Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ročník 99
č. 3–4



Michal TÉRA
Smerdi – zapomenutý termín raně středověké slovanské společnosti
[Smerdi – A Forgotten Term from Early Medieval Slavic Society]
s. 217–237

One of many terms appearing in the early medieval sources in the Kievan Rus, Poland and in the Polabian Slavs’ territories is the word “smerd”. Researchers working in the 19th Century had not yet managed to explain the term and until now its origin and the group of the population it signified remained obscure. In the sources from Kievan Rus, smerds are described as a rural population who had their own property and families and owned the land upon which they worked. As peasants, smerds belonged to their lords who could not only exploit their labor but also give their smerds along with their property to other institutions. Smerds/smards are also described as peasants in medieval sources from Poland. In the Polish territories this terms still appears in the 15th and 16th centuries in the eastern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Union. The Word “smurd” is documented in the Polabian Slavs’ territories. The oldest references from Old Church Slavonic sources prove that originally smerds were a free rural population with a non-aristocratic origin, who were gradually burdened with increasing obligations from by the elite of their early medieval states. The word “smerd” has Indo-European roots and is original meaning was “mortal human being”.
Key words: History, Kievan Rus, Polabian Slavs, smerds, medieval sources

Stolypinova zemědělská reforma
[Stolypin’s Agricultural Reform]
s. 239–256

The situation the Russian Empire was in when Stolypin took over as the Prime minister was characterized by deepening political, economic and social crises: corruption, lawlessness, the rise of radical terrorist groups, separatism of national provinces, etc. In Stolypin’s view, the only way out of this situation was the implementation of radical reforms. Those reforms were multifarious, but key importance was assigned to agricultural reform. Some of his goals in this area were the development of large-scale individually-owned farms (khutors), introduction of agricultural cooperatives, development of agricultural education, improvements in the rights of citizens, dissemination of new methods of land improvement, and offering affordable lines of credit for peasants.
In spite of fact that this reform laid the groundwork for the construction of a market-based agricultural system in Russia, its effects were limited by both objective and subjective factors, namely the mutual opposition among the gentry, intelligentsia and the Orthodox Church, lack of sufficient time for the reforms to take effect, the Russian peasantry’s unwillingness to accept changes, and the shortcomings of laws that were enacted. As a result, Russian society missed its historical opportunity to change, but the study of Stolypin’s legacy provides us today with the chance to explain and promote the great Russian statesman’s ideas.
Key words: History, P. A. Stolypin, agricultural reform, Russian Empire

Československo-bulharské hospodářské vztahy v letech 1918–1933
[Czechoslovakian-Bulgarian Economic Relations in 1918–1933]
s. 257–274

This article examines bilateral economic relations between Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria in the period from 1918 to 1933, the year the first economic trade agreement was signed. The author focuses mainly on trade agreements and trade relationships between the two countries. After the First World War, the two countries found themselves facing each other from opposite sides. The Bulgarians were then a defeated nation; the Czechoslovaks, on the contrary, were a victorious nation. The creation of the Little Entente influenced the way Prague treated Bulgaria such that Bulgaria was perceived through the lens of Yugoslavia, which was an ally to Czechoslovakia in the Little Entente. This means that in the 1920s and 1930s, the relations between Bulgaria and Yugoslavia determined relations between Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia.
Furthermore, the two countries had different economic conditions. Czechoslovakia inherited a great deal of the industrial capacity of the Habsburg Monarchy, whereas Bulgarian industry had been subverted by the war. And there was also the matter of war reparations which were higher than the Bulgarian state was able to pay.
Bilateral contract relationships between the two countries began with the first trade agreement that was signed in 1920. After that, a Bulgarian-Czechoslovakian trade department was created in Sofia in 1922. In 1925, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria agreed on the declaration of trade benefits for their bilateral trade. On 29 August 1933, a payment agreement between the two countries was signed that included a reference to the direct use of older agreements.
Czechoslovakia’s main intention shaping economic relations with Bulgaria was the expectation of exporting Czechoslovakian industrial commodities to Bulgaria. Clothing, paper, glass, machines and devices were mostly exported from Czechoslovakia to Bulgaria. Agricultural products and raw materials, such as tobacco, fruit, vegetables, and animal products, were exported from Bulgaria to Czechoslovakia. The bilateral economic relations during the period discussed were more important to Bulgaria than to Czechoslovakia. In the 1920s and in the second half of the 1930s, Czechoslovakia was the 2nd or the 3rd most significant source of imports into Bulgaria, and in 1926, the trade with Czechoslovakia got up to 11% of all the foreign commerce in Bulgaria. However, for Czechoslovakia, trade with Bulgaria represented only 1% of its foreign commerce.
Key words: History, economic relations, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, trade agreements, nterwar period

