after which their organization effectively ceased to exist. Those who survived World War II went on to become the political elite of the new socialist state. Their subsequent writings reveal the impact of their activity in Prague on their later political and intellectual development. They show that, even though the communist students rarely questioned the tenets of Stalinism before 1948, the experience of working in a pluralist left-wing environment, as well as within an internationalist and pan-Yugoslav framework, had been an influence on their postwar efforts aimed at reforming socialism and creating a system different than the one centered in Moscow.
Keywords: Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Communism in Yugoslavia, Spanish Civil War, Student Movement in Yugoslavia, Student Movement in Prague, The First Czechoslovak Republic


HORÁK Slavomír
Vnitropolitický vývoj Gagauzské republiky v letech 1991–1995 jako de-facto státu
s. 373–393

ГОРАК Славомир
Внутриполитическое развитие Гагаузской республики в 1991-1995 гг. как де-факто государства

The Domestic Political Development of the Gagauz Republic 1991–1995 as a de facto state
Gagauzia is among the exceptional cases of relatively well-resolved conflicts in the territory of the former Soviet Union. Most foreign researchers, however, have focused on the negotiations between Comrat and Kishinev, and often, the influence of the domestic situation itself within Gagauzia is overlooked, even though it contributed to a fair extent to the resolution of the problem. In the analysis of this aspect, it is possible to analyze the concept of the de facto state, because in its first phase developments in Gagauzia took on similar features as other conflicts in the Soviet, or post-Soviet area – establishment of its own government, escalation of demands for self-determination in areas ranging from cultural autonomy to political separatism, and the proclamation of an independent republic. Unlike other cases where a de facto state has arisen, however, for Gagauzia the achievement of this status represented the apex of its independent existence. Maintaining the independent republic has proven to be unfeasible, which is also due to a significant extent to internal conflicts within the Gagauzian elite as well as the failure to resolve the economic crisis in the region.
Key words: Moldova, Gagauzia, autonomy, de facto states, conflict, domestic politics



MATERIÁLY A DOKUMENTY / CONTRIBUTIONS AND DOCUMENTS / МАТЕРИАЛЫ И ДОКУМЕНТЫ

MICHAL MACHÁČEK
Zvolila jsem Československo. Rozhovor s historičkou Valentinou Vladimirovnou Marjinou o životě, dějinách a česko-slovensko-ruských vztazích
s. 395–416

МАХАЧЕК Михал
Я выбрала Чехословакию
Беседа с историком Валентиной Владимировной Марьиной о жизни, истории и чехословацко-русских отношениях

I Chose Czechoslovakia: An Interview with the Historian Valentina Vladimirovna Maryina About Her Life, History, and Czech-Slovak-Russian Relations
In the form of an interview, readers are offered an exclusive view into the life of the doyenne of Russian historical scholarship, V. V. Maryina, in both its professional and personal aspects. At the same time, her reminiscences also offer an interesting probe into the postwar development of Soviet Slavic studies and historiography, especially pertaining to relations with Czechoslovakia and Slovakia. She acquaints us with the scholarly and intellectual transfers and reflections by the Soviet, or more specifically, Russian, and the Czechoslovak cultural worlds. Maryina also mentions people who influenced her professional direction and her work, and also recollects her colleagues (for example, I. I. Udaľtsova and S. I. Prasolov) from the Institute for Slavic Studies, with whom she collaborated for all of her professional life. She also offers up her observations from her research trips to Czechoslovakia, where she regularly traveled starting in 1956, and speaks about her contacts with Czech and Slovak historians and about her extraordinary meeting with Gustáv Husák and the uneffectuated distribution of his samizdat writings. At the same time, Maryina also presents her ideas on historical studies and the past, and doesn’t stint on opinions on contemporary issues. She evaluates the entry of the Warsaw Pact troops into Czechoslovakia negatively, and does not agree with the way the Soviet Union fell apart. However, she also discusses the growth in scope of the activities of the Institute for Slavic Studies after the Soviet bloc crumbled, and acquaints us with contemporary conditions in Russia. The nostalgic mood there is primarily explicable in the context of the low moral level of the 1990s and the decline in Moscow’s prestige in the international sphere.
Keywords: V. V. Maryina, Soviet historiography, Institute for Slavic Studies, Czechoslovak-Soviet relations, Slovak-Soviet relations, 20th-century Russia, contemporary Russia



RECENZE / REVIEWS / РЕЦЕНЗИИ

STELLNER František, Car je mrtev, ať žije carevna!. Převraty na ruském dvoře 18. století
(Radomír Vlček)
s. 417–424

NYKL Hanuš, Slavjanofilství a slavjanofilské paradigma. Příspěvek ke studiu ruské filosofie 19. století
(Radomír Vlček)
s. 424–435

MAGIDOVA Marija, Pod znakom katalogov i materialov k… V. N. Tukalevskij i russkaja kniga za rubežom 1918–1936 gg
(Jiří Vacek)
s. 435–443

