Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ročník 96
č. 3–4


Exkurs do historie Banátské vojenské hranice s přihlédnutím k vzniku českých enkláv na jejím území
[Excursion to the History of the Banat Military Frontier with Regard to the Emergence of Czech Enclaves on its Territory]
s. 243–262

The essay describes historical development and colonisation of the southern border of the Habsburg monarchy where the Banat Military Frontier was formed in the 18th century. Its creation is con-nected with significant migration which involved the Czech lands too. This fact resulted in creation of a compact Czech settlement, the main subject of this essay. The history of the Czech settlement reaches down to the mid-18th century. Many soldiers served in Banat with the newly formed Illyria-Vallachian and German-Banatian regiments formed at Mary Theresa's impulse in 1763. A further migration wave is connected with a private initiative of the timber merchant G. Maryarly. His effort to obtain capable workers for the leased forests in Banat Klisura led to the establishment of the Eli-sabethfeld (Lizabeta, Svatá Alžběta) and St. Elene (Svatá Helena) settlements in 1820. These settle-ments constituted the first villages completely populated with Czech people. Another colonising wave occurred in the following years, but it was organised by the Military Frontier administration. Colonel Michael Drasenović controlled establishment of fifteen other settlements with a high representation of the Czech ethnic minority (Gerník, Rovensko, Bígr, Eibental). Unfavourable farming conditions forced many Czech settlers to leave for fertile lowlands around the town of Bela Crkva in the 1830s. Settlers from the village of Schönthal established the village of Ablian (today Češko Selo); a secondary colonisation coming from Rumanian villages established a Czech settlement in the village of Kruščica. The final phase of the researched migration processes focuses on migration of Czech people to Bela Crkva which completes the settlement process of Banat with Czech ethnic minorities. The essay observes the origin of individual Czech enclaves. The author used local chronicles and archival documentation from the State Archive of Timişoara in Rumania and the Regional Archive of Bela Crkva as his resources.
Key words: History, Banat, Military Frontier, Settlement, Czech Minority

Miroslav ŠEPTÁK
Vybrané aspekty maďarské zahraniční politiky na počátku 30. let 20. století
[Selected Aspects of Hungarian Foreign Policy at the Beginning of the 1930s]
s. 263–282

The article introduces Hungarian diplomacy with special attention paid to Austria and Italy in the early 1930s on the basis of unpublished Czechoslovak, German and Austrian resources and published Austrian and Czechoslovak resources. The Hungarian foreign policy co-established by the Prime Minister István Bethlen desired to increase collaboration on the Rome-Vienna-Budapest axis which was to prevent isolation of the country and reinforce its revisionist requirements. There were advantageous political and economical conditions for such collaboration between the concerned nations in their desire to break the post-war status quo. The second part of the essay analyses Hungarian attitude towards the German-Austrian customs union. The standpoint of the Danube state was determined by two circumstances - attitudes of the local agrarian circles and of the most significant ally – Italy. Although the scheme may have brought a certain degree of revival at the time of catastrophic impacts of the world economical crisis, the Hungarian government assumed a wait-and-see attitude focused on acquiring political concessions. The article concludes with an analysis of Bethlen's reasons for resignation in August 1931.
Key words: History, Hungarian Foreign Policy, Revisionism, István Bethlen, Benito Mussolini, Johannes Schober, German-Austrian Customs Union

Československá angažovanost v řecké občanské válce a ve speciálních misích KS Řecka
[Czechoslovak Involvement in the Greek Civil War and Special Missions of the Communist Party of Greece]
s. 283–297

The final and most savage period of the Greek Civil War (March 1946 – August 1949) represents the first open conflict of the escalating cold war. It is questionable whether this final round of the civil war would have lasted so long or whether it would have actually started at all without a strong support from the newly emerged people's democratic states. This largely involves countries bordering on Greece, i.e. Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia until mid-1948 when a fight between Stalin and Tito broke out. Yugoslavia's withdrawal from the USSR meant a big blow for the Greek communist uprising. As a result, Moscow provoked other people's democratic states to compensate for the loss of Yugoslav support with increasing their own aid to the Greek partisans. While the Athens government was openly and regularly armed by the West Powers, i.e. first Great Britain and later the USA in 1946, the people's democratic states' aid proceeded in secret. Nevertheless, this aid, largely coordinated by the Czechoslovak communists, had a great significance for the outbreak and subsequent progress of the Greek armed communist uprising. The Czechoslovak interference with Greek matters continued even after the final defeat of the communist uprising in 1949. This involvement included training of Greek communist diversionists in Moravian Mikulovice in the critical period of 1950–1951 and participation in illegal missions of the Communist Party of Greece that were sent to the “monarch-Fascist” Greece. The Czechoslovak repressive organs played an important role in purges led by the Greek communist leaders against “unreliable elements” who were active among the 12,000 Greek immigrants that settled in Czechoslovakia after autumn 1949.
Key words: History, Greece, Greek Civil War, Communist Party of Greece, Czechoslovakia, Cold War

