Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

SLOVANSKÝ PŘEHLED
2009
ročník XCV
č. 4
s. 425-560


ČLÁNKY


Lubomíra HAVLÍKOVÁ
Ach, ta naše povaha byzantská aneb malé zamyšlení nad pojmem „byzantinismus“
[Oh, that Byzantine Nature of ours; a Small Reflection on the Term Byzantinism]
s. 425–432

The article deals with explication of the term Byzantinism from its origins to the contemporary days. The author analyses this term and its reflection in foreign (i.e. French, English and German) and Czech scholastic literature, especially in philosophical works and historiography from the mid-18th until the 20th century. On this basis, she focuses on explication of negative connotations of the term Byzantinism, bringing forth new aspects. She concludes that from the historical point of view, its negative connotation is not well-founded in political and journalistic speech.
Key words: Byzantine studies, Byzantinism


Andrej TÓTH
„Peidlovo intermezzo“ – zmařený pokus o návrat k lidové republice po 133 dnech vlády maďarské socialisticko-komunistické vlády Sándora Garbaiho (srpen 1919)
[„Peidl’s Intermezzo“ – a Thwarted Attempt to Revert to the People’s Republic after 133 Days of Sándor Garbai’s Hungarian Socialist-Communist Government (August 1919)]
s. 433–470

The study comments on internal policy of the monochromatic social-democratic Trade Union Cabinet of Gyula Peidl, which was in power for a mere six days, from the 1st to the 6th August 1919. It maps principles of legislative steps performed by the third standard post-war Budapest civil cabinet. It elaborates on the nature of the regime’s transformation and examines the likelihood of Hungary ruled by Gyula Peidl and right-wing centric social democrats, who were “discredited” by their participation in the Hungarian Soviet Republic, to reassume Károlyi’s era and restore a civil democratic society in line with a political course of the “chrysanthemum” republic.  Legislative steps taken by Gyula’s government document that alteration of the Bolshevik regime performed by the centrist right-wing social democrats truly restored fundamentals of civil democratic principles founded by Károlyi’s people’s republic and pursued the pre-31st March 1919 period. In August 1919, however, Hungary was unable to accomplish permanent restoration of civil democratic principles based on western democracies.
Key words: Gyula Peidl, Trade Union Government, internal policy, decrees of the government


Bohuslav LITERA
K obratu v zahraniční politice Sovětského svazu a Kominterny na počátku 30. let
[Turning Point in Foreign Policy of the Soviet Union and the Comintern in the Early 30’s]
s. 471–482

The study analyses circumstances, conditions and progress of radical reappraisal of the Soviet Union’s foreign policy at the end of 1933 and its connections with no-less dramatic change of the Communist International’s (CI) policy two years later. Transformation of the Comintern’s policy, which resulted in creation of people’s fronts, is connected with J. Dimitrov. Dimitrov was rescued from a German prison by J. V. Stalin, who put him in charge of the Communist International and discussed all issues concerning changes of the Comintern’s policy with him. These changes are documented in decrees issued by top CI’s organs, which regard the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia between 1933 and 1935.
Key words: the Soviet Union, Comintern, Stalin, Dimitrov


MATERIÁLY A DOKUMENTY


Jiří FRIEDL
Dva dokumenty k otázce prodloužení dvouleté lhůty dodatkového protokolu československo-polské smlouvy z roku 1947
[Two Documents Regarding Prolongation of the Two-Year Additional Protocol of the 1947 Poland-Czechoslovakia Treaty]
s. 483–489

An additional protocol was added to the 1947 Poland-Czechoslovakia Treaty in which both parties pledged to resolve mutual territorial disputes and provide the Polish people living in Czechoslovakia and the Czechs and Slovaks living in Poland reciprocal minority rights within two years. Poland proposed further prolongation of the additional protocol several months before expiration of the term. Initially, the Czechoslovak party did not favour this change, but finally it agreed with secret prolongation of the protocol. This was achieved by exchange of letters between foreign ministers; both letters were to remain unpublished. The author briefly introduces the researched issue and adds two hitherto unknown documents, which bring further information on the Czechoslovak reaction to the Polish proposal regarding prolongation of the additional protocol and presents copy of the secret letter with which the Czechoslovak government was acquainted at a cabinet meeting.
Key words: Czechoslovakia, Poland, relations, treaty of alliance


