Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

MODERNÍ DĚJINY
roč. 19, 2011, č. 1



OBSAH • CONTENT


STUDIE • STUDIES


Nina MILOTOVÁ
Kulturně-politické aktivity českého národního hnutí na Podřipsku v letech 1860–1914
[Cultural and political activities of the Czech national movement in the surroundings of Mount Říp from 1860 to 1914]
s. 1–46

Jan ČOPÍK – Jaroslav ČMEJREK
Lokální politické stranictví na českém venkově od sklonku 19. století do roku 1945
[Political parties and their provincial activities from the late 19th century to 1945]
s. 47–66

Andrej TÓTH
Zemská křesťansko-socialistická strana v Československu pod vedením hraběte
Jánose Esterházyho v letech 1933–1935
[The Provincial Christian Socialist Party in Czechoslovakia led by Count János Esterházy in the period of 1933–1935]
s. 67–103

Miroslav ŠEPTÁK
Hledání Benešova nástupce. Zákulisí jmenování československého ministra zahraničí
[Seeking Beneš’ successor. Background of the appointment of a new Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia]
s. 105–122

Jan KUKLÍK – Jan NĚMEČEK
Sir Frederick Leith-Ross a jednání o pomnichovské půjčce Česko-Slovensku
[Sir Frederick Leith-Ross and the negotiations about a post-Munich loan to Czecho-Slovakia]
s. 123–156

Martin MAREK
Z baťovského Zlína do světa: Směry transferu a kvalifikační kritéria přesouvaných baťovských zaměstnanců v letech 1938–1941
[From Baťa’s Zlín abroad: Destinations and qualification criteria for Baťa workers transferred in 1938–1941]
s. 157–197

Jana HAVLÍNOVÁ
Československý olympijský výbor v letech 1945–1948 a příprava letních olympijských her
v Londýně 1948
[The Czechoslovak Olympic Committee 1945–1948 and the preparation for Summer Olympic Games in London 1948]
s. 199–235


MATERIÁLY • MATERIALS


Wolfgang MÜLLER-FUNK
Die Lasten der Vergangenheit: Österreicher und Tschechen im europäischen Kontext
[Burdens of the past: Austrians and Czechs in the European context]
s. 237–253


KRONIKA • CHRONICLE


Prof. Stanley Bisguier Winters, Ph.D. (5. června 1924 – 28. ledna 2011)
[Prof. Stanley Bisguier Winters, Ph.D. (5 June 1924 – 28 January 2011)]
(Editorial Board and Academic Council of the journal Moderní dějiny)
s. 255–256

Výběrová bibliografie k životu a dílu Stanley B. Winterse
[Selective bibliography for the life and work of Stanley B. Winters]
(Sestavila Václava Horčáková)
s. 256–260

Významné životní jubileum. PhDr. Vlastislav Lacina, CSc.
[Important anniversary: PhDr. Vlastislav Lacina, CSc.]
(Redakce a Vědecká rada časopisu Moderní dějiny)
s. 260–261

Jiří ŠTAIF
Mezinárodní konference Kulturní politika a divadlo v evropských impériích. „Kulturní stát“ Rakousko v mezinárodním srovnání. Vídeň, 19.–20. listopadu 2010
[International conference Cultural Policy and Theater in European Empires.
The “Cultural State” of Austria in international comparison. Vienna,19th – 20th
November, 2010]
s. 261–263

Jaroslav ŠEBEK
Kolokvium k pronásledování katolické církve v době komunismu
[Colloquy on Catholic Church persecution during the Communist era]
s. 263–265

Jindřich DEJMEK
Konference o zrodu „nové Evropy“ v letech 1919–1920
[Conference on the emergence of “New Europe” in the years 1919–1920]
s. 265–268


RECENZE • REVIEWS


Nový pohled na sociální dějiny 18. a 19. století
Alice VELKOVÁ, Krutá vrchnost, ubozí poddaní? Proměny venkovské rodiny a společnosti v 18. a první polovině 19. století na příkladu západočeského panství Šťáhlavy, Praha, Historický ústav 2009, 586 s. (Práce Historického ústavu AV ČR, Řada A – Monographia, sv. 27)
ISBN 978-80-7286-151-4.
s. 269–272
(Pavel Cibulka)

Dvě významné publikace k dějinám 19. století

Jiří ŠTAIF, František Palacký: Život, dílo a mýtus, Praha, Vyšehrad 2009, 392 s. ISBN 978-80-7021-981-2.
(Milan Hlavačka)
s. 272–273

Zdeněk JINDRA, Když Krupp byl „dělovým králem“… Fa Fried. Krupp/Essen od založení ocelárny po rozšíření ve zbrojovku a koncern (1811 – počátek 90. let 19. století), Praha, Karolinum 2009, 640 s. ISBN 978-80-246-1951-2.
(Petr Prokš)
s. 273


SUMMARY


Nina MILOTOVÁ
Cultural and political activities of the Czech national movement in the surroundings of Mount Říp from 1860 to 1914
The present study deals with the development and form of cultural activities in the surroundings of Mount Říp (Roudnice nad Labem District, i.e., Roudnice region) in the final phase of formation of a modern Czech nation between 1860 and 1914. The wider area of that region belonged to the nationally most active regions of Bohemia since the early 19th century and the national activities in that area culminated in the period under consideration. The region of Roudnice was a compact and geographically homogeneous, rich and fertile agricultural area with a strong majority of Czech population, adjacent at that time in the north to German regions of Bohemia, and thus constituted an ethnic and language boundary. Until the Tolerance Patent of 1781 a large Protestant minority had survived here (in the period under consideration, a number of members and supporters of the national movement came from the Protestant milieu). The reasons of the strong local Czech national movement, whose influence spread beyond the limits of the region, can be found in two fields.  The first one is the work of highly active regional leaders (they largely contributed to the growth of activities within the region itself and, owing to their contacts, they were also able to bring leading persons of the nation to the region; as a result, the region surrounding Říp maintained close contacts, e.g., with Jan Neruda, Jaroslav Vrchlický, Bedřich Smetana, Grégr brothers, etc.). The leading cultural and political activists in the region were, in particular, Ervín Špindler (1