Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

MODERNÍ DĚJINY
roč. 26, 2018, č. 1



OBSAH • CONTENT


STUDIE • STUDIES

Pavel KLADIWA
The Transformation and Social Activation of Rural Areas. The Bohemian Lands in 1861–1914. (A Preliminary outline of the issue)
[The Transformation and Social Activation of Rural Areas. The Bohemian Lands in 1861–1914. (A Preliminary outline of the issue)]
s. 1–29

Patrik VEDRAL
Gender a náboženství v meziválečném Československu (1918–1938)
[Gender and religion in interwar Czechoslovakia (1918–1938)]
s. 31–43

Markéta SKOŘEPOVÁ
Propagace Katolicismu ve 20. století prostřednictvím prvků lidové zbožnosti. Komunikační prostředky pastorace děkana Jana Paulyho
[Promotion of Catholicism in the 20th Century through popular piety. Dean Jan Pauly’s means of pastoral communication]
s. 45–60

Martin PELC
Národní stadion. Polemiky o ústředním sportovišti Československa v letech 1918–1938
[National Stadium. Controversy over Czechoslovakia’s central sports stadium, (1918–1938)]
s. 67–90

Jaroslav VALKOUN – Eva FISCHEROVÁ
Britsko-dominiální vztahy, imperiální preference a imperiální ekonomická konference v Ottawě v roce 1932
[British-Dominion Relations, Imperial Preference and the British Empire Economic Conference in Ottawa of 1932]
s. 91–109

Jan HERMAN
Baťa, Židé a Steinův seznam (1938–1939)
[Baťa, Jews and Stein’s List (1938–1939)]
s. 111–134

Alena BUBELOVÁ – Petra ZABILANSKÁ
Český skauting za druhé světové války. Podle deníků Jarmila Burghausera
[Czech Scouting during the Second World War. The diaries of Jarmil Burghauser]
s. 135–161

Anna BLATECKÁ
Vedoucí představitelé nacistické trestnice Mírov v letech okupace (1938–1945)
[Top Officials of Mírov Nazi Prison during the Occupation (1938–1945)]
s. 163–181

Vojtěch ČEŠÍK
Kriminální komisař Richard Heidan (1893–1947). Životní osudy posledního vedoucího gestapa v Olomouci
[Criminal Commissioner Richard Heidan (1893–1947). The life story of the last head of the Gestapo in Olomouc]
s. 183–203

Lukáš BLAŽEK – Daniela NĚMEČKOVÁ
Analýza revize retribuce v roce 1948 s využitím statistických metod
[Analysis of the revision of retribution in 1948 using statistical methods]
s. 205–235

Miroslav ŠEPTÁK
Novinářská organizace v počáteční fázi reformního procesu (leden – březen 1968)
[Union of Journalists during the initial phase of the reform process (January – March 1968)]
s. 237–252


MATERIÁLY • MATERIALS

Jindřich DEJMEK
Málo známý list ze „západní“ politiky Pražského jara.
Schůzka ministrů zahraničí Jířího Hájka a Kurta Waldheima v Bratislavě
dne 21. června 1968
[Little known document on Prague Spring’s “Western” policy.
Meeting between Foreign Ministers Jiří Hájek and Kurt Waldheim in Bratislava on 21 June 1968]
s. 253–275


KRONIKA • CHRONICLES

Pracovní seminář o komunistickém převratu v únoru 1948
(Daniela Němečková)
s. 277–278


RECENZE • REVIEWS

József DEMMEL, Ľudovít Štúr. Zrod moderného slovenského národa v 19. storočí, Bratislava, Kalligram 2015, z maď. orig. A szlovák nemzet születése. Ľudovít Štúr és a szlovák társadalom a 19. századi Magyarországon, Kalligram 2011, překl. Galina Šándorová, 368 s. , doslov Rudolf Chmel. ISBN 978-80-8101-879-4.
(Dalibor Státník)
s. 279–282

Tereza KOVAŘÍKOVÁ – Pavel MAREK – Ivan PUŠ, Starostové, vůdcové, nebo služebníci? Role starosty v samosprávě na příkladech Olomouce, Prostějova a Zlína na přelomu 19. a 20. století, Olomouc, Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci 2016, 254 s. ISBN 978-80-244-5070-4
(Vojtěch Kessler)
s. 282–284

