Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.


SLOVANSKÝ PŘEHLED
2008
ročník XCIV
č. 3




ČLÁNKY



Andrej TÓTH
Otázka personálního zajištění podpisu Trianonské mírové smlouvy se spojeneckými a přidruženými mocnostmi na schůzích maďarské ministerské rady (květen 1920) [Personal Safeguarding of Signing the Treaty of Trianon with the Allied and Associated Powers at Meetings of the Hungarian Cabinet Council (May 1920)]
s. 329–356

The Hungarian government discussed the personal safeguarding of the Treaty at its meetings on 27th, 28th and 31st May 1920. Negotiations regarding personal involvement of the Hungarian government, which was entrusted with signing the Treaty, was not an easy undertaking due to a negative perception of the peace issue (or rather the creation of the Versailles mandate system) by the Hungarian society. It personified an unacceptable territorial establishment under the piece convention. Nevertheless, discussions of the Simonyi-Semadam’s government proved that signing the Treaty by the Hungarian government was not attached to Budapest’s prestige. Signing the peace Treaty by the “mere” Labour Minister, Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary was not designed to politically declare the negative standpoint of Hungary towards the Treaty. Signing the peace Treaty was regarded by respective ministers as a matter of purely personal and carrier prestige.


Miroslav ŠEPTÁK
Julius Curtius a německo-rakouská celní unie v roce 1931
[Julius Curtius and the German-Austrian Customs Union in 1931]
s. 357–371

The essay analyses the attitude of Julius Curtius, the German Foreign Minister, towards the 1931 German-Austrian Customs Union. It is based on hitherto unpublished Czech and German materials, Austrian and German published materials and selected memoirs. Julius Curtius wanted to follow up with the success of his predecessor Gustav Stresemann, although he realised that he would stir up resistance in France and Czechoslovakia. He took advantage of a bad economical situation in both countries and presented his scheme as the start of a new economical setup based on regional agreements. After an indiscretion in international press and diplomatic circuits, French and Czechoslovak politicians organised a counter-measure. Austria’s economical troubles proved decisive for the ensuing developments. Efflux of capital and withdrawals from short-term credits by foreign creditors caused a downfall of the largest Austrian bank, the Wiener Creditanstalt. Since Germany was unable to assist Austria, the Viennese government asked the League of Nations for an international financial credit. Thus the German-Austrian Customs Union was destined to failure and Julius Curtius had to resign.


Eva IRMANOVÁ
Místo Maďarska v politických plánech velmocí na poválečné uspořádání střední a jihovýchodní Evropy, II
[Hungary’ Position in the World Powers’ Political Schemes for the Post-War Arrangement of Central and South-East Europe, II]
s. 373–405

The Prague peace treaty (summer and autumn 1946) finally determined the Trianon boundaries, but it did not untangle the issue of the Hungarian minority in Czechoslovakia. The world powers voiced their different opinions on the restoration of small Central and East European countries and the introduction of democratic governments at discussions regarding economical and military establishment and reparations.The gradual disintegration of anti-Fascist coalition and the growing tension between the Soviet Union and the Western allies affected the political situation in Hungary and dissolved Hungarian democracy. After signing peace treaties, the number one target for the Soviet leadership was to use countries occupied by the Soviet Army as a defence zone and transform them into a homogenous Socialist bloc by means of Sovietisation.


Luboš ŠVEC
Personální kulturní autonomie v Estonsku a podmínky její aplikace
[Personal Cultural Autonomy in Estonia and Conditions for its Application]
s. 407–418

The author deals with different applications of personal cultural autonomy. Taking Estonia as a main model application, the author compares inter-warconditionswith the situationafter restauration of the independence in 1991. He analysesconditions for realisation of territorial and personal autonomy.The principle of the personal cultural autonomycan be used in the case of small dispersed national minorities but cannot satisfy nations or big national minorities living on a compact area.The conception of austromarxists O. Bauer and K. Renner inspired Estonian progressivesolution of theminority question in 1925. Thelaw on personal cultural autonomy was renewed in 1993 but, on contrary to the interwar situation, it did not satisfy and stabilize minority question because ofthe opposition of Russian minority, which rejected to accept it because of changed situation as the question of citizenship became a main problem for ethnic stability.


