Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

 

SLOVANSKÝ PŘEHLED
2008
ročník XCIV
č. 2



ČLÁNKY

Petr STEHLÍK
Česko-chorvatské vztahy od středověku do současnosti
[Czech-Croatian Relations Since the Middle Ages to the Present Day]
s. 169–187

The author’s intention is to present a compendious overview of the Czech-Croatian political, cultural and economic relations, which have a centuries-old tradition starting at the dawn of the Slavonic culture in the ninth century. A mutual interaction between Czech and Croatian people had been particularly bountiful and intensive during the last few decades of the Czech-Croatian coexistence in a common state – the Hapsburg monarchy. The relations took on a new course after the establishment of independent Czech and Croatian states at the beginning of the 1990s and they have been advancing since. The author strives to render an account of all significant chapters of a history of the Czech-Croatian contacts and cooperation. The article is written in a concise form and it is footnoted with a relevant literature published in Czech and Croatian languages. Therefore, it could serve as a handy introduction to the study of the Czech-Croatian relations, particularly useful for young students of the South Slavonic history and philology.


Dalibor VÁCHA
Problematika, struktura a mechanismus zásobování československých legionářů v Rusku 1918–1920
[The Problems, Structure and Mechanism of Providing Czechoslovak Legionnaires in Russia With Provisions in 1918–1920]
s. 189–208

The essay comments on the messing of Czechoslovak legionaries in Russia between 1918 and 1920 from several points of view. Except for outlining the mechanism of supplies, space is given to the legionaries’ attitudes to the mess. It shows the elaborate complex of gastronomic experience, which the volunteers acquired in Russia and on their way home at world seas and oceans. The most important resources come from diaries, contemporary documents and from legionaries’ own autobiographies.


Jindřich DEJMEK
Polské ultimátum Litvě v březnu 1938: mezinárodní aspekty zapomenuté krize předválečné Evropy
[The Polish Ultimatum to Lithuania in March 1938: International Aspects of Pre-War Europe’s Forgotten Crisis]

s. 209–220

At the end of 1938, an international crisis, which is even now eclipsed by political echoes of Nazi “Anschluss”, occurred in North-East Europe. The Polish governmental circles took advantage of the fact that European attention was focused on Central European matters and forced the Lithuanian government to restore diplomatic relations. From 1920, there were no official relations between Warsaw and Kaunas, because the Lithuanian government had refused to recognize annexation of the Vilnius region by the Rzeczypospolita. As a result of killing a Polish border guard, the Warsaw government demanded in an ultimatum that the Kaunas government should recognise a Polish diplomat (and send a diplomat to Poland), thus effectively acknowledge the status quo. The Lithuanian anti-Polish nationalistic regime hesitated, fathoming the great powers’ and the Baltic Treaty allies’ reaction to an eventual Polish scheme. Most parties recommended accepting the Polish requirements. The Czech Foreign Minister gave the Lithuanian ambassador the same advice. The post-war research of captured German documents revealed that Hitler intended to use a potential Polish-Lithuanian military clash for the annexation of Klajpeda (Memel), i.e. a step, which Germany took one year later, in March 1939.


Borut KLABJAN
Hospodářský význam Terstu pro Československo po druhé světové válce
[Economical Significance of Trieste for Czechoslovakia Following World War II]
s. 221–230

In the essay, the author explains economical collaboration between Trieste, which became a complicated international issue from the first post-war days, and the Czechoslovak Republic. The analysis reaches deeper, into the time when Trieste held (as early as Austria-Hungary) a significant position within the Czech society, mainly in economy. After World War I and the subsequent loss of natural grounds, the situation changed, but collaboration between the Italian Trieste and the First Republic continued. A detailed analysis, however, starts in 1945, when, after the war, Trieste became a symbol of cold war. In this distinctive Italian-Yugoslavian dispute, Czechoslovakia sided with Yugoslavia. Support arrived not only from the media, but from political diplomatic sides, too. However, the Western Allies, who administrated the newly established Free Trieste territory, decided to use the city port for their own purposes.


