Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

MODERNÍ DĚJINY
roč. 24, 2016, č. 1



OBSAH • CONTENT


STUDIE • STUDIES

Zdeněk NEBŘENSKÝ
Proměny továrního prostoru v období vrcholné průmyslové moderny. Přístupy, problémy a perspektivy soudobého historického výzkumu
[Transformations in the factory environment during the height of the modern industrial period. Approaches, problems and perspectives of current historical research]
s. 1‒25

Horst DIPPEL
Vom Völkerrecht zum Verfassungsrecht. Die Stellung der Minderheiten in den Verfassungen des Neuen Europa nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg
[From International Law to Constitutional Law. The Status of Minorities in the Constitutions of New Europe after the First World War]
s. 27–46

Jan ČOPÍK ‒ Jaroslav ČMEJREK
Česká regionální politika pohledem obecních kronik do roku 1939
[Czech Regional Policy through Village Chronicles up to 1939]
s. 47–61

Marek BAŠTA
Od kolapsu ke krizi. Protičeskoslovenská aktivita v Bavorsku v letech 1919‒1929
[From Collapse to Crisis. Anti-Czechoslovak activities in Bavaria in 1919‒1929]
s. 63–105

Jana ŠKERLOVÁ
Vztahy Československa a Jugoslávie s Bulharskem, Sovětským svazem a Polskem v letech 1929–1934
[Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia’s relations with Bulgaria, the Soviet Union and Poland in 1929–1934]
s. 107‒133

Miroslav ŠEPTÁK
Postup křesťansko-sociální strany při kolapsu parlamentní demokracie v Rakousku (1932‒1933)
[The Approach of the Christian Social Party to the Collapse of Parliamentary Democracy in Austria (1932‒1933)]
s. 135–158

Marek ŠMÍD
The personage of Vatican dignitary, diplomat, and priest Antonino Arata before his arrival in the Baltics in the 1930s
[Osobnost vatikánského hodnostáře, diplomata a duchovního Antonina Araty před jeho příchodem do Pobaltí ve 30. letech 20. století]
s. 159‒173

Wilhelm BRAUNEDER
Die Spur des Weltkrieges in der österreichischen Verfassungsentwicklung bis 1938
[Stopy světové války v ústavním vývoji Rakouska do roku 1938]
s. 175‒184

Michal PEHR
České politické strany v době třetí republiky a jejich poválečné sjezdy
[Czech Political Parties during the Third Republic, and their Post-war Congresses]
s. 185‒212

Ladislav KUDRNA ‒ František STÁREK, ČUŇAS
Tenkrát na Severu. Teplický underground versus Veřejná a Státní bezpečnost 1965‒1985
[Once Upon a Time in the North. The Teplice Underground versus Public and State Security 1965‒1985]
s. 213‒251


MATERIÁLY • MATERIALS

Petr KUŽEL
Problémy socialistické modernizace hnacích vozidel ČSD 1945‒1980
[Problems of socialist modernisation of Czechoslovak State Railways locomotives 1945‒1980]
s. 253‒267


KRONIKA • CHRONICLE

Zasedání Česko-slovenské/Slovensko-české komise historiků v Prešově
[Meeting of the Czech-Slovak/Slovak-Czech Commission of Historians in Prešov]
(Jan Němeček)
s. 269‒270


RECENZE • REVIEWS

Eduard KUBŮ – Jiří ŠOUŠA, T. G. Masaryk a jeho c. k. protivníci. Československá zahraniční akce ženevského období v zápase s rakousko-uherskou diplomacií, zpravodajskými službami a propagandou (1915‒1916), Praha, Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Nakladatelství Karolinum 2015, 364 s.
ISBN 978-80-246-3082-3.
(Jana Burešová)
s. 271‒273

Marie STUPKOVÁ – Martin KLEČACKÝ, Slovník představitelů soudní správy
v Čechách v letech 1849‒1918, Praha, Masarykův ústav a Archiv AV ČR, v. v. i. – Národní archiv 2015, 463 s. ISBN 978-80-87782-40-8 (Masarykův ústav a Archiv AV ČR, v. v. i.) ISBN 978-80-7469-041-9 (Národní archiv).
(Petr Prokš)
s. 273‒275