Gustav NOVOTNÝ, Tři lesní inženýři. Josef Opletal, Karel Šiman a Gustav Artner, Praha, Historický ústav  2015, 592 s. (Práce Historického ústavu AV ČR, v. v. i, 57). ISBN 978-80-7286-246-7.
(Ondřej Horák)
s. 284–286

Vojtěch KESSLER, Paměť v kameni: Druhý život válečných pomníků, Praha, Historický ústav AV ČR 2017, 336 s. ISBN 978-80-7286-308-2.
(Jiří Chmelenský)
s. 286–287

Jiří HNILICA, Fenomén Dijon. Století českých maturit ve Francii, Praha, Univerzita Karlova v Praze – Karolinum 2017, 510 s. ISBN 978-80-246-3514-9.
(Zuzana Raková)
s. 287–290

Saul FRIEDLÄNDER, Nacistické Německo a Židé, 1933-1945, Ostrava: Občanské sdružení Pant, 2017, 335 s. (z angličtiny přeložila Petruška Šustrová). ISBN 978-80-906778-1-4
(Marek Šmíd)
s. 290–292

Jakub DRÁBIK, Fašista: příběh sira Oswalda Mosleyho, Praha, Academia 2017, 500 s. + 32 s. obrazových příloh. ISBN 978-80-200-2679-8.
(Martin Dolejský)
s. 292–293

Martin JINDRA, Sáhnout si do ran tohoto světa. Perzekuce a rezistence Církve československé (husitské) v letech 1938–1945, Praha ÚSTR – CČSH 2017, 704 s. ISBN 978-80-87912-80-5, ÚSTR; 978-80-7000-141-7, CČSH.
(Vojtěch Vlček)
s. 293–296

Petr SKALNÍK a kolektiv, Afrikanistika v českých zemích a na Slovensku po roce 1960: kritické ohlédnutí, Ústí nad Orlicí – Hradec Králové, Oftis 2017, 336 s. ISBN 978-80-7405-427-3.
Geneze jednoho oboru: vzestupy a pády české afrikanistiky
(Vilém Řehák)
s. 296–300


SUMMARY

Pavel KLADIWA
The Transformation and Social Activation of Rural Areas. The Bohemian Lands in 1861–1914. (A preliminary outline of the issue)

The great social and community changes which occurred in the second half of the 19th century, whose consequences, like reflections at the time, have been studied for the Czech lands almost exclusively at a macro level (i.e. from a central perspective), or in the context of the urban environment. What we have been lacking is a synthesising and detailed reading of the social, economic and cultural changes from a rural perspective. What important matters played out in villages and rural towns? How were changes reflected by the citizens there? Who were the principle bearers of change, and by what mechanisms and channels did these changes spread? This initial study in a project investigating the mechanisms by which the politically-active public arose in the rural and small town environment in the second half of the 19th century endeavours to define the principle questions regarding the issue, and to formulate preliminary responses and the directions further research should take. The project comprehensively examines the phenomenon of social (political) activation and within this also the perception of national ideology within the rural environment. The nation doesn’t perceive value merely in itself alone, but assumes that national ideology becomes attractive only when linked to specific economic and social benefits for the local society and with a particular vision of the future. The study comprises three sections. The first section notes (including through the use of cited ego-documents) a wide range of important social and economic processes which occurred in the rural environment. The second section provides methodological ideas on the topic from foreign (i.e. not Czech) academic writings. The final section is a kind of recapitulation of how the topic could be developed further within Czech historiography.


Patrik VEDRAL
Gender and religion in interwar Czechoslovakia (1918–1938)

Over the course of the 19th century, there was a transformation in gender relations, in which perspectives on faith and piety changed. Religious life was significantly feminised, while male participation in religious festivals and celebrations fell. Religiosity continued to identify itself with femininity, while man symbolised scepticism and faithlessness. Statistics from the First Czechoslovak Republic confirm this, with women predominant in almost all forms of organised religion, while men dominated those without faith. In Catholic discourse, woman personified all that was positive (tradition, faith, family), while men personified all that was negative (modernity, faithlessness, public). Women were generally praised for their good faith, although this merely boosted rigid gender relations which portrayed women in the role of passive and silent sufferers. This Catholic discourse was shared with slight deviations by other Christian churches. The non-religious movement was equally unable to break away from this interpretation of gender, despite its criticism of organised religion and its treatment of women. Whether it was because of frustration with women remaining in the church, or because of their own masculine rhetoric, the organised non-religious did not revise gender aimed against women, although there were critical voices. First Republic religious subjects differed amongst each other in many ways, but not in gender.


