Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

SLOVANSKÝ PŘEHLED
2012
ročník 98
č. 3-4


ČLÁNKY



Jan KVĚTINA
Národní diskurzy polských marxistů na přelomu 19. a 20. století: patriotismus Kazimierze Kelles-Krauze proti internacionalismu Rosy Luxemburgové
[National Discourses of Polish Marxists at the Turn of the 19th and 20th Century: Patriotism of Kazimierz Kelles-Krauz versus Rosa Luxemburg's Internationalism]
s. 209–231
This paper analyses a national discourse of the Polish socialist movement at the turn of the 19th and 20th century. Its wording is very questionable because of the different interpretations of Marx's attitude by the two main Polish socialist intellectual leaders: Kazimierz Kelles-Krauz and Rosa Luxemburg. As the key method of this research, it is possible to define a comparison of their theoretical concepts, whose dissimilar conclusions resulted in formation of two rival political parties: PPS and SDKPiL. It is necessary to analyse and understand the conception of the nation according to Polish socialist doctrines focusing on the different interpretations of: 1) the sense of the proletarian revolution; 2) accumulation of the capital; 3) the basic essence of the national community. Based on these issues, this research is to clarify not only the unambiguous conception of the Polish socialism but also the theoretical dilemma of the relationship between nationalism and socialism.

Key words:
History, 19th and 20th century, Marxism, Polish nation, patriotic socialism, Kelles-Krauz, Luxemburg, theory of capital accumulation



Igor Vladimirovič KRJUČKOV – Andrej Nikolajevič PTICYN
Čeští vystěhovalci na Kavkaze ve druhé polovině 19. a na začátku 20. století
[Czech Émigrés in the Caucasus Mountains in the Second Half of the 19th and the Early 20th Century]
s. 233–249
The essay comments on the genesis of the Czech émigrés' emigration from the Habsburg Monarchy to the Caucasus Mountains, one of the main regions where they settled down. The author monitors individual waves of emigration, formation of the Czech diaspora and transformations of the Russian policy towards the immigrants. The Czech émigrés brought with them modern farming technologies and intensive farming methods that were gradually adopted by the local population. Entrepreneurs, who formed an important group, contributed to the development of local industry with beer brewing, meat processing or building industry. Czech teachers played an important role. Musicians represented a specific group especially in large towns such as Tiflis, Stavropol and Baku. The Czech colonizers gradually became Russian citizens, but many of them preferred to keep their Austrian nationality and return to their country after some time. A vast majority of them remained members of the Roman Catholic Church, but more and more of them gradually joined the Orthodox Church. The success of the Czech émigrés was based on their diligence and high level of literacy, which sharply contrasted with the level of the local population. The Czechs pursued a federative life and established compatriots' associations. A large Czech diaspora lived in the Caucasus Mountains in the early 20th century, but it became depleted after the revolution and the civil war.

Key words: History, emigration, immigration, émigrés, colonizers, the Caucasus Mountains, diaspora



Jana HRABCOVÁ
Problémy slovanské menšiny v Itálii ve 20. letech 20. století
[Problems of the Slavic Minority in Italy in the 1920th]
s. 251–271
This paper deals with the situation and problems of the Slavic minority (Croats and Slovenes) living in Italy during the interwar period. It focuses on events on the Istrian Peninsula and in Trieste during the 1920s and the Pula trial in 1929. Mainly Croatian and Slovenian literature and sources were used in preparing this paper. Important sources used in preparation of this study also came from collections of texts from regularly held meetings called the Pazin Memorial. These meetings of experts on the history of Istria and the contemporary witnesses have been held in Pazin since the 1970s. In addition, materials from the Czechoslovak Consulate General in Trieste were used as important sources. This consulate worked in Trieste from 1921 to 1939 and, together with its business activities, it closely monitored the political and national life throughout a wider area of the former Austrian Littoral. To illustrate the situation, the Croatian contemporary press and the press published by the Slavic minority in Istria was used as well.

Key words: History, 20th century, Italy, Istrian Peninsula, Slavic Minority, Trieste, 1920s



Jiří FRIEDL
Češi a Poláci na Těšínsku během parlamentních voleb v roce 1946
[The Czechs and the Poles in the Těšín Region during the 1946 Parliamentary Elections]
s. 273–291
Based on a study of Czech and Polish sources and the contemporary press, the article introduces one of the chapters in the relations between the Czechs and the Poles in the Těšín region immediately following World War II. The focal point is an analysis of the political parties' standpoints to solving the problems of the Polish minority in the Těšín region, which became a very hot issue particularly during the pre-election campaign in 1946. Besides characterising the Těšín situation during the first month following the end of World War II, the text concentrates on the position of citizens who were forced to accept a conditional Reichs citizenship during the war (Deutsche Volksliste) that involved many Poles. The author uses the researched material to document that the issue of the Polish minority in the Těšín region became an important tool in the pre-election campaign and in the struggle between the Communists and the national socialists. Although the communists' attitude towards the Polish minority was the most positive of all the political parties and willing to support part of the Poles' minority demands, the analysis of the election outcome suggests that part of the Poles probably decided to cast a white ballot in the ballot box, thus protesting against the minority policy of the Czechoslovak government.

