Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

MODERNÍ DĚJINY
roč. 22, 2014, č. 2



OBSAH • CONTENT


STUDIE • STUDIES


Ondřej TÁBORSKÝ
„Osoba čestná“ aneb zrod politické kultury českého maloměsta
[„A Person of Honour” or the Birth of Political Culture in Small Czech Towns]
s. 1–21

Milan HLAVAČKA
Cesta na výsluní. Emancipace české technické inteligence na přelomu 19. a 20. století
[A Journey into the Limelight: the Emancipation of the Czech Technical Intelligence at the Turn of the 20th Century]
s. 23‒37

Josef HARNA
Slovakofilství českých „realistů“ v předvečer první světové války
[Slovakophilism of Czech “Realists” on the Eve of the First World War]
s. 39–69

Bohuslav LITERA
Vzestup a pád rudého jezdectva v ruské občanské válce, 1918‒1920. Případ 1. jízdní armády
[The Rise and fall of the Red Cavalry in the Russian Civil War (1918‒1920). The Case of the 1st Cavalry Army]
s. 71–88

Pavel KLADIWA
Etnická klasifikace a institucionální zakotvení národnosti v Československu 1918‒1938
[Ethnic Classification and Institutional Affiliation of Nationalities in Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1938]
s. 89–116

Sylva SKLENÁŘOVÁ
Kulturní vztahy mezi Nizozemskem a Československem v letech 1918‒1938 z pohledu Společnosti Nizozemsko ‒ Československo
[Cultural Relations between the Netherlands and Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1938 from the Perspective of the Netherlands-Czechoslovak Association]
s. 117–139

František EMMERT
Právní institut tzv. říšskoněmeckého občanství v expanzivní a rasistické politice nacistického Německa v letech
1939‒1945
[The Legal Institution of the Reich Citizenship in the Expansionary and Racial Policy of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945]
s. 141–153

Martin KLEČACKÝ
Josef Ježek a Otto Bláha – cesta dvou četnických generálů před Národní soud
[Josef Ježek and Otto Bláha – the Story of Two Gendarmes Generals before the National Court]
s. 155–187

Drahomír JANČÍK – Tomáš KALINA
„Náš plán je geniální improvizací.“ Formování konceptu československé dvouletky a její rozporné výsledky
(1946‒1948)
[„Our plan is one of ingenious improvisation“. The Formation of the Concept of the Czechoslovak Biennial and its Contradictory Results (1946‒1948)]
s. 189–219

Petr CHALUPECKÝ – Zdenka JOHNSON
Prosazování marxisticko-leninské politické ekonomie do monetárního myšlení v Československu v letech 1945‒1955
[Promoting the Marxist-Leninist theory in Czechoslovak monetary thought from 1945 to 1955]
s. 221–244


MATERIÁLY • MATERIALS

Gustav NOVOTNÝ
Zvláštní osud archiváře a historika v komunistickém/totalitním
Československu. Příběh Antonína Verbíka (1934‒1986)
[The Unusual Fate of an Archivist and Historian in Communist Totalitarian Czechoslovakia. Antonín Verbík’s Story (1934‒1986)]
s. 245–287


KRONIKA • CHRONICLE

Za Alexandrem Ortem (1926‒2013)
(Jindřich Dejmek)
s. 289–293


RECENZE • REVIEWS

Central European Papers, Silesian University in Opava (Faculty of Public Policies) – Kodolányi János University
of Applied Sciences, Székesfehérvár 2013, ISSN 2336-3312 (Print), ISSN 2336-369X (Online)
(Lukáš Novotný)
s. 295‒296

Moritz CSÁKY, Das Gedächtnis der Städte. Kulturelle Verflechtungen – Wien und die urbanen Milieus in Zentraleuropa, Wien‒Köln‒Weimar, Böhlau Verlag 2010, ISBN 978-3-205-78543-9
(Miklós Tömöry)
s. 299‒297

Dagmar HÁJKOVÁ – Eva KALIVODOVÁ (eds.), Deníky Edvarda a Hany
Benešových z období první světové války, Praha 2013, 242 s. ISBN 978-80-7422-237-5
(Josef Harna)
s. 299‒300

Libor VYKOUPIL, Český fašismus na Moravě, Brno, Matice moravská 2012,
384 s. ISBN 978-80-86488-90-5
(Josef Harna)
s. 300‒303


SUMMARY


Ondřej TÁBORSKÝ
„A Person of Honour” or the Birth of Political Culture in Small Czech Towns