O chybách a zásluhách soudruha Stalina aneb Komunistická strana Francie a Chruščovův referát o kultu osobnosti a jeho důsledcích
[Comrade Stalin's Errors or else, the Communist Party of France and Khrushchev's Paper on the Personality Cult and its Implications]
s. 299–317

The article comments on the Communist Party of France (PCF) in 1956, particularly its leaders' attitude towards Khrushchev's de-Stalinisation and his "paper on the personality cult and its implications" which was read at the XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in February 1956. Initially, the essay describes the PCF General Secretary Thorez's success in maintaining a Stalinist policy even after Stalin's death in 1953. Further it concentrates on the party's election success in 1956 and its participation in the XX Conference of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. It describes familiarisation of the French delegation with Khrushchev's secret paper and analyses the official party interpretation of the XX Congress which was reflected at the XIV Congress of PCF in July 1956.  There is a comment on the role and form of Khrushchev's paper in an intraparty discussion at the time when the PCF leaders were officially denying its existence and a contrast between Thorez's and the Italian Communist Party Secretary Togliatti's attitudes. A reaction of the PCF leaders to the publication of Khrushchev's paper in a newspaper in June 1956 is described in the next chapter. The final chapter explains how the PCF officially rejected Stalinism in the 70s.
Key words: History, Communist Party of France, Maurice Thorez, XX Conference of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, De-Stalinisation

Československá krize 1968 a estonská společnost
[The Czechoslovak Crisis of 1968 and the Estonian Society]
s. 319–329

The Estonian historian M. Ilmjärv reflects on the Prague Spring and consequences of the Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia in Soviet Estonia. His study is focuses on a reform movement among Estonian students in 1968. The students' denial of the Soviet occupation resulted in an official manifestation during the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the Komsomol in Tartu and later in Tallinn in October 1968 where students carried provocative banners, shouted anti-Soviet slogans and the manifestations changed into spontaneous protests against the Soviet policy. The Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia marked an end of post-Stalin reforms, criticism and optimism. The Soviet party organs were impervious to criticism and reacted promptly with repressions against students, dissolving the Komsomol at the University of Tartu. Although it is not easy to pinpoint the real involvement of the students and obviously some Estonian students supported the Soviet official policy implicitly, the spontaneous protests showed a clear difference in reaction between Estonian and Russian students in Tartu. The occupation of Czechoslovakia affected the whole atmosphere in the Soviet society. However, the role of the protests is not to be overestimated or merely seen from a later retrospective; the author discusses the student activities within a framework of the existing crisis of Estonian and Soviet identity.
Key words: History, Prague Spring, Soviet Occupation, Reflection in Estonia, Students' Movement, Repressions by the Soviet Party Organs

Vztah Maďarska a Sovětského svazu v 80. letech 20. století
[Relationships between Hungary and the Soviet Union in the 1980s]
s. 331–366

A crisis of the Brezhnev's Soviet Union system became apparent in the late 1970s. As a result, the Soviet supervising role began to crumble in East Europe. Hungary followed the release of control with continuation of reforms and fortification of its exclusive role in forming relations between the East and the West. Changes which occurred in the late 1980s allowed creation of a democratic Hungarian state, restoration of its independence and sovereignty and engagement in European inte-grating processes. Analysis of the second half of the 1980s with respect to Hungary's position in great-power politics has raised two basic issues – how Gorbachev's policy affected South European and Hungarian transformation after the mid-1980s and how the Hungarian leaders reacted to a radical change of atmosphere and a significant expansion of foreign and domestic political space.
Key words: History, Hungary, Soviet Union, Foreign Policy, Relations


„Byla jsem svého času první docentkou, pak první profesorkou…“ Dopis Milady Paulové Haně Benešové
[“Once I was the First Female Docent, then the First Female Professor...” Milada Paulová's Letter to Hana Benešová]
s. 367–374