NĚMEČEK Jan a kol., Československo-sovětská smlouva 1943
(Dušan Segeš)
s. 443–454

Současný vývoj české historické balkanistiky. Bilance knižní produkce za léta 2005–2016
(Ladislav Hladký)
s. 455–468

ŠKERLOVÁ Jana, Věrnost za věrnost? Československo-jugoslávské politické vztahy v letech 1929–1934: přání, rozpory, realita
(Václav Štěpánek)
s. 468–471

SOVILJ Milan, Československo-jugoslávské vztahy v letech 1939–1941: Od zániku Československé repuliky do okupace Království Jugoslávie
(Václav Štěpánek)
s. 471–475

ŠABIĆ Marijan – ČERNÝ Marcel, Matija Mesić i češki i slovački suvremenici (pisma 1846.–1875.)
(Jan Boháček)
s. 476–478

KARLOVIĆ SABOLIĆ Marina, Zoran Milanović. Mladić koji je obećavao
(Jan Pelikán)
s. 478–485

MACHOVÁ Barbora, Bitovo: Každodenní život v makedonských horách
(Václav Štěpánek)
s. 485–490

KLADIWA Pavel – GAWRECKI Dan – KADLEC Petr – POKLUDOVÁ Andrea – POPELKA Petr, Národnostní statistika v českých zemích 1880-1930: mechanismy, problémy a důsledky národnostní klasifikace, I.–II. díl
(Pavel Cibulka)
s. 490–497

JURČIŠINOVÁ Nadežda, Česko-slovenské porady v Luhačoviciach (1908–1913)
(Anna Zelenková)
s. 498–500



ZPRÁVY / NOTICES / СООБШЕНИЯ
s. 501–508



ZPRÁVY Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA / REPORTS FROM THE SCHOLARLY LIFE / CООБЩЕНИЯ ИЗ НАУЧНОЙ ЖИЗНИ

K jubileu Valentiny Vladimirovny Marjiny
Valentina Vladimirovna Maryina’s Jubilee
(Michal Macháček)
К юбилею Валентины Владимировны Марьиной
(Михал Махачек)
s. 509–514

Jiří Vacek (29. října 1939 ‒ 17. června 2017)
Jiří Vacek (29 October 1939 – 17 June 2017)
(Lukáš Babka)
Йиржи Вацек (29-го октября 1939 – 17-го июня 2017)
(Лукаш Бабка)
s. 514–517

Za Valeriánem Bystrickým
In Memory of Valerian Bystrický
(Vladimír Goněc)
В память Валериана Быстрицкого
(Владимир Гонец)
s. 518–521

Rok 2016 v Kašubsku
The Year 2016 in Kashubia
(Dariusz Szymikowski)
2016-й год в Кашубии
(Дариуш Шимиковски)
s. 521–523

Letní škola mladých historiků zemí Společenství nezávislých států
The Summer School of Young Historians from the CIS Countries
(Jaroslav Vaculík)
Летняя школа молодых историков стран СНГ
(Ярослав Вацулик)
s. 523–524

CENTRAL Project Workshop Meeting, Institut für Osteuropäische Geschichte, Universität Wien, 9.–10.12.2016
(Jiří Kocian)
CENTRAL Project Workshop Meeting, Institut für Osteuropäische Geschichte, Universität Wien, 9.–10.12.2016
(Иржи Коциан)
s. 524–525



SEZNAM AUTORŮ / LIST OF AUTHORS / СПИСОК АВТОРОB

Stefan Gužvica, BA
Department of History
Central European University
Nador u. 9, H-1051 Budapest, Hungary
Guzvica_Stefan@student.ceu.edu

PhDr. Karin Hofmeisterová
Katedra ruských a východoevropských studií
Institut mezinárodních studií
Fakulty sociálních věd Univerzity Karlovy
U Kříže 661/8, 158 00 Praha 5 - Jinonice
karin.hofmeisterova@fsv.cuni.cz

PhDr. Slavomír Horák, Ph.D.
Katedra ruských a východoevropských studií
Institut mezinárodních studií
Fakulty sociálních věd Univerzity Karlovy
U Kříže 661/8, 158 00 Praha 5 - Jinonice
slavomir.horak@post.cz

Mgr. Michal Macháček
Ústav českých dějin
Filozofické fakulty Univerzity Karlovy
Náměstí Jana Palacha 2, 116 38 Praha 1
MichMach1@seznam.cz

Mgr. Vojtěch Pícha
Katedra slavistiky
Filozofické fakulty Univerzity Palackého
Křížkovského 10, 771 80  Olomouc
V.Picha@seznam.cz

Krzysztof Popek, M. A.
Institute of History
Jagiellonian University in Cracow
Gołębia 13, 31-007 Kraków (Poland)
popek.kj@gmail.com