Róbert LETZ ‒ Martin VAŠŠ ‒ Jaroslava ROGUĽOVÁ a kol., Pramene k dejinám Slovenska a Slovákov, XII. a (Slováci při budovaní základov Československej republiky. Prvé desaťročie Československej republiky), Bratislava, Literárne informačné centrum 2013, 479 s. ISBN 978-80-8119-072-8; Róbert LETZ ‒ Martin VAŠŠ ‒ Jaroslava ROGUĽOVÁ a kol., Pramene k dejinám Slovenska a Slovákov, XII. b (Slováci vo víre tridsiatych rokov. Druhé desaťročie Československej republiky), Bratislava, Literárne informačné centrum 2014, 367 s. ISBN 978-80-8119-080-3.
(Marek Šmíd)
s. 275‒278

Radan LÁŠEK, Krkonoše v roce 1938. Armáda a opevnění, Praha, Codyprint 2015, 368 s.  ISBN 978-80-903892-3-6.
(Petr Fischer)
s. 278‒280


SUMMARY

Zdeněk NEBŘENSKÝ
Transformations in the factory environment during the height of the modern industrial period. Approaches, problems and perspectives of current historical research

This article deals with the approaches, problems and perspectives which historical research of factory buildings has brought with it. In the recent past, Anglo-Saxon and German historians have repeatedly pointed out that economic activity was inseparably linked to the spaces in which it took place. This didn’t just mean the geographic distribution of various branches of industry, or their relation to urban development and construction, but also to the specific place where the economic activity took place. Historians have posed the question of what way spaces, such as factory buildings, have influenced economic and social life. It is indisputable that enterprise in domestic workshops in a putting-out system did not look the same as enterprise in manufactories or in rebuilt and modified buildings chosen by chance. Enterprise in new factory buildings constructed using systematic architectural plans taking account of production rationalisation, with detailed plans for the location of each participant in the factory operation (administrative force, production supervisors, workshop masters, mechanics, workers) and securing hygiene and social conditions again took a completely different form. This was not necessarily in regard to various layout options (workshops, manufactories, factories) genetically related to each other and the result of historical development, but they could also exist in parallel. The article poses the question of what way historians have looked at factory and industrial production space in the past few years: what concepts have they used in investigating industrial space? What terms have they used in analyzing factory building layouts? Have historical accounts taken account of expert discussion (architects, engineers, economists, sociologists)? Have historians reflected on the fact factory buildings created a power hierarchy and social inequality? The article looks for a response to these questions in German and English academic literature published on the history of factory buildings over the last three decades, a time during which space became a key category of historical investigation. The selection of specific studies is made on the basis of their ability to answer the questions posed, and also on the basis of references in which the works refer to each other, and authors quote their predecessors. The article attempts to focus in on the general claim made by the academic literature by using specific examples of Cisleithanian factories built in Bohemian, Moravian and Silesian towns and cities.
Keywords: History, 19th and 20th centuries, Central Europe, factory building, industrial space, spatial turn


Horst DIPPEL
From International Law to Constitutional Law. The Status of Minorities in the Constitutions of New Europe after the First World War

The collapse of empires as a consequence of the First World War created the states of New Europe, whose borders had always held not just the nationalities of the titular countries, but also a whole range of larger and smaller ethnic and religious minorities. 1919’s international treaties meant that all these states, often despite their marked resistance, were required to accept these minorities as nationals, treat them as legal and political equals and protect their religions, languages and cultures. In reality, these duties were reflected in the constitutions of the countries in question in very differing ways, and the political and social reality of the 1920s saw, along with exemplary efforts at inclusion (particularly in Czechoslovakia), also a widespread tendency for exclusion and lack of respect for minorities, especially in the Balkan states. Although there was significant further development of public international law in 1919 in issues of minority rights, there was no will on the part of the Allies or the treaty states, who considered themselves second-class states because the regulations applied only to them, to secure the enforceability of such law in practice. Furthermore, the political and (constitutional) legal culture of the New Europe states, which were suffering the consequences of the First World Work, subsequent wars, chaos and violence, were overburdened with issues of the protection of minorities.
Keywords: History, 20th Century, Europe, international relations, international law, nationalism, minority rights, constitutions


Jan ČOPÍK – Jaroslav ČMEJREK
Czech Regional Policy through Village Chronicles up to 1939