Markéta SKOŘEPOVÁ
Promotion of Catholicism in the 20th Century through popular piety. Dean Jan Pauly’s means of pastoral communication

The end of the 19th century and first half of the 20th century was a period of growth in secularising tendencies within Czech society, which resulted in internal discussion within the Catholic Church. The figure of Smíchov priest, Msgr Jan Pauly (1869-1944, ordinated 1893), controversial in many ways, is an example of a cleric who had to confront the changes in the Church and in society in a significantly secularised working class environment. His fairly direct and fast church career was accompanied by a radical change in his personal opinions. He entered public life as one of the leading representatives of Zemská Jednota katolického duchovenstva (the Catholic Clergy Union), but following the First World War he stood firmly on Ultramontanist positions. For his whole life, he defended the authority of the Catholic Church. The mission he set for himself was not easy, due to the advanced secularisation of where he worked, which was expressed in one of many ways in the large numbers of people moving from Catholicism to the Czechoslovak Church at the start of the 1920s, something Jan Pauly endeavoured to confront actively and using various means. Pauly focused on a communication strategy and a pastoral method which he chose in contact with his parishioners., and the lay public with whom he came into contact and to whom he endeavoured to demonstrate the strength of the Catholic faith and Church. In political instructive writings, he called for workers’ issues to be dealt with through education and electing People’s Party candidates to parliament. He always stressed the maintenance of Christian morality and essentially middle-class values focused on living a virtuous, hard-working and prudent life, something he promoted in a number of his own instructive writings and in simple entertaining writings. Pauly deliberately attempted to achieve the most representative possible course of Church festivities, offering Catholic believers not just spiritual strength, but also a certain level of secular entertainment, which was also a demonstration of the strength of the Catholic faith and Church. This was most markedly expressed in his organisation of mass pilgrimages to Svatá Hora and Stará Boleslav. Communication with believers through literature, art, theatre, church music and organising church festivities was designed to strengthen parishioners’ conviction of the Catholic faith’s inherent moral and social superiority. Systematic public demonstrations of the strength of the Catholic Church and references to its mass, all-encompassing nature were a key element in Pauly’s fight against secularising tendencies and the movement to change Church denomination. His presentation of Catholicism to the working classes can be perceived as Ultramontanist, but even more as authoritative and decisive.


Martin PELC
National Stadion. Polemics  about the Czechoslovak Central Sports Center in 1918–1938

Three large sports complexes were planned in the inter-war Czechoslovakia. They represented three diverse interest groups within the country’s sport and physical education. 1. The „Olympic“ stadion in Prague-Braník was pursued mainly by the Czechoslovak sport’s roof organization, the Československý všesportovní výbor, dominated by the Czechoslovak football association, whose president Rudolf Pelikán was the head of the Československý všesportovní výbor as well. 2. The stadium of the State Physical Education College was to be built in Prague-Pankrác. This was a project supported by an expert committee of the Ministry of Health and Physical Education, represented by the university professor and physician Karel Weigner. 3. The only project that came to existence was the immense „Strahov stadium“, later by some means the largest stadium in the world. Since March 5th 1935, it was officially called the Masaryk state stadium (Masarykův státní stadion). It comprised the Sokol gymnastic stadium for the mass performances of the Sokol movement, a sport stadium, an army stadium and the nucleus of the future Physical Education College. This paper follows the discussions that accompanied the projects and uses them as a starting point for the portrayal of the various organisations and authorities involved in Czechoslovak sport and physical education. State authorities decided to change the Sokol stadium in Prague-Strahov to a multipurpose sports complex that would become the venue of the mass gymnastic performances, serve as the national sport stadium and give a home to the Physical Education College. The place was dedicated to three utterly different functions: ritual, sport and pedagogy. The reasons why the Strahov project was chosen were: the importance of the Sokol movement for the state’s ideology, the readiness of the Sokol organisation to start the construction, which was originally planned for 1917, and the outbreak of the Great Depression that forced the state to concentrate on a single project.