The paper describes a particular misogynist condition at Charles University in Prague and the circumstances in which women scientists and scholars lived and carried out research in the Czech lands before 1948. The author deals with a private letter sent by Milada Paulová to the wife of the President of the Czechoslovak Republic Hana Benešová in 1945 and documents this situation. M. Paulová defended her habilitation thesis on general history of Eastern Europe and the Balkans at Prague Philosophical Faculty in 1925 and became the first female Docent in Czechoslovakia. Ten years later, in 1935 she became the first female professor and was granted full professorship in 1945 ex post from 1939. In the published letter, Paulová demands explanation why she has not received the letter of appointment to professorship proposed in 1938–1939. In the letter she describes her own life conditions in the post-war period. Paulová explains her help to T. G. Masaryk, E. Beneš and P. Šámal and collaboration with them in the pre-war period and reminds her of the fact that she was repressed by the Gestapo during occupation because she had hidden the archives of Maffia.
Key words: Milada Paulová (1891–1970), Hana Benešová (1885–1974), Correspondence

Dva příspěvky ke složení a významu sbírky periodik ruské a ukrajinské meziválečné emigrace, uložené v pražské Slovanské knihovně – redakční poznámka
[Two Articles on a Composition and Significance of a Collection of Periodicals Published by Russian and Ukrainian Interwar Expatriates Deposited in the Prague Slavonic Library – Editorial Note]
s. 375–376

Nezapomeňte na nás (Periodika ruské emigrace vydávaná v Číně ve fondu pražské Slovanské knihovny)
[Don't Forget Us (Russian Expatriates' Periodicals Published in China Deposited in the Prague Slavonic Library)]
s. 377–387

The essay approaches the topic from several viewpoints. It concentrates on the lives and activities of Russian expatriates who lived in China between 1918 and 1945 and, in particular, on their editorial and publishing activity. It introduces publishing of the local periodicals through a collection of periodicals published by Russian and Ukrainian expatriates which is deposited in the Prague Slavonic Library (Part of the National Library of the Czech Republic). The Russian community in China represented one of the world's leading centres of Russian emigration. This fact corresponded with the amount and thematic extent of the published periodicals – about 135 newspapers and 300 ma-gazines were published in the interwar period ranging from large scale, long-lasting dailies through shot-lived magazines published irregularly in small amounts up to the so-called ephemeris – i.e. occasionally published issues in single publications. The collection has been preserved in the Prague Slavonic Library in a complete thematic volume and largely in complete issues published by the Russian expatriates in China. It was originally created by the Russian Foreign Historical Ar¬chive in Prague, but it was taken over by the Slavonic Library after its liquidation in 1945. Chinese themes form only one part of the large collection which was published in the interwar period around the world by Russian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian expatriates and which is now deposited in the Slavonic Library. The entire collection was registered in UNESCO's “World Memory” in 2007.
Key words: History, Russian Expatriates IN China (1918–1945), Publishing Activity, Slavonic Library in Prague, Russian Foreign Historical Archive

Ukrajinská emigrantská periodika ve fondech pražské Slovanské knihovny a jejich význam pro studium dějin ukrajinské diaspory v USA
[Ukrainian Expatriates' Periodicals Deposited in the Prague Slavonic Library and their Significance for Research into the History of the Ukrainian Diaspora in the USA]
s. 389–400

The essay demonstrates the significance of periodicals (mainly newspapers) for historical research. Although it represents a frequently ignored resource, it serves as a truly basic source of information in many cases. One of the topics covers research into Ukrainian immigration in the USA. Research into periodicals published by Ukrainian expatriates in the USA (mostly in the interwar period) demonstrates the composition and ideological focus of the community and problems of its everyday life. Description of individual issues allows definition of the publishing activity within the Ukrainian diaspora in the USA and its obstructions. The essay is particularly dedicated to periodicals published in the interwar period which are deposited in the Prague Slavonic Library. This internationally unique collection was originally collected by the Russian Foreign Historical Archive in Prague, but it was taken over by the Slavonic Library after its liquidation in 1945. The subject of this essay forms only one part of the large collection which was published in the interwar period around the world by Russian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian expatriates and which is now deposited in the Slavonic Library. The entire collection was registered in UNESCO's “World Memory” in 2007. The essay demonstrates the outstanding significance of the collection on examples of concrete issues deposited in the Slavonic Library (many of the issues are not available in any American library) and it analyses their contents. Simultaneously, it sums up the composition of the preserved collection and hints at world rarities in an accompanying catalogue.
Key words: History, Ukrainian Expatriates in the USA (1918–1945), Publishing Activity, Slavonic Library IN Prague, Russian Foreign Historical Archive, Methodology of Historical Science


O istoriografiji i metodologiji
(Lenka Blechová)
s. 401–404

Střední Evropa od vídeňského kongresu po evropskou integraci
Catherine HOREL, Cette Europe qu´on dit centrale. Des Habsbourg à l´intégration européenne 1815–2004
(František Šístek)
s. 404–407