Small Czech town political culture developed in the last thirty years of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.  The gradual expansion of the electorate involved an increasing number of players from different educational backgrounds presenting a variety of ideas and aspirations. This shift was also accompanied by a change in perception of the politician’s role who was subjected to increasing public pressure to develop a professional approach and public speaking skills. Using the example of Pardubice which was undergoing rapid industrialization, the author of the article shows how the beginnings of political culture were strongly connected to the need to prove the candidate’s correctness. The new view on politics was not only the effect of a socio-economic transformation in political participation, but also the consequence of a form of communication arising out of the professionalization of the media which introduced new concepts and a new way of communication in political culture. In this respect, the article shows how it developed and who the regional periodicals focused on. Political culture eventually changed in response to the development of particularized interests and the growth of mass parties placing greater significance on clearly defined programs than on the proof of personal correctness. Therefore, the emerging political culture of small towns may be an indicator of the changes in the relations of Czech society to politics during the period of modernization.
Keywords: History, the 19th and 20th centuries, the Czech country, political culture, elections, Pardubice, regional journalism, small town


Milan HLAVAČKA
A Journey into the Limelight: the Emancipation of the Czech Technical Intelligence at the Turn of the 20th Century

At the turn of the century, the technical intelligence underwent a massification process. The activities undertaken by companies, municipa-lities and the state in social, commercial, transport and technical areas, acquired greater significance than political decision-making itself. This relates especially to activities concerning public administration, transport and communication, business, education and raising public awareness. The social composition of the technical intelligence also changed as a consequence of such developments. In this period, the nationalization of the technical intelligence became apparent for the first time as it attempted to control major municipal decisions concerning the deve¬lopment of a modern infrastructure in Prague. The nationalization of huge infrastructure projects was meant to provide the means to attain influence. This objective was declared in the 90’s, but it was only fulfilled after the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic.
Keywords: History, the 19th and 20th centuries, Prague, nationalism, infrastructure, technical intelligentsia


Josef HARNA
Slovakophilism of Czech “Realists” on the Eve of the First World War

Slovakophilism was a deeply-differentiated cultural and spiritual current which developed in the Czech milieu at the time of the national revival, and culminated in the years before the outbreak of the First World War. Its main objective was to encourage the intellectual and emotional rapprochement between Czechs and Slovaks. It also aimed to promote Slovak society’s development. To reach their aims, Slovakophiles made use of Czech political realism as one of the many currents of thought available. Czech realist media inexhaustibly published series of essays familiarising Czech readers with the Slovak world and giving suggestions for other activities which could promote understanding of the differences and accelerate the rapprochement process. Thanks to these activities, the base was created which later allowed for the development of the concept of a common state of Czechs and Slovaks even if this result didn’t belong to the original aims of its protagonists. It was actually T.G. Masaryk who created of this concept. During World War II, he gained an in-depth knowledge of the Slovak environment and carried through the results of the hard work of dozens of intellectuals who had prepared the ground in the Czech milieu for the realization of this unique solution. The media response to the Czech press points to the Czech realists’ critical view of the Slovak situation, which was not always understood by the romantically-disposed Slovaks. Although the project of a common state is now a matter of the past, its existence had lasting benefits for both nations. The work of the Czech realists who supported Slovakophilism undoubtedly played an important role in its formation.
Keywords: History, the 20th century, Czechs, Slovaks, Slovakophilism, politics, the Czechoslovak State


Bohuslav LITERA
The Rise and fall of the Red Cavalry in the Russian Civil War (1918‒1920). The Case of the 1st Cavalry Army

Between 1918 and 1920, the 1st Cavalry Army, a formation of the Red Army, reflected the way in which the peasant world had been transformed and deformed by the civil war. The army itself drafted or rather forcibly conscripted young men, its members chose their own lower-rank commanders, and ensured its own supplies, arms and equipment. It didn’t originate from the initiative of either the military or the political authorities in Moscow, but rather it evolved from „below“, more precisely from partisan divisions. Formed mainly by peasants, these divisions arose out of local conditions and resources, and aimed at defending the people from the „whites“. Their small units relied on men from one or more neighbouring villages, and the soldiers knew each other. The personality of the commander – in this case S. M. Budyonny ‒ guaranteed the integrity of each division and consequently of the whole army. In its way, the divisions resembled more a set of small units whose members knew one another and felt a sense of solidarity typical of small groups enabling them to endure the wartime hardships better than in other sections of the army. These informal groups further created the basis for the formation of clans loyal to Budyonny. The crisis of the 1st Cavalry Army, the elite unit of the Red Army, was a sign that the Bolshevik regime was about to face new trends: the disintegration of its power base, without which it could never have won the civil war, but which now threatened to destroy it, i.e. the unrest and rebellion of Red Army units which had begun to fall apart. Felix E. Dzerzhinsky, director of the „All-Russian Emergency Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage“, also known as Checa, gave an order on 24th September 1920 in which it transpires that even this organization was afflicted by lethargy, indiscipline and disrespect for higher authorities. The Red Army soldiers were mostly peasants, who tired, disillusioned and hungry, were rife to start a rebellion. Furthermore, the country was afflicted by widespread famines and there were outbreaks of several larger and minor uprisings especially in the countryside. The only solution was to effectuate a fundamental change in the overall state political system: the transition from the politics of War Communism to the New Economic Policy.
Keywords: History, the 20th century, Russia, the civil war, Polish-Soviet war, the army