Jaroslav VALKOUN – Eva FISCHEROVÁ
British-Dominion Relations, Imperial Preference and the British Empire Economic Conference in Ottawa of 1932

The first considerations of closer Imperial economic connectivity between different autonomous parts of the Empire and the mother country, or implementing some form of Imperial preferential system appeared at the end of the 19th century. Advocates of these ideas attempted unsuccessfully to promote them within the British Empire during sessions of the Colonial (Imperial) Conferences. Not even the most important proponent of tariff reform, Joseph Chamberlain, managed to succeed. During the course of the First World War, there was not just a political, but also economic, transformation of the autonomous overseas territories, and more forcefully compared to previous periods. the mother country began to stress dominion opinions and their economic importance for the Empire as a whole. Efforts during the 1920s to implement some deeper form of more effective economic co-operation did not lead to the desired objective. It wasn’t until the Great Depression that British representatives became convinced of the necessity to implement their own protectionist measures, leave the Gold Standard, devalue the pound sterling and last but not least seek out methods and tools for more effective economic cooperation within the Empire.  Implementation of a system of Imperial Preference between the mother country, the dominions and the remainder of the Empire seemed to be an opportune way to deepen economic relations, as the ideal response to the protective measures worsening conditions for Imperial export as implemented by other states. For these reasons, the British Empire Economic Conference was convened in Ottawa, Canada, in 1932 at which Britain permitted the establishment of a system of Imperial Preference in return for concessions by the Dominions to enact better customs rates for British industrial manufacturers. Dominions delegates in particular managed to achieve concessions from their counterparts in London in food and raw material imports to the British market to such an extent that they even implemented the unpopular burden on imports from third countries of higher duties. The result of the acceptance of these principles was a growth in prices to the detriment of British consumers, and a deterioration in economic relations with certain countries (Argentina, the Soviet Union, and others), which led to a deterioration or prevention of opportunities to export onto the British market. From an overall perspective, it seems that conclusion of the Ottawa agreements in 1932 represented more of a painful and temporary compromise which endeavoured to confront unfavourable developments during the economic crisis, and boost mutual trade, maintaining the Empire’s economic unity in the long term.


Jan HERMAN
Baťa, Jews and Stein’s List (1938–1939)

This study looks at the operation of Jewish workers for the Baťa company in years1938–1939. Before this time, the company’s founder Tomáš Baťa had always co-operated with Jews and it was common practice for Baťa to employ Jews. Jews worked here in many professions, including in important roles, and they were most numerous in the Export Department. Throughout the 1920s and up until the end of 1937, Jewish workers were sent abroad and once their work had been completed there they returned to Zlín. In 1938, however, the situation changed. More Jewish workers were sent abroad, and they remained there. Following the Anschluss, the number of Jewish workers going abroad increased, with the highest numbers achieved between November 1938 and March 1939. The occupation and the Protectorate limited further departures, but nevertheless a few more Jewish workers managed to leave before the end of 1939. Top management in the company found a way to help their workers – in co-operation with official bodies – to arrange the necessary documents, and they organised training courses themselves so they could send people as experts to Baťa companies abroad (stores, factories, purchasing centres). Of particular use in ascertaining the number of these workers sent abroad is the unique testimony of Jiří Stein of 1946, and the company’s List of Employees Abroad in 1944. Stein, himself one of the company’s Jewish employees sent abroad, gives in his declaration a list of the names of Baťa workers of Jewish origin he had met abroad. This “Stein’s List” can be added to using information in company documents, and as such the names of 94 Jewish Baťa employees can be ascertained who managed to leave the country during the period looked at. It is almost certain that the true figure is a few dozen people higher, but the current state of knowledge does not allow us to give specific names to these people. These acts undertaken by Baťa management in 1938-1939 were an important act which helped to protect a number of lives, as Jews in the Protectorate faced almost certain death.


Alena BUBELOVÁ – Petra ZABILANSKÁ
Czech Scouting during the Second World War. The diaries of Jarmil Burghauser