Village, society, school and private chronicles represent unique historic records which complement other archive resources and materials. This article focuses on village chronicles written up to 1939 as a source of information on municipal government, local policy and village development. Through a compa¬rative case study of eight villages, it seeks to answer the questions of who wrote the memorial books, and what influenced records in the chronicles. Was it only the chronicler? His attitudes, opinions and political views? The chronicler’s surroundings, or the running of the village? Local political splits and pressure? In the eight selected smaller municipalities, half of chroniclers were unsurprisingly teachers. More than half of chroniclers were active in municipal government. One should naturally be wary in one’s approach to the wording in chronicles, as to a certain extent each chronicler reflects their own attitudes and opinions in their work. Nevertheless, none of the chroniclers looked at could be said to have misrepresented events in their village, whether they were a senior Agrarian Party politician, or a member of the Communist Party. Other sources are naturally indispensable to give a full picture of the local situation and events. In some, not particularly frequent, cases, chronicles became a means for managing polemics. This applies to one chronicle in our selection involving a dispute over the further development of the village. In this case, municipal bodies intervened. The attitude of the council majority at the time towards the chronicler can be described as extremely harsh.
Keywords: History, 19th and 20th centuries, Czech lands, chronicles, chronicler, village, narrative, municipal government, village development, polemics


Marek BAŠTA
From Collapse to Crisis. Anti-Czechoslovak activities in Bavaria in 1919‒1929

The submitted report deals with the issue of the irredentist movement in Bavaria in the 1920s. Their development was marked by and confronted with complex post-war developments not just in the whole of Germany, but in Bavaria in particular. The irredentist movement was accelerated or in contrast slowed by mutual Czechoslovak-German relations. The post-war turmoil first brought government by leftist radicals to Bavaria, followed by right-wing conservatives and monarchists from the Bayerische Volkspartei. The far more radical movement led by Adolf Hitler began to become actively involved in this essentially anti-democratic configuration. While the internationalist Communist movement was shortly removed from power and harshly suppressed, the conservatives consolidated their position. The irredentist movement profited from this situation, and gained at least tacit support from ruling Bavarian politicians. The situation was similar in the strengthening National Socialist German Workers’ Party. Besides the political situation, economic developments in Germany also had a fundamental impact on the whole irredentist movement. Thus, the developing activities were quickly stopped by the deep economic crisis of 1923. The situation in Germany improved in subsequent years, but the upturn in Bavaria was not to the same extent as in the rest of the country, something poor relations between the regional state government and the central Reich government did not help. At the end of the decade, the growing economic crisis saw the sudden collapse of the Bavarian economy, which again had a fundamental impact on all irredentist activities. An important role here was played by Germany’s activist policy led by Gustav Stresemann, ensuring Germany’s admittance to and strengthening position in the League of Nations. No less a role here was played by the activist policy of certain German parties in Czechoslovakia, and their joining the government in 1926. German irredentism was problematic for mutual Czechoslovak-German relations and its propaganda had a negative impact on the majority view in Bavaria of the newly established neighbour on its eastern border.
Keywords: History, 20th century, Bavaria, Czechoslovakia, irredentism, Pan-German organisations, Sudetendeutscher Heimatbund, Verein für das Deutschtum im Ausland, Deutsche Wacht  (Sudetenland Alliance, Federation for German Expatriates, German Watch)


Jana ŠKERLOVÁ
Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia’s relations with Bulgaria, the Soviet Union and Poland in 1929–1934

Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (from October 1929 the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) were close allies during the interwar period. Both states were parties to the Little Entente, which was meant in a certain degree to co-ordinate and unify their foreign policies and acts on the international stage. Nevertheless, both states found themselves holding a different position on certain foreign policy issues and certain third countries. One reason for this was the fact that besides points of similarity, their foreign policies during the interwar period also had various problems. This applied in particular to relations with neighbouring countries, i.e. in particular Yugoslavia’s relations with Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia’s with Poland. Another major problem on which both countries had a different opinion, was the issue of international recognition of the Soviet Union. Despite marked diplomatic efforts by Czechoslovakia’s Minister for Foreign Affairs, Edvard Beneš, who had managed to persuade the third Little Entente ally, Romania, Yugoslavia’s resistance to the USSR’s international recognition could not be broken de jure. This was just one of the times which showed that not even Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia’s bilateral alliance was not ideal and conflict-free, as both parties tried to make it look from the outside, but it was of great significance. And together with other conflicts, it augured the gradual dissolution of mutual relations in the second half of the 1930s.
Keywords: History, 20th century, Czechoslovakia, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, USSR, Poland, international relations, diplomacy, interwar period


Miroslav ŠEPTÁK
The Approach of the Christian Social Party to the Collapse of Parliamentary Democracy in Austria (1932‒1933)