Pavel KLADIWA
Ethnic Classification and Institutional Affiliation of Nationalities in Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1938

The interests of the state was significantly reflected in the ethnic (national) classification and in the institutional affiliation of nationalities in Czechoslovakia. At the same time, the state had to take into consideration the trends in social and political development, the rise of the importance of national identity and the interconnection of national and civil right, as well as the series of commitments agreed on in Paris in 1919. The Czechoslovak state provided the majority of people from different nationalities with solid conditions for developing a national life. The problematic definition of nationalities used the 1921 and 1930 population censuses was created to defend the interests of the nation. The main problems of the Czechoslovak Republic were twofold. On the one hand, the state power did not assume the role of referee standing above competing nationalities – unlike what happened in Cisleithania ‒ while on the other hand, it actually tended to identify with one nationality only. After the establishment of the Republic, Czech politicians became dissatisfied with the concept of mother tongue when the intergeneration language assimilation necessarily led to a change in the respondent’s first language. Therefore, the 1921 census included a hybrid category for nationality (the mother tongue) with the clear message that ‘mother tongue’ relates to a person‘s group of origin regardless of his or her actual language usage. The Czechoslovak state completely excluded municipal governments from the process of carrying out population censuses, thereby greatly reducing the risk of forced assimilation (i.e. recording „false“ nationalities under pressure) and of fraud. However, it wasn’t consistent in its policy and introduced measures which in the 1921 census almost excluded assimilation while in 1930 significantly made even voluntary assimilation very difficult (i.e. the registration statement of nationality in the census). After 1918, German officials in Czechoslovakia called for a secret ballot to reveal mother tongues or nationalities. The dispute between the two sides was only superficial. In reality, it was a means leaders used to fulfil their goal of ensuring that state power didn’t have the potential to „draw“ Germans into the Czechoslovak nationality. The present analysis covering two decades from 1918 to 1938 revealed the significance of the independent judicial power. The Supreme Administrative Court in Czechoslovakia acquired the executive power to clarify the meaning of the term „nationality“, and more specifically to elucidate the connection between mother tongue and nationality. The Czechoslovak census formally defended the principle of the subjective concept of nationality. However, free choice of nationality was limited by the mother tongue, which became an objectively-defined criterion.
Keywords: History, the 20th century, Czechoslovakia, the nationality issue, population census


Sylva SKLENÁŘOVÁ
Cultural Relations between the Netherlands and Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1938 from the Perspective of the Netherlands-Czechoslovak Association

The Netherlands – Czechoslovak Association was established due to the initiative of prominent representatives of Dutch social life who were interested in the cultural rapprochement between the Netherlands and Czechoslovakia. With the help of the diplomatic representatives of both countries, the association first appeared in 1922. Even if it initially developed at a rather slow pace, eventually it became more and more active and some of its activities included celebrating traditional Czechoslovak events, such as the public holiday of the Czechoslovak Republic and Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk’s birthday. Many important figures of the Dutch public life and other members of the international diplomatic staff were often present at such events. Similarly, the association managed to organize over the years a number of musical events with the presence of major Czechoslovak artists and ensembles. The members of the association were themselves very active in delivering lectures on the history, current affairs, culture and natural environment of the Czechoslovak Republic. Some of them even organized exhibitions showing the Dutch people the beauty of Czechoslovakia. The Dutch public encountered works of Czech composers and the visit of the operatic ensemble of the National Theatre in Prague became a sought-after event.  Thanks to the efforts of the association’s members, the products of the art industry reached the Netherlands. A significant moment in the mutual cultural relations was the selection of the final place of rest of John Amos Comenius in Naarden in 1929, to which even members of the association contributed. In 1935, the restored chapel of the former Walloon church with John Amos Comenius’ remains was ceremonially reopened in Naarden. The Netherlands – Czechoslovak Association played an important role in the cultural relations between the two states especially when the actual signing of a cultural agreement took place in 1937. Thanks to its engagement, Czechoslovak culture was regularly presented to the Dutch public. The Second World War interrupted the activities of the association and after the war it ceased to exist due to the new political direction of the Czechoslovak Republic following the coup in February 1948.
Keywords: History, the 20th century, Czechoslovakia, The Netherlands, the Netherlands – Czechoslovak Association, the interwar period


