Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ročník 99

č. 5 (Slovanské historické studie)


Katun a katunská organizace středověkých Vlachů v centrálních a západních oblastech Balkánu
[Katuns and Katun Organization of Medieval Vlachs in the Central and Western Balkan Regions]
s. 387–416

This work focuses on one of the aspects of problems relating to study of the medieval Vlachs in the Central and Western regions of the Balkans – the “katun” and katun organization. The medieval Vlachs’ katun had long remained an ill-defined concept for scholars, much like the organization of medieval Vlachs as a ty-pical pastoral population. Eventually they arrived at the judgment that this is indeed one of the central problems in Balkan studies, in whose solution lies the key to shedding light upon myriad other scholarly problems. This work provides an outline of the development of findings about katuns and the katun organization of the medieval Vlachs in the Central and Western regions of the Balkans before and after the Second World War. On the basis of the works of the eminent authors cited here, then the appropriate conclusions are drawn.
Key words: Medieval Vlachs, Central and Western Balkan regions, katun, katun organization, findings

Balkánská politika Ruska a vstup Itálie do „Velké války“ (červenec 1914 – květen 1915)
[Russia’s Balkan Policy and Italy’s Entrance into the “Great War” (July 1914 – May 1915)]
s. 417–453

One of the powers that had clearly defined interests in the Balkans was Czarist Russia. For its power politics, the Balkans represented a significant strategic space for further territorial expansion to the south and east. Russia’s main rival in the Balkans was Austria-Hungary, supported by Germany, and simultaneously also the Ottoman Empire. As another power, an ambitious Italy also attempted to assert itself more boldly in the Balkans. Albania was key for Italy’s expansionist politics in that region, and therefore Italy got into conflicts with Austria-Hungary. However, for the Italians the idea of the formation of a strong South-Slavic state on the Balkan coast of the Adriatic Sea under the protection of Russia was extremely worrisome. After the First World War broke out in July 1914, Italy adopted a neutral position. In the following months the struggle between the two hostile coalitions flared up as they attempted to gain Italy for their side. Rome at the same time naturally asserted its own interests above all else. Finally, after a heated diplomatic contest, Italy asserted its own demands regarding power and territory, principally against Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, and then in May 1915 it went over to the side of the Triple Entente.
Key words: History, 20th century, Balkans, Russia, Italy, First World War, international relations, diplomacy

Sověty a Vysoká Porta. Sovětská zahraniční politika a Osmanská říše od brest-litevského míru po mudroské příměří
[The Soviets and the Sublime Porte. Soviet Foreign Policy and the Ottoman Empire from the Treaty of Brest-Litevsk until the Armistice of Mudros]
s. 455–498

This study is devoted to Soviet foreign policy towards the Ottoman Empire in the year 1918. Following a short survey of contemporary research on these questions, the author focuses upon analysis of the goals that Soviet foreign policy pursued in its relations with the Ottoman Empire in the period studied, and problems implicated in them which it had to face. From this vantage point he then describes steps taken by Soviet Russia in the face of Ottoman expansion in Transcaucasia after the conclusion of the peace treaty of Brest-Litevsk. In his conclusion the author outlines the main causes of the Soviet failure to prevent the aforementioned expansion.
Key words: Soviet Russia, Ottoman Empire, foreign policy, international relations, Transcaucasia, 1918

Alexandr BRUMMER
Rusko opět „slovanské“? České rusofilství a pozitivní obraz Sovětského svazu v posledních letech první republiky
[Russia again “Slavic”? Czech Russophilia and Positive Images of the Soviet Union in the Last Years of the First Republic]
s. 499–532

After the creation of Czechoslovakia it is possible to track the decrease in interest in Russia, for, with, the exception of the chairman of the National Democratic Party, Karel Kramář and his supporters, it disappeared from Czech thought as a traditional fixed point. However, nationally-motivated interest in Russia returned to Czech thinking in the 1930s in connection with Adolf Hitler’s accession to the chancellery and the growing pressure from Nazi Germany. The traditional image of Russia as
a “massive oak tree” and guarantor of security for the Czechoslovak state that had become popular again was based upon numerous more or less misleading sources. This study attempts to demonstrate that what was at stake here were not only results of the activity of Czechoslovak diplomacy in the 1930s, the activities of leftist intellectuals and their appurtenant organizations or the action of communist or even directly Soviet propaganda, but also Czech Russophilia.
Key words: nationalism, Czech Russophilia, Czechoslovakia 1918–1938, Zdeněk Nejedlý, Společnost pro hospodářské a kulturní sblížení s Novým Ruskem, Svaz přátel SSSR, image of USSR, Czechoslovak-Soviet relations, interwar Marxist left, Munich Agreement, Munich crisis

Etnicko-jazyková situace Aromunů v Makedonii. Kruševo: mládež jako indikátor etnické identity a vztahu k jazyku 
[The Ethnolinguistic Situation of Aromanians in Macedonia. Kruševo: Youth as an Indicator of Ethnic Identity and Relationship to Language]
s. 533–576

The text presents the findings of a sociolinguistic survey conducted in questionnaire form among the pupils attending lessons in the Aromanian (Vlach) language at a primary school in Kruševo (Macedonia). The survey focused on: the rate of use of Aromanian in individual language domains; the proportion of Aromanian in the overall framework of speaking activities; the reception of Aromanian culture and active participation in this culture; subjective ethnic, linguistic and cultural attitudes and assessments. According to the current situation of the Aromanian language, the questionnaire detected decisive differences among individual respondents concerning the “native tongues of their parents”, gender, and other factors. Computing the (non)homogeneity of the answers (standard deviation) proved highly relevant as well.
Key words: Aromanians (Vlachs), Macedonia, Kruševo, youth, ethnolinguistic situation, sociolinguistics