Ferdinand VRÁBEL
Medzi dvoma ohňami. K protižidovským pogromom na západnom Slovensku v závere roku 1918
[Between Two Fires; Anti-Jewish Pogroms in Western Slovakia at the End of 1918]
s. 491–499

Based on documents of the Club of Slovak MPs within the Revolutionary National Assembly in Prague, the article gives information on events in western Slovakia (Holíč, Senica, Nové Mesto nad Váhom, Chynorany and other locations) in November – December 1918. At that time, Jewish homes and shops were pillaged and the Jews were assaulted as a result of disintegration of the Hungarian state administration, subsequent chaos and lack of authorities and peace forces on this territory. Not only demoralised soldiers returning from war fronts, but also the local population took part in the pogroms. This turmoil, which often resulted in crime, was caused by efforts to get rich and procure food, and by anti-Semitist sentiments spurred by suspicion that the Jews favoured the Hungarians and the old regime. 
Key words: Czechoslovakia, Slovakia (Western), Jews, 1918, pogroms, anti-Semitism


Michal REIMAN – Bohuslav LITERA
Od revoluce a občanské války ke statutu velmoci. Hlavní trendy vývoje Ruska a Sovětského svazu v první polovině 20. století (teze k diskusi)
[From Revolution and Civil War to the Status of a Great Power; Main Trends of Russia and the Soviet Union in the First Half of the 20th Century (Thesis for Discussion)]
s. 501–513

The study analyses main evolutionary tendencies in Russia in the first half of the 20th century, their significance in modernisation of the country and Russia’s transformation into a great power. It pays particular attention to political and social-economical expansion and puts it in a broad context of Soviet Union’s advancement and international situation.
Key words: Soviet Russia, Soviet Union, Stalinism


RECENZE, POZNÁMKY, ZPRÁVY


Britský diskurz o vzniku Jugoslávie: debaty, koncepce, stereotypy
(František Šístek)
s. 515–542

Filip TESAŘ
Etnické konflikty
(Milan Letoch)
s. 522–523

Robert KVAČEK
Dva diktátorovy pády
(Miroslav Kryl)
s. 523–525

Володимир СТАДНИЧЕНКО
Зелений дзвiн
(Mikuláš Nevrlý)
s. 526–527

Když dva dělají totéž, není to totéž…
(Lubomíra Havlíková)
s. 527–531

Zrádce či zachránce
(Roman Baron)
s. 531–534

Николай МИТРОХИН
Русская православная церковь: современное состояние и актуальные проблемы
(Nina Cingerová)
s. 534–536

Thomas BREMER
Kreuz und Kreml. Kleine Geschichte der orthodoxen Kirche in Russland
(Nina Cingerová)
s. 537–539

Jiří PODLIPNÝ – Jiří SIROTEK
Jaroslav Krátký
(Projekt Neznámí hrdinové – Pohnuté osudy)

(Zlatica Zudová-Lešková)
s. 539–541


KRONIKA


Jiří FRIEDL
Vědecký seminář v Malé Skále – „Neznámá“ druhá republika
s. 542–543

Miroslav TEJCHMAN
Mezinárodní konference o územním revizionismu
s. 543–544


LIDÉ A DOBA


Libor MARTINEK
Nad paměťmi Henryka Jasiczka. Příspěvek k osobní a skupinové identitě polských obyvatel na českém Těšínsku
[Memoirs of Henryk Jasiczek. Contribution to social identity and self-identity in the county of Czech Těšín Silesia]
s. 545–559

The article combined lexicographic and hermeneutic approaches; socio-cultural and semiotics-cultural interpretations and classical historicizing methods based on a biographical method. The subject of the author’s reflection is a social identity in Silesian Těšín (after 1920 Czech Těšín), namely the shaping of this identity about a writter Henryk Jasiczek. The author has shown that in the times of the social identity and self-identity formation, connected with national and ethnical aspects of culture, the identity of Silesian Těšín writers had an enormous impact on that of the Těšín Silesians.
Key words: memoirs, Henryk Jasiczek, social identity, self-identity, Silesian Těšín