One of the major political parties of interwar Austria – the Christian Social Party – took an ambiguous stance on parliamentary democracy, while endeavouring to implement corporate elements within the political system. The Great Depression, along with a drop in important macroeconomic indicators, repeated failures to create a government coalition with a sufficiently strong mandate and fear of a loss of long-held power through snap parliamentary elections led to a strengthening of the anti-democratic tendency within the party. In October 1932, the cabinet led by Christian Socialist, Engelbert Dollfuss, examined the option of extra-parliamentary rule. On the basis of the Wartime Economy Enabling Act, it issued emergency regulations without the requirement for later approval by the legislative body. In March 1933, party leaders took advantage of the resignation of all three presidents of the National Council, unprecedented even in the history of the Austrian parliament. They took the initiative in the confusing situation, and with the intention of stealing the political culture, began the gradual restriction of political plurality. The inability and unwillingness of the Greater Germans and Social Democrats to create a united front to protect democracy encouraged the Christian Socialists to continue in the course they had set out on. The Party Congress and the de facto paralysis of the Constitutional Court in May 1933 affirmed Austria’s movement towards an authoritarian regime.
Keywords: History, 20th century, Austria, Christian Social Party, parliamentary democracy, authoritative régime


Marek ŠMÍD
The personage of Vatican dignitary, diplomat, and priest Antonino Arata before his arrival in the Baltics in the 1930s

The study is focused on an extraordinary person, Vatican dignitary, diplomat, and priest Antonino Arata, who was very active in Czechoslovakia 1920s. A. Arata spent in Czechoslovakia six years (June 1920 – March 1927) and became one of the most important and capable secretaries of the Apostolic nunciature in Prague in the twenty-year interwar period. His talks with politicians, communication with Church dignitaries, and good command of the Czech language contributed to the amelioration of tense Czechoslovak-Vatican relations as well as to strengthening the Czechoslovak population’s confidence in the Catholic Church and the Holy See. His Czechoslovak mission remained in his heart and he, allegedly, always remembered the years spent in Czechoslovakia. In 1927, he left Czechoslovakia. He went first to Austria, then to Poland and Argentine and in 1930s he continued his mission in the Baltics. The study briefly introduces his life and political-spiritual action, while going in detail in period that had preceded his work in the Baltics, and his activities and influence in Czechoslovakia in the years 1921-1927. It points out that A. Arata was among the most significant secretaries of the Apostolic nunciature in Prague, in the interwar period who gained insight into the Czech milieu and maintained excellent contacts with domestic Church leaders. After the breaking off diplomatic relations after the so-called Marmaggi´s affair in the summer of 1925, it was A. Arata, who informed the Holy See about the political-religious events and sentiments in Czechoslovakia. In the 1930s he was considered to be a possible forth apostolic nuncio in Prague, but he followed his diplomatic career in the Baltics until 1940 when it became a part of the USSR.
Keywords: History, 20th Century, Vatican, Catholic Church, Apostolic nuncios, Czechoslovakia, 1918‒1938


Wilhelm BRAUNEDER
Traces of the World War in Austria’s constitutional development to 1938

Since the establishment of (German) Austria in October 1918, a strict parliamentary democracy government system ruled there based on the ‘war dictatorship’ of 1914‒1918. There were immediately ‘authoritarian’ forces formed against it, however, which were clearly seen in armed defence associations such as the Socialist Protection League (Socialistischer Schutzbund) and the right-wing Homeland Protection (Heimwehren). It was against this background that a parliamentary presidential republic was established on the basis of a constitutional amendment anticipating corporate elements in 1929. The federal government, dominated by the ‘war generation’ took advantage of parliamentary errors in 1933 to eliminate the parliament and implement a dictatorial style. Following uprisings approaching civil war in 1934, this resulted in the corporate authoritarian constitution of 1934 and its deliberate rejection of democratic principles. In the end, ideological clashes with National Socialist Germany led to the dissolution of Austria in 1934 and its unification with Germany.
Keywords: History, 20th Century, Austria, parlamentarien system, rejecting of ‟western democracy”, ‟war-generation” and authoritarian rule


Michal PEHR
Czech Political Parties during the Third Republic, and their Post-war Congresses