František EMMERT
The Legal Institution of the Reich Citizenship in the Expansionary and Racial Policy of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945

The Nazi takeover of Germany‘s political power in the first half of 1933 was connected to the rapid infiltration of the fundamentals of Nazi racist ideology in everyday life. In a very short time, the new government, backed by legislation and the declaration of a state of emergency, managed to modify the existing German legal code, dating back to the 19th century, in accordance with its own political intentions and concepts. Many of the legal code‘s sections underwent sudden and fundamental changes. The thesis that „national membership” (or nationality) was superior to „state membership” (i.e. citizenship) and that citizenship should be derived exclusively from „national membership“, constituted an essential pillar of Nazi racist doctrine for the implementation of racist policy. These principles were expounded in the Reich Citizenship Law of 1935 which, within the following eight years, was gradually supplemented by a total of thirteen regulations to implement the doctrine. Eventually, Jews were deprived of any rights including their citizenship long before their deportation to concentration and extermination camps. In 1935 the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour was also published. The so-called Reich Citizenship became an important tool in the occupation and Germanization policy of Nazi Germany from 1938 to 1945.
Keywords: History, the 20th century, Nazi Germany, the Reich Citizenship, racism, nationalism


Martin KLEČACKÝ
Josef Ježek and Otto Bláha – the Story of Two Gendarmes Generals before the National Court from 1945 to 1954

The study follows the parallel life stories of two gendarmes generals Josef Ježek and Otto Bláha, whose careers peaked during the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.  They were both of Czech origin and began their careers as officers in the Austro-Hungarian military. For several reasons, they both transferred to the gendarmerie in the same year and that’s where they first met. After the war years and the disintegration of the Habsburg Empire, they offered their services to the Czechoslovak state expecting new opportunities and above all a career advancement. However, their Austrian past caught up with them eventually. Both were very ambitious and saw in each other a rival for higher positions. This aversion resulted in a series of disputes and actions for libel and slander which were won by Josef Ježek, who artfully had secured a position in the military department of the Ministry of the Interior. Otto Bláha’s career, on the other hand, didn’t develop in the best of ways despite his undeniable abilities. Because of his disputes with his superiors, espionage scandals and chaotic family life, he was gradually excluded from higher command positions, and finally in the mid-1930s he was forced into retirement. His adversary Josef Ježek, however, received a promotion to the rank of gendermes general and provincial commander in Slovakia a later in Bohemia. The Munich Agreement and the German occupation that followed in March 1939 brought fundamental changes in the state’s internal affairs. This period offered both officers new possibilities. In the Protectorate, Bláha offered his services to both Czech and German authorities. His new career under the Protectorate began with his appointment as committee member of the Czech Union for Cooperation with Germany. The German occupation offered Josef Ježek the position of Minister of Interior under Eliáš’s protectorate government. In normal circumstances, the gendermes general would have been unlikely to be at the head of such an important organ of power. After the war, Bláha and Ježek were brought before the National Court. While Bláha’s case was the first and the former gendermes general was sentenced to death, a year later the court refrained from punishing Ježek despite that fact that he was found guilty. It wasn’t until the communist regime in the 1950s that Josef Ježek was arrested again and sentenced to life imprisonment.
Keywords: History, the 20th century, the Civil Guard, Josef Ježek, Otto Bláha, the Protectorate, the National Court


Drahomír JANČÍK – Tomáš KALINA
„Our plan is one of ingenious improvisation.“ The Formation of the Concept of the Czechoslovak Biennial and its Contradictory Results (1946‒1948)