Key words: History, 20th century, Těšín region, the Czechs, the Poles, relations, the 1946 parliamentary elections



Margaret K. GNOINSKA
Czechoslovakia and Poland: Supervising Peace on the Korean Peninsula 1953–1955
[Československo a Polsko: Dohled nad mírem na Korejském poloostrově 1953–1955]
s. 293–320
This article analyses the dynamics and tactics of the communists in Asia in the immediate aftermath of the Korean War, linking the issue of armistice supervision on the Korean Peninsula through the Neutral Nations' Supervisory Commission (NNSC – of which Poland and Czechoslovakia were members alongside Sweden and Switzerland) to the genesis of the International Control and Supervisory Commission in Southeast Asia (ICC – of which Poland became a member alongside Canada and India). The article argues that Poland, by acting for its own interests and as both an agent for Moscow and Beijing, which called for easing East-West tensions, moderated the Cold War in Asia to some degree while cautiously pursuing the communist cause. The article shows that North Korea contributed to the Cold War's intensification by adopting hard-line approaches in dealing with the West. The article further suggests that although neither Beijing nor Prague may have wanted to exacerbate the Cold War, problems of insubordination (and misunderstandings) contributed to Czechoslovak and Chinese military officials on the Korean Peninsula to cause tensions that went against the goals of the communist camp of relaxing East-West relations. The article concludes that both the Soviets and the Chinese needed an Eastern European country in Southeast Asia that could do both: advance the communist cause and be appealing to the West. The Poles, unlike their Czechoslovak counterparts in the NNSC, seemed to be the match, especially since they were able to exhibit these two tendencies while serving on the Korean Peninsula. These flexible approaches most likely landed Poland a job as a member of the ICC. Finally, the article shows that the communist world was not always a united and monolithic entity as disputes and disagreements abounded, and that smaller nations like Czechoslovakia, North Korea, and Poland were active players with their own agendas and interests.

Key words: History, Cold War, Korean War, ICC, NNSC, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Leszek Krzemień, Josef Hečko, Armistice, Peace, commission, Panmunjom, Korea, Vietnam War, Indochina, POWs


MATERIÁLY A DOKUMENTY



Milan SOVILJ
Reflexe událostí v Protektorátu Čechy a Morava v letech  1939–1941 v jugoslávském tisku
a prostřednictvím politické elity
[Reflections on Events in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in the Yugoslav Press and Reaction of the Yugoslav Political Elite in 1939–1941]
s. 321–341

The text reflects on views of the Yugoslav political elite and writing of the Yugoslav press concerning the events in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia from occupation of this territory in March 1939 until the spring of 1941. The Yugoslav leadership adopted a reserved attitude towards the occupation of Czechoslovakia. The Yugoslav press wrote about events in the Protectorate mainly focusing on political events in German newspapers. Although the Yugoslav leadership avoided conflicts with Germany, the presence of the Czechoslovak culture in Yugoslavia signified positive attitudes towards the former Czechoslovakia. An analysis of relevant archival documents and the press shows how Yugoslavia affected the events in the Protectorate from 1939 to 1941.

Key words: History, 20th century, Occupation of Czechoslovakia, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Germany, Yugoslavia



RECENZE, POZNÁMKY, ZPRÁVY



Michael PORTMANN
Die kommunistische Revolution in der Vojvodina 1944–1952. Politik, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft, Kultur
(Miroslav Tejchman)
s. 232

Peter ŠVORC a kol.
Veľká doba a jej dôsledky. Prešov v 20. rokoch 20. storočí
(Jan Němeček)
s. 249–250
 
Kvasyliv: fragmenty istoriji, tom 1
(Jaroslav Vaculík)
s. 250

Lukáš BABKA a Radka BZONKOVÁ (eds.)
Jen jeden osud. Antologie sovětské lágrové prózy
(Lenka Vlčková Kryčerová)
s. 272

Bertrand M. PATENAUDE
Trockij, pád revolucionáře
(Alexandra Řeháková)
s. 291–292

Ľubica HARBUĽOVÁ
Sibírski autonomizmus. Zdroje, prejavy, reflexie (1917–1939)
(Alexandra Řeháková)
s. 320

Piotr ŁOSSOWSKI
Ultimatum polskie do Litwy 17 marca 1938 roku. Studium z dziejów dypłomacji
(Pavol Jakubec)
s. 342

Gertraud MARINELLI-KÖNIG
Die böhmischen Länder in den Wiener Zeitschriften und Almanachen des Vormärz (1805–1848): tschechische nationale Wiedergeburt, Kultur- und Landeskunde von Böhmen, Mähren und Schlesien, kulturelle Beziehungen zu Wien. Teil 1
(Zdeněk Šimeček)
s. 343–349