The submitted study looks at Czech political party congresses after the Second World War, when there was a fundamental transformation of political partisanship. In this regard, undoubtedly the most important change was a reduction in the number of political parties, the express prohibition of the pre-war right-wing and centralist parties (the Agrarians, National Democrats and the Traders), and last but not least the establishment of the National Front as an umbrella organisation for the approved political parties whose further existence was justified by the services of these parties in the resistance. But the changes in political partisanship were expressed in other ways too. The importance of the approved parties increased significantly in post-war society. It resulted in somewhat of a paradox. The reduction in political parties was justified as necessary to give political parties new importance and above all this was meant to get rid of all the negative aspects that the phenomenon of political partisanship had previously been associated with. In fact, however, it resulted in the exact opposite. The approved parties kept all of their traditional hallmarks, including their traditional shortcomings. Their exclusive status in a ‘club of a select few’, i.e. the approved and current governing parties, led to them not changing and their ability to influence life in society being much greater than when there had been free competition between political parties, and as such the post-war situation was marked by struggles between these select parties. This was also seen in the organisation and form of their post-war congresses, with attempts to increase the status of these events to make them of national importance.
Keywords: History, 20th century, Czechoslovakia 1945–48, Third Republic, political parties


Ladislav KUDRNA – František STÁREK, ČUŇAS
Once Upon a Time in the North. The Teplice Underground versus Public and State Security 1965‒1985

The North Bohemia Region, especially the industrial and spa city of Teplice, was along with Prague one of the key centres of the opposition community, which later acquired the term ‘underground’. The underground movement soon came into conflict with the normalisation regime. Using the example of one specific city and its community, we have aimed to demonstrate the multifaceted nature of the opposition movement to the Communist regime in Czechoslovakia. We have begun in 1965, when the underground was spawned, with 1985 being a year of its resurgence following harsh persecution at the beginning of the 1980s. For clarity, we have had to give a brief description of events already well-known and studied in our paper. It also proved impossible to describe the regional issue without anchoring it within its society-wide context, as well as the status of the authorities on the one hand, and the underground on the other. As yet unpublished archive sources, mainly of State Security provenance, were used in the writing of the study. It is clear not just from the above detailed internal reports that the highest representatives of repressive power were fully aware of the strength and danger of the underground movement at the end of 1977, although they continued to describe them using the terminology of the second half of the 1960s. The events in Rudolfov, the holding of the festivals of the ‘second’ culture, processes with the underground and the subsequent establishment of Charter 77, were all reflected in the specific procedures and working plans undertaken by individual district State Security (secret police) divisions in the North Bohemia Region. This also applied to Teplice. It is nevertheless important to realise that the way the alternative youth were treated depended on the abilities (options) of each chief. The abilities of the Teplice division were affected by a marked turnover of its members, including the chief. Despite the constant reminders from secret police chiefs in Ústí nad Labem, they continued to use phrases about mapping the situation, preventive measures and no identification of activities by the underground, which was furthermore joined by the punk movement at the beginning of the 1980s, and then to a boom in various music bands, and small theatre groups. In other words, a certain resurgence of normalisation society took place, peaking in the mass demonstrations of 1988 and 1989. A more extensive comparison will be needed to categorise and confirm the trends of individual StB divisions across the country, something which is beyond the scope of this study.
Keywords: History, 20th century, Czechoslovakia, underground, “long hair”, Teplice, Charter 77, State Security secret police, the Communist Party


Petr KUŽEL
Problems of socialist modernisation of Czechoslovak State Railways locomotives 1945‒1980

The end of the Second World War caught the new Czechoslovakia’s railway network in very poor condition. The defeated German administration only maintained the key routes for military transport, with minor routes entirely closed following acts of sabotage and movement of fronts. In order for the state to begin working again, key means of transport had to be quickly restored. However, less than half of the pre-war vehicles remained, and furthermore they were not appropriate for peacetime use due to wear, being outdated following the precipitous technological development of recent years, or due to their atypical nature.  The departure of the German population, along with a gradual alignment to the east and a stress on heavy industry meant that a number of lines did not have anyone or anything to transport, and other lines had insufficient capacity. Routing changes or rapidly increasing connection throughput and equipping the lines with the safety systems necessary, however, were not achievable within the time required due to the length and density of the network. As such, the Ministry of Transport first resorted to a cheaper and faster solution involving modernising the locomotive fleet. Traditional steam locomotives were to be gradually replaced by electric and diesel trains which were better able to keep to journey times and were lighter and more efficient. Subsequent to February 1948, the political situation also led to a growing alignment of operations with military strategy. However, steam locomotives could not be replaced from one day to the next as the infrastructure had been built up over a century. As such, they remained in manufacturing plants alongside engines of modern traction until the end of the 1950s, and the end of steam railway, planned for 1968, did not occur until 1980 when the first locomotive with contact-free power control symbolically left the gates of Škoda Plzeň.
Keywords: History, 20th century, Czechoslovakia, railway transport