The basic concept of the two-year recovery plan was developed by the National Economics Committee of the Communist Party shortly before the 1946 May elections. After its victory and the selection of K. Gottwald as Prime Minister, the Communist Party incorporated the previously-prepared biennial concept in the so-called Constructive Programme of the government. Conceptually and content-wise, the programme was prepared by the communist national economists L. Frejka and J. Goldmann, who had spent the war years in Great Britain where they had had the opportunity to learn about indicative planning. They reformulated it by combining it with some elements of Soviet planning methodology (the control of the crown) and with domestic experience, especially with the system of business management used at Baťa in Zlín. According to its political objectives, the two-year plan was to increase production and consumption by 10% compared to 1937. With regards to production, the main aim was to overcome the budget deficit in the areas of fuel and energy, raw materials (especially iron and steel), numerous investment products (e.g. locomotives, lorries and agricultural machinery) and basic consumer products (footwear and textile). The National Assembly supervised the implementation of the law on the two-year economic plan by establishing a special commission, which not only controlled its execution, but also helped considerably to reinforce the powers of the government, which was authorized to issue orders or take action for the fulfilment of the plan. In the course of the two-year plan, the number of so-called specific tasks for industry and agriculture was gradually increased. Inconsistencies in the plan were observed especially after the 1948 February coup when the development of heavy industry was given greater importance. The two-year recovery plan had by now been diverted from its original concept. While being implemented, it began to introduce unintended structural industrial changes and basically became a mere prelude to the first five-year plan.
Keywords: History, 20th century, Czechoslovakia, economic development 1945‒1948, planning, two-year plan of economic recovery 1947‒1948, Central Planning Committee


Petr CHALUPECKÝ ‒ Zdenka JOHNSON
Promoting the Marxist-Leninist theory in Czechoslovak monetary thought from 1945 to 1955

This article deals with the implementation of Marxist-Leninist political economy in the Czechoslovak monetary thought. The aim of the study is to highlight the causes of this change and at the same time to document the lack of foundation of this doctrine in Czech economic thought on the eve of World War II. The study is based on the thesis that the implementation of this school of thought could take place only through political and power enforcement, since the majority of Czech society was not inclined towards socialism. On the basis of existing knowledge, the study focuses on three basic economic theories. The Czechoslovak monetary thought in the second half of the 1940s resulted from the differentiation established in the interwar period. Keynesianism was the dominant school. It was divided in two threads: the original Keynesianism, based on Anglo-Saxon economic thought, and the central-European Keynesianism, in which certain key conclusions of Keynes’ theory were adapted to the context of the German economic tradition. In this area another school of thought evolved out of Karel Engliš’s teachings who, compared to the pre-war period, didn’t influence to a great extent either the academic or the economic-political debate. The third school was the Marxist one which from 1945 to 1948 began to slowly embed itself in Czechoslovak institutions and personnel. The 1948 Communist coup eliminated the most prominent economists of non-Marxist monetary theory from academic and public life and replaced them with new experts trained in the Marxist-Leninist theory. Due to its eclectic nature, the monopolization of the Marxist-Leninist economic theory, however, was only short-lived.
Keywords: History, Czechoslovakia, the 1950s, economic thought, monetary policy, monetary theories, Marxism-Leninism, university education


Gustav NOVOTNÝ
The Unusual Fate of an Archivist and Historian in Communist Totalitarian Czechoslovakia. Antonín Verbík’s Story (1934‒1986)

Antonín Verbík (1934–1986), an archivist and historian, whose death came prematurely, had received an outstanding secondary and tertiary education. He worked for sixteen years in six archival institutions in Czechoslovakia and became director of three of them. The subsequent fifteen years he worked as an expert and independent researcher of the most recent Czechoslovak history at the Institute of History. His life and work were limited to a great extent by the times he lived in. The biography we are translating is Antonín Verbík’s first memorial after 1986. He lived in his birthplace and later in Brno which he grew to love and chose as his home. In Brno he was honoured and esteemed but later almost forgotten. Verbik’s fate was not kind to him and after his death there appeared only a few obituaries dedicated to him in the Biographical Dictionary of Czechoslovak Archivists. The post-war developments allowed for specialized historical and biographical literature to mention the subjects he studied, but Verbík is only referred to briefly there. He was overlooked as an outstanding specialist in his field probably because the newest branch of Czechoslovak history, to which he dedicated the last fifteen years of his life, is not of public interest nowadays. After 1989 his political engagement, which would take precedence over his specialized knowledge, was to become a drawback. After World War II, Verbík was active in the social and political life of his time as a student of philosophy and later as an archivist and historian. It was a time when new political and economic regulations and social reforms were being implemented and were soon followed by violent political change in the communist coup d’état. From the 1950s onwards, he was a communist advocating and defending the political, economic, social and cultural interests of the ruling Communist Party. Today we should try to separate the two components of expertise and political engagement of this exceptional scholar.
Keywords: History, the 20th century, archival science, historiography, science, education, Moravia, Czechoslovakia