The Wartime Struggle of Grigore Gafencu: Idealism vs. Realism
[Válečný boj Grigore Gafencu: Idealismus vs. realismus]
s. 275–296

Grigore Gafencu lived between 30 January 1892 and 30 January 1957 and is mostly remembered as being the most pro-Western Minister of Foreign Affairs of Romania around the period of the beginning of the Second World War. The shifting of the political regime which took place after 1989 undoubtedly brought rehabilitation and allowed the celebration of this formerly shunned and officially sentenced personality of interwar Romania. The emphasis of this work is to identify and outline instances in Gafencu’s political thought where he oscillated between the two theories of international relations, for various political reasons. This is a proof of the complexity of the situation in which Romania found itself at the beginning of the Second World War, but even more, it strives to remind us about the intricacies, difficulties and complications of diplomatic life during the same period. Above all, this is a memento of the struggles and difficulties of one of Romania’s pro-Western personalities, Grigore Gafencu, who believing that he could serve his country better, did his best to try to adapt to a realist ideology while serving as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister to Moscow.
Key words: History, Grigore Gafencu, realism, idealism, World War II, international relations

Počátky spolupráce Československa a Polska při repatriaci svých občanů po druhé světové válce (do uzavření repatriační smlouvy)
[Beginnings of Cooperation between Czechoslovakia and Poland in the Repatriation of Citizens after the Second World War (Until the Conclusion of the Repatriation Treaty)]
s. 297–321

At the end of the Second World War prisoners of concentration camps and forced mobilization were set free. This concerned several million citizens of European states that the Nazi regime had taken far away from their homes. Some Czechoslovak citizens were liberated as early as in the first half of 1944, when the Red Army liberated some of the concentration camps on Polish territory. However, at that time it was not yet possible to repatriate these citizens because the Czechoslovak territories for the most part still remained under German control. Gradually, a center for repatriation activities took shape in Katowice, in the form of a repatriation mission that provided care for Czechoslovakian citizens until the time they were to be sent back to their homes. Altogether these displaced persons numbered several thousand, and practically all of them were able to be repatriated before September, 1945. Repatriation of the Polish citizens represented a more challenging task. Poles made up a significant percent of the so-called “displaced persons.” Although there were not many of them on Czechoslovak territory, hundreds of thousands were situated in Germany. Therefore, for their repatriation Czechoslovakia played an important role as a transit country. Czech organizations provided Polish repatriates support to what extent was possible. The speed of the repatriations however depended on the traffic-carrying capacity of the Czechoslovak railways, which were unable to accommodate all the requests of the Polish authorities. Important conditions for the smooth transit of Polish repatriates through Czechoslovakia were coordination and the establishment of clear guidelines for the through passage of the transports. These questions therefore became points for negotiation between Czechoslovakia and Poland in their repatriation treaty, which they were finally able to ratify in September 1945.
Key words: History, repatriation, Second World War, Czechoslovakia, Poland, mutual help

Vliv vnějších podmínek na zahraniční obchod Československa v letech 1971¬–1980
[Influence of External Conditions on Czechoslovakia’s Foreign Trade 1971¬–1980]
s. 323–338