Emil SOULEIMANOV
Geneze etnopolitických konfliktů v jižní Osetii a Abcházii (90. léta)
[Genesis of Ethno-Political Conflicts in South Ossetia and Abkhazia (the 1990’s)]
s. 419–440

With regard to a “cold war”, which governed Russian – Georgian relations, this study analyses initial phases of ethno-political conflicts between Tbilisi and the separatist republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, which received increasing support from Moscow provoked by the acute Russian – Georgian conflict. The essay opens with an analysis of the interior political development in Georgia in the late 80’s. It shows that many events of the late Soviet period, which occurred between the Soviet headquarters and the Georgian periphery, significantly affected the character of Georgian policy towards separatist regions. Next, the essay analyses the outset of two ethno-political conflicts, which occurred within the brief existence of the Democratic Republic of Georgia (1919–1921). Attention is paid to antagonistic ethno-historiographic narratives of the Georgians, South Ossetians and Abkhazians, which formed an ideological foundation for separatists and the Georgian party. The article then concentrates on the escalation of conflicts, i.e. when sporadic exchanges of fire between local armed squads erupted into active conventional fighting (from the late 80’s to the early 90’s). Special attention is paid to Moscow’s piece initiatives between 1992 and 1994.


MATERIÁLY A DOKUMENTY

Emil VORÁČEK
Historiografický výzkum komunistického hnutí v Československu v letech 1918–1948. K výsledkům bádání v České republice a zahraničí v období po listopadu 1989
[Historiographical Research of the 1918–1948 Czechoslovak Communist Movement; Out¬comes of Research Organised in the Czech Republic and Abroad after November 1989]
s. 441–465

The study provides a systematic and detailed assessment of research into the mentioned issue. The research initially experienced a deep decline in the post-November period, which was followed by a hesitant revival with certain specificity. The author performed complete quantitative and qualitative analyses of existing outputs. In the second part, he concentrated on analyses of particular topics. He compared them with foreign production and contemplated on gaps in the research and finding needy, but not yet elaborated topics. He summed up not only outcomes of scholarly studies, articles and publications, but also commented on editorial activity and documents from Czech and relevant foreign, particularly Russian, archives.


RECENZE, POZNÁMKY, ZPRÁVY


Ulf BRUNNBAUER (ed.)
(Re)Writing History. Historiography in Southeast Europe after Socialism
(Tereza Fantlová)
s. 467–470

Peter ŠVORC
Zakletá zem: Podkarpatská Rus 1918–1946
(Pavla Porcalová)
s. 470–472

S. VOLKOV
Svědectví. Paměti Dmitrije Šostakoviče
(Terezie Holmerová)
s. 472–474

Jan HOLZER – Stanislav BALÍK
Postkomunistické nedemokratické režimy: Studie k proměnám politické teorie v posttranzitivním čase
(Petr Krpec)
s. 474–476

Radmila RADIĆ
Život u vremenima: Gavrilo Dožić (1881–1950)
(Mihad Mujanović)
s. 476–479

Islám pro Rusko
(Darima Batorová)
s. 479–481

Б. ДОРОШЕНКО-ТОВМАЦЬКИЙ
Симон Петюра. Життя i дiяльнiсть
(Mikuláš Nevrlý)
s. 481–482

Martin LACKO (ed.)
Proti Poľsku. Odraz ťaženia roku 1939 v denníkoch a kronikách slovenskej armády
(Jiří Friedl)
s. 482–483


KRONIKA


Marta HRABÁKOVÁ
Konference „Život plný střetů“
[The Conference „The Life Full of Conflicts“]
s. 489

Ladislav HLADKÝ
Historické kolokvium o Bosně a Hercegovině v Ústí nad Labem
[The Historical Colloquy on Bosnia and Herzegovina in Ústí nad Labem]

s. 489–490


LIDÉ A DOBA


Marceli KOSMAN
Badatel o minulosti – Magister vitae (K 80. narozeninám Janusze Tazbira)
[Historical Researcher – Magister Vitae; to Janusz Tazbir’s 80th Birthday]
s. 491–503

Janusz Tazbir, an outstanding researcher on the history of the Polish culture (i.e. 16th and 17th century religious issues in particular) has adhered to the Historical Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences almost all his career. He has become extremely popular among readers, which is not a very typical feature among researchers. The following is his professional curriculum: magister 1950, doctor 1954, docent 1960, associate professor 1966, full professor 1973, associate (1983) and full 1989) member of the Polish Academy of Sciences; chairman of the Union of Social Sciences (1992–1998), vice-chairman of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw (1999–2003), associated member of the Polish Academy of Sciences and Arts in Krakow (2004), PEN Club and the Warsaw Scientific Institute; chairman of the Central Committee for Granting Academic Titles and Degrees (1997–2006); editor of the “Odrodzenie i Reformacja w Polsce” (for more than half a century). Currently, he is holding a position among leading researchers of the older generation, who pursued their branch of research in agreement with reality. They adhered to the Latin saying that history is the teacher of life.