In his personal diaries of 1940-1945, Jarmil Burghauser looks at a number of topics, besides his daily life giving space over to matters of Prague’s Second Scout Troop. As such, they can be used to investigate the division’s activities during a period at which Scouting was banned, and Scouting activities had to be concealed. The Second Troop managed to operate under various organisations until the end of the war. Immediately after the Scouts were banned (October 1940), it carried on illegally meeting up in the homes of various members. By September 1941 at the latest, it had joined the Czech Hiking Club (Klub českých turistů, KČT), legalising its existence. Following establishment of the Board of Trustees for the Education of Youth (Kuratorium pro výchovu mládeže) in Bohemia and Moravia, it came under its influence alongside KČT and was meant to undertake so-called “compulsory youth service”. It is hard to determine to what extent they observed this obligation, but nevertheless the diary entries contain no mention of them at all, and they are only mentioned twice in other troop materials. By comparing the troop’s activities prior to the Scout ban (or before the establishment of the Board of Trustees) and subsequently, we can ascertain that their programme did not change much. Meetings continued to take place in the same spirit, emphasis was placed on the troop’s traditions from the pre-war years. Instead of specialist Scout tests, a replacement was formed with a similar content including symbols, and the troop created its own dress in place of the Scout uniform. Summer camps are a specific issue, and the troop managed to run these during the whole of the war period. Burghauser’s diaries provide interesting commentary, in particular on the cancelled camp of 1940 and the subsequent banning of the Scouts, allowing us to see the events from the perspective of an ordinary member. The diaries also allow us to reconstruct relationships between individual members of the troop, as well as their relationship to Foglar. There is not a clear answer to the question as to why Burghauser wrote the diaries in Ancient Greek. A number of possibilities suggest themselves, with the most likely, however, being his personal interest in the language and an endeavour to improve his skills as much as he could. Concealment of undercover Scouting activities would appear less convincing, since information about the troop’s activities are given in documents written by Foglar himself in Czech.


Anna BLATECKÁ
Top Officials of Mírov Nazi Prison during the Occupation (1938–1945)

All leading officials in the prison at Mírov during the Nazi occupation period have been examined as part of this study. Both their personal life and pre-war activities have been analysed, as well as their work at Mírov, while also describing the conditions which prevailed at Mírov during the occupation years. The paper focuses in particular on three prison leading officials. The first of these is the First Head of the prison, Dr Augustin Mrha, who carried out this role from autumn 1938 until 1939, subsequently being assigned the role of Chief Doctor at the hospital department. The second is the penultimate chief, Dr Heinrich Brandstätter, during whose leadership the prison was transformed into an institute for prisoners suffering pulmonary disorders. Then, the composition of prisoners in the prison changed radically, and the prison began to be occupied by ill political prisoners in particular, who were transported from German prisons across all parts of the Reich. The final prison chief analysed in detail is Walter Bartl, who stood at its head from September 1943 until the end of the war, i.e. the period with the highest frequency of transporters arriving and also the period during which the highest percentage of prisoners died.


Vojtěch ČEŠÍK 
Criminal Commissioner Richard Heidan (1893–1947). The life story of the last head of the Gestapo in Olomouc

In many perspectives, Richard Heidan could be described as an “average” employee of the state’s secret police. He was a professional criminologist who had worked for the police for many years before the Nazis took power, and he was transferred to the political police due to his valuable experience. His service with the state police also gave employees various benefits. Similarly, Heidan could not be described as a convinced Nazi; he undoubtedly only joined the Nazi Party in May 1933 for the opportunity it gave for quicker career progression. This type of act is not unusual amongst employees of the state police, at least during the initial years of its existence. Due to his work within occupied territory and war developments, one can perceive even in Heidan’s case a clear and gradual radicalisation in the Gestapo’s investigative techniques. The State Police endeavoured to respond to the ever-expanding opposition and new opposition groups set up, adapting to the situation as efficiently as possible. As a result, Gestapo offices and stations were reorganised and there was ever increasing brutalisation through repressive measures which culminated as the end of the war approached with extensive actions against insurgents. The post-war investigation of Heidan, in contrast to some of the initial cases brought at the Extraordinary People’s Court in Olomouc, was done very thoroughly, with a large number of witnesses giving testimony to the investigation and the main hearing. One of the prosecution’s key points was naturally the organisation of  repressive action by the Olomouc Gestapo at the end of the war. On the basis of these points, Heidan was unanimously condemned to death and executed.