In the 1970s a marked transformation came about in the world economy as a result of the so-called oil shock in 1973. Even though the crisis primarily played out in the West, states in the Soviet bloc were not spared its effects either. There was a significant worsening of access for their products to Western markets. Additionally, as a result of the falling prices, particularly of finished products as compared with raw materials, it became necessary to export much more in bulk. The pressure to increase the quality of products also grew in a similar manner. This represented a fundamental problem, because only a small portion of these products was able to compete in Western markets. Tension also rose due to changes in the mechanism of setting prices se inside the Soviet bloc. Starting in 1975 there was a change over to the so-called moving average, which significantly more closely reflected changes in the price of oil in the world markers. Czechoslovakia also had to export even more products in order to cover the deficit in reciprocal trade with the Soviet Union, particularly in the area of its highest-quality products which could be traded in Western markets. The dependence on Western markets also deepened due to purchases of equipment and materials for covering Czechoslovakia’s share of common projects, such as the development of the gas deposits in Orenburg.
Key words: History, Czechoslovakia, foreign trade, Soviet Union, Subsidies


Češi a Poláci na Těšínsku 1945–1949
(Ivo Baran)
s. 339–349

Joachim RÜCKER
Standards and Status. How Kosovo Became Independent
(Přemysl Rosůlek)
s. 344–346

Bosna v chorvatských národně-integračních ideologiích 19. stole¬tí
(Václav Štěpánek)
s. 347–351

Ferenc BOROS
A magyar-szlovák kérdés történeti kontextusban
(Eva Irmanová)
s. 351–354


Rok 1953 a Československo
[The Year 1953 and Czechoslovakia]
s. 358–360

II. česko(slovensko)-polské historické bienále
[II. The Czech(oslovak)-Polish Historic Biennale]
s. 360–361

František ŠÍSTEK
Interdisciplinární konference o Bosně a Hercegovině na FHS UK
[Interdisciplinary Conference on Bosnia and Herzegovina at the FHS UK (Charles University Faculty of Humanities)]
s. 362–364

Promýšlet Evropu dvacátého století podruhé
[“Contemplating Europe of the Twentieth Century”  for the second time]
s. 365–366

Jaroslav ŠEBEK
Společenské a odborné připomenutí 1150. výročí příchodu cyrilometodějské misie na Velkou Moravu
[Community and Scholarly Commemoration of the 1150th Anniversary of the Arrival of Cyril and Methodius'  Mission to Great Moravia]
s. 366–369

Ladislav HLADKÝ
XV. mezinárodní sjezd slavistů v Minsku
[The 15th International Congress of Slavists in Minsk]
s. 369–370


Zastavení nad vztahem kultury, víry a konfese u vojvodovských Čechů
[The Relationship of Culture, Belief, and Creed among the Czechs of Vojvodovo (Bulgaria)]
s. 371–384

This text represents another contribution in the series of articles on Vojvodovo, the Czech village in Bulgaria. The goal of this study is to explain the unusually high number of marriages between Czech Protestants from Vojvodovo and the inhabitants of the nearby village Bărdarski Geran, which is inhabited by Catholic Banat Bulgarians (Paulicians) and Banat Swabians, who are also Catholic. In both communities religion seems to be the most important organizational principle, and religious endogamy seems to be one of its main rules. Even though one might expect an absence of mixed marriages between the members of these communities, they were in fact taking place quite frequently. One of the reasons why the members of both communities felt a kind of mutual affinity was culture, as both groups shared a great many cultural traits, as well as inventories. Among the most distinguishing cultural traits shared by both communities, was a very fervent religiosity, or perhaps rather belief. So, although at first sight religion (in the form of their respective creeds) would seem to prevent any closer contacts developing between the two communities, it is actually religiosity (as belief) that stands behind the surprising and unexpected number of marriages that took place between members of the two groups.