Jitka KOMENDOVÁ
Světec a šaman. Kulturní kontexty ruské středověké legendy
(Veronika Lhotáková)
s. 349–351

Klaus J. BADE – Pieter C. EMMER – Leo LUCASSEN – Jochen OLTMER (eds.)
The Encyclopedia of Migration and Minorities in Europe. From the 17th Century to the Present
(Miroslav Jireček)
s. 351–354

Ladislav HLADKÝ a kolektiv
Vztahy Čechů s národy a zeměmi jihovýchodní Evropy
(Kateřina Králová)
s. 354–357

Václav ŠTĚPÁNEK
Jugoslávie – Srbsko – Kosovo. Kosovská otázka ve 20. století
(Miroslav Tejchman)
s. 357–359

Marek JAKOUBEK
Vojvodovo: kus česko-bulharské historie. Tentokrát převážně očima jeho obyvatel
(Miroslav Jireček)
s. 359–363

Maria TODOROVA
Dizanje prošlosti u vazduh: ogledi o Balkanu i Istočnoj Evropi
(František Šístek)
s. 363–366

Kateřina KEDRON & Marek PŘÍHODA (eds.)
Etnicita slovanského areálu (Historické proměny a současný stav)
(Stanislav Tumis)
s. 366–368

Aleksandar ŽIVOTIĆ
Jugoslavija, Albanija i velike sile (1945–1961)
(Jan Pelikán)
s. 368–370

Grzegorz KRZYWIEC
Szowinizm po polsku. Przypadek Romana Dmowskiego (1886–1905)
(Jaroslav Kadlec)
s. 370–373

Zdařilá syntéza o demografické situaci jihovýchodních „kresů“ na konci 18. století
Kresy południowo-wschodnie w drugiej połowie XVIII wieku. I. Statystyka wyznaniowa i etniczna
Kresy południowo-wschodnie w drugiej połowie XVIII wieku. II. Atlas geograficzno-historyczny
Kresy południowo-wschodnie w drugiej połowie XVIII wieku. I. Studia z dziejów społecznych
(Petr Kaleta)
s. 374–378

Nové publikace o dějinách Slovinska a česko-slovinských vztahů
(Ladislav Hladký)
s. 378–381

Volodymyr KUČER – Oleksandr POTYLČAK
Ukrajina 1941–1944: trahedija naroda za fasadom Svjaščennoji vijny
(Jaroslav Vaculík)
s. 381–382

František ČAPKA – Lubomír SLEZÁK
Cukrovarnictví do roku 1938 a agrární strana (se zřetelem na Moravu a Slezsko)
(Jaroslav Vaculík)
s. 382

Jevhen TOPINKA
Tomaš Masaryk i Ukrajinci. Archivni dokumenty
(Jaroslav Vaculík)
s. 382–383

Kateřina KRÁLOVÁ – Konstantinos TSIVOS et al.
Vyschly nám slzy… Řečtí uprchlíci v Československu
(Ladislav Hladký)
s. 383–384

Promýšlet Evropu dvacátého století
(Alexandra Řeháková – Jaroslav Kadlec)
s. 392–394

KRONIKA



Vzpomínka na Marinu Jurjevnu Dostal (1947–2011)
(Radomír Vlček – Emil Voráček)
s. 385–387

Odešel Marián Hronský
(Vladimír Goněc)
s. 388–390

Florin Constantiniu (1933–2012)
(Miroslav Tejchman)
s. 391

LIDÉ A DOBA



Dušan JANÁK
Příběh petrohradského klenotníka. Z historie perzekucí československých občanů v Sovětském svazu 1918–1939
[The Story of a Saint Petersburg Jeweller. From the History of Czechoslovak Citizens' Persecutions in the Soviet Union between 1918 and 1939]
s. 395–408
The article captures a story of a successful Saint Petersburg jeweller Alexandr Kotler (1872–1953) son of Czech emigrants. The first part concentrates on an effort of Turnov gem traders to establish themselves on the Russian market from the 1820s to World War I and follows Kotler's circumstances in the Soviet Russia after 1917. The article analyses his extrajudicial persecutions from October 1928 to April 1933, when he was arrested by OGPU and unjustly sentenced to five years in a concentration camp. He spent the first half of his sentence in a Lubyanka custody and a special purpose camp Solovec and the second part in central Russian exile. The article comments on unsuccessful efforts of the family members and Czechoslovak diplomats to rescue him and change the sentence to expulsion from the USSR; finally, the article describes further events after Kotler's return to Czechoslovakia in 1933. The Kotler's case illustrates methods and procedures of political persecution of the so-called bourgeois specialists and certain specifics of political processes aimed against the foreigners in the first great cycle of Stalin's repressions at the break of the 1920s and 1930s.

Key words:
History, 19th and 20th century, the USSR, Stalin's repressions , Czechoslovak citizens, Alexandr Kotler