Europe, Nationalism, Communism. Essays on Poland
(Pavol Jakubec)
s. 408–411

Dva ukrajinské epochálne romány
Артем СОКIЛ, Аглая. Микола ХВИЛЬОВИЙ, Вальдшнепи
(Mikuláš Nevrlý)
s. 411–413)

Triplex Confinium: tolerance a netolerance mezi Jadranem a Dunajem v letech 1500–1800
Egidio IVETIC – Drago ROKSANDIĆ (eds.), Tolerance and Intolerance on the Triplex Confinium. Approaching the “Other“ on the Borderlands: Eastern Adriatic and Beyond, 1500–1800
(František Šístek)
s. 413–418)

Żydzi w drodze do Palestyny 1934–1944. Szkice z dziejów aliji bet nielegalnej imigracji żydowskiej
(Mečislav Borák)
s. 419–421

Svérázný úvod do studia dějepisu v ruském podání
Viktor A. BERDINSKICH, Remeslo istorika v Rossii
(Josef Šaur)
s. 421–422

Hrdí orli ve smrtelném obklíčení. Polské stereotypizované vidění moderního světa
(Ivo Baran)
s. 423–425

Ladislav HLADKÝ
(Aleš Kozár)
s. 425–428

Jaroslav SVÁTEK, Martin NEJEDLÝ, Olivier MARIN, Pavel SOUKUP (eds.)
Guillebert de LANNOY, Cesty a poselstva
(Dana Picková)
s. 428–431)

Między Habsburgami a Hohenzollernami. Rywalizacja niemiecko-austro-węgierska w okresie I wojny światowej a odbudowa państwa polskiego
(Petr Prokš)
s. 431–433

Nová polská práce o „východní“ politice Edvarda Beneše v závěrečné fázi druhé světové války:
Marek Kazimierz KAMIŃSKI, Edvard Beneš we współpracy z Kremlem. Polityka zagraniczna władz czechoslowackich na emigracji 1943–1945
(Jindřich Dejmek)
s. 434–444

Odpověď na recenzi I. Dorovského
(O česko-slovensko-makedonských kulturních stycích, Slovanský přehled, 2010, č. 1–2, s. 173–182)
(Novica Veljanovski)
s. 444–449


Prof. PhDr. Vladimír Nálevka, CSc. (*21. 2. 1941 – †6. 6. 2010)
s. 451–452

Luboš ŠVEC
Zemřel historik renesančního záběru: Hans Lemberg (*28. 4. 1933 – †3. 12. 2009)
s. 452–454

Konference „Zrod nové Evropy“. Versailles, St. Germain, Trianon a dotváření poválečného mírového systému
s. 454–456


Zbyněk VYDRA
V zajetí temných sil. Nikolaj Markov, antisemitismus a ruská radikální pravice
[Captured by Dark Forces Nikolaj Markov, Anti-Semitism and the Russian Radical Rightists]
s. 457–472

Nikolaj Markov (1866–1945) was one of the leading figures of the Russian radical rightists. He ca-me from a noble family in the Kursk governorate. During the revolution (1905–1906) he became in-volved in politics and, after 1906, he became a member of the Association of the Russian People, the strongest ultra-right wing party in Russia. The party openly publicised anti-Semitism, demanded rigorous restriction of the Jews' civil rights and, de facto struggled to move the Jews from Russia. Markov, as a member of the State Duma (1907–1917) continuously pursued an anti-Semitist policy and was one of its leading propagators. He considered the Jews the chief source of political, eco-nomical and social problems in Russia, developed anti-Semitist theories and stereotypes about “Jews – revolutionists” and “Jewish world conspiracy”. The Association of the Russian People was banned after the February revolution in 1917; Markov retired and immigrated to Germany during the civil war. He participated in organisation of the Russian monarchists in Bad Reichenhall (1921) where he was elected chairman of the Supreme Monarchist Counsel. However, he did not manage to unify the monarchist émigrés. A section of the Russian ultra-rightist expatiates in Germany inclu-ding Markov actively collaborated with the Nazis. The Bad Reichenhall congress was sponsored by NSDAP and the Aufbau organization led by Max Scheubner-Richter, Hitler's close collaborator. Their main connecting link was anti-Semitism. The Russian expatiates including Markov brought the motif of “Jew-Bolshevism” into the Nazi anti-Semitism; the pamphlet Protocols of Zion Wise Men had a great effect. Markov introduced his philosophy based on activities of “dark Jew-Masonic powers” in his book Vojny temnych sil. He interpreted the Russian revolution as a component and outcome of a “Jewish conspiracy” in his work Istorija jevrejskogo šturma Rossii. He epitomised continuity of the Russian radical right wing policy and its anti-Semitist thinking..
Key words: History, Russia, 20th Century, Anti-Semitism, Emigration, Nikolaj Markov