Lukáš BLAŽEK – Daniela NĚMEČKOVÁ
Analysis of the revision of retribution in 1948 using statistical methods

The revision of retributive justice has not previously been investigated comprehensively, despite the fact that it is more controversial issue than the previous wave of retribution. Previous writings primarily use Ministry of Justice statistics, but these only include the number of convicted people, and not the number of cases of acquittal. As such, we consider this paper represents an initial study on researching the revision of retribution using statistical methods. Above all, it is a study which endeavours to use unprocessed archival material known about, and synthesise conclusions from this despite being aware of the shortcomings which will have to be dealt with in future. A previously unanswered question is the class profile of defendants and a percentage comparison with population numbers in the particular area. If a particular court convicted more farmers in an agricultural area, this finding will have a different relevance than if the court was near a large town with a higher proportion of clerics and entrepreneurs. One cannot use the data of defendants and those convicted in isolation without ascertaining the differentiation of society, and base our study only on the rules and assumptions set up by the regime at the time. If we do not compare the these figures in a thorough comprehensive way, one may come to the firm conclusion that the revision of retribution represented class justice. However, once cannot come to this conclusion purely on the basis of the excesses which occurred in the abuse of justice to convict innocent people, and support this conclusion on the directives of the Provincial Court in Prague which forbade the cases of Czechs from lower social classes from being heard. In these cases, mixing of the facts leads to an incorrect interpretation of de jure and de facto law, where practice could have been, or in contrast was not entirely different. With the first calculations, we are also naturally interested in whether the political influence of National Front action committees is markedly seen, under the influence of the communists, in the actions of the Extraordinary People’s Courts, since this is a new feature compared to the previous period of retribution, and it would be beneficial to investigate this. For a future final study, one might look at an overall comparison of the activities of all the Extraordinary People’s Courts in regard to the revision of retribution taking account of geographical distribution (whether it was a border region, or in a more central region), the local population (demographic data), number of excesses and political processes. Only on the basis of a comprehensive synthesis like this will we be able to answer the question of whether the revision of retribution was represented political processes, or not. Only after answering the prior questions will we be able to ascertain whether de jure and de facto are the same.


Miroslav ŠEPTÁK 
Union of Journalists during the initial phase of the reform process (January – March 1968)

At the start of 1968, the journalists’ union was confronted with the attempt at reforming socialism within Czechoslovakia. It responded with restraint to this unexpected transformation in the ruling power that Alexander Dubček’s election as First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia represented.  Union management maintained their confused tactical passivity even at the time the membership base was forming its first fundamental demands for improving the work of journalists and the journalists’ union. Only at the end of February did the union’s management end its period of strategic waiting with a meeting of the Union of Czechoslovak Journalists’ Central Committee. The diverse and lively debate over the journalist organisation’s programme priorities was dominated by proposals for calling an extraordinary meeting of the Union of Czechoslovak Journalists, amendment to the Press Act in particular in terms of the work of the Central Publications Administration, and a transformation of the union’s asymmetric model into a federal structure.


Jindřich DEJMEK
Little known document on Prague Spring’s “Western” policy. Meeting between Foreign Ministers Jiří Hájek and Kurt Waldheim in Bratislava on 21 June 1968

On 21 June 1968, an unofficial meeting of the foreign ministers of Czechoslovakia and Austria, Jiří S Hájek and Kurt Waldheim, took place as a kind of culmination of endeavours at normalising diplomatic and political relations between the two countries. In the second half of the 1960s, these were still complicated not just by the former country belonging to the Eastern Bloc while the latter was a neutral, but in fact pro-Western state, but above all unsolved property rights problems, most of which had arisen from nationalisation policies in Czechoslovakia in 1945 and also from the displacement of some Czech Germans to Austria. Austria said that any intensification in political and economic relations with Czechoslovakia was conditional upon solving its property claims. The sum they claimed for, however, was far in excess of the sum that Czechoslovakia was willing to give Austria. As such, the meeting of both foreign ministers, the minutes of which are printed in the material in full according to the archived original, was thus an expression of the endeavours at achieving an agreement to deal with problems in Austrian-Czechoslovak relations. Minutes of the meeting of both ministers clearly show that the positions of both neighbours were still relatively far apart. However, Waldheim avoided any promise of specific steps and thus the whole meeting signalled a certain changing climate rather than any real progress in mutual relations. The path was to be a relatively long one with subsequent events, specifically the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Warsaw Pact armies two months later and the subsequent beginnings of Normalisation in spring 1969 as brutally imposed by the Soviets, complicating the situation even further. In the end, a solution following further complicated discussions took over five further years, in December 1974 under a now entirely transformed internal situation both within Czechoslovakia and within Austria and Europe in general as a result of progress in arranging the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe in Helsinki.