Eva IRMANOVÁ
Místo Maďarska v politických plánech velmocí na poválečné uspořádání střední a jihovýchodní Evropy, I.
[The Place of Hungary in the Political Plans of Big Powers Concerning the Post-War Arrangement of Central and South-Eastern Europe, Part I]
s. 231–267

In the course of World War II, the three great powers, i.e. the United States of America, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, had a clear picture about the new world arrangement in both general and particular terms. The American conception was based on three aspects: forming a vital alliance of this space based on federation or confederation principles, minimisation of nationalistic antagonism by means of synchronising language and political barriers, or replacing the population and substituting dictator and authoritative interwar regimes by democratic systems. The future of Transylvania was regarded the most complicated issue, exceeding the significance of the entire region. Unlike the American and British post-war Central and South-East European concepts, the Soviet standpoint posed expansive strategic plans of a power, which considered this space a subject of its immediate strategic and security interest. Concerning the Hungarian border, the Soviet leaders struggled to restore the Trianon border, which was justified by Hungary’s participation in the war.


MATERIÁLY A DOKUMENTY

Jiří FRIEDL
Obranné zpravodajství československé armády a československo-polské vztahy v roce 1946 [The Counter-Intelligence of the Czechoslovak Army and the Czechoslovak-Polish Contacts in 1946]
s. 269–280

The essay introduces a document written by the Czechoslovak army counter-intelligence. It concerns the poor condition of Czechoslovak-Polish relations in spring 1946 and criticises the conduct of particular Czechoslovak policymakers. It draws attention to the goodwill of Polish high political circles to reach agreement with Czechoslovakia. Enclosed, there is a document compiled by the Office of the Prime, which argues with the conclusions of the counter-intelligence. The two documents pose not only an important source of information on the condition of Czechoslovak-Polish relations, but also reflect the growing intensity of interior political hassle in contemporary Czechoslovakia. The essay is appended with an introductory study commenting on Czechoslovak-Polish relations in 1946.



RECENZE, POZNÁMKY, ZPRÁVY

Kniha o diplomacii „lublinského“ Polska
(Materski Wojciech: Dyplomacja Polski „lubelskiej“. Lipiec 1944 – marzec 1947)
(Jiří Friedl)
s. 281–287

Architekt Karel Pařík (1857–1942): Čech, který stavěl evropské Sarajevo
(Kuděla Jiří – Dimitrijević Branka – Vacík Ivo: Arhitekt Karel Pařík: Čeh koji je gradio evropsko Sarajevo / Architekt Karel Pařík: Čech, který stavěl evropské Sarajevo/ Architect Karel Pařík: a Czech who built the European Sarajevo)
(František Šístek)
s. 287–289

Čechoslovački diplomatski dokumenty za Makedonija 1934–1939. Kniga 2.
Izbor i redakcija Novica Veljanovski – Jan Rychlík
(Jana Burešová)
s. 290–291

Svět historie – Historikův svět. Sborník profesoru Robertu Kvačkovi.
Redakční práce Milan Svoboda, přiložené DVD s rozhovory s Robertem Kvačkem připravili Kateřina Kočová-Lozoviuková a Jaroslav Rokoský
(Miroslav Kryl)
s. 291–293

České a slovenské vplyvy na kultúrny vývoj Srbska koncom 19. storočia
(Iva Paštrnáková)
s. 294–298


KRONIKA

Ladislav HLADKÝ
Životní jubileum Miroslava Tejchmana [M. Tejchman]
s. 306–309

Miroslav ŠEPTÁK
Hospodářské dějiny v České republice na počátku 21. století
[The Economic History in the Czech Repubic at the Beginning of the XXI Century]
s. 309–312

Tomáš CHROBÁK
Reflexe dějin Československa 1918-1948 v historiografii na počátku 3. tisíciletí
[The Reflection of the History of Czechoslovakia 1918–1938 in Historiography at the Beginning of the Third Millennium]
s. 312–316


LIDÉ A DOBA

Lubomíra HAVLÍKOVÁ
Literární topos nebo historická realita? (K úloze literárních topoi v historiografii) [Literary Topos, or Historical Reality? (The Role of Literary Topoi in Historiography)]
s. 317–327

Based on an analysis of the so-called topoi (loci communes) in the Latin milieu (meaning “pagans sitting on the ground while eating”) and Byzantine milieu (meaning “drinking from the skull-goblet of a defeated enemy”), not all topoi should be regarded a mere literary constant, as the literary scholarship declares with regard to Curtius’ definition. It is necessary to distinguish between really constant characteristics of the topos, i.e. a mere literary function (“literary topos”) and reality, where the topos firstly records true historical reality and secondly, when this reality is used in a different historical context in order to outline a different, new historical reality, thus being the current time testimony – in both cases, the topos is a historical resource (i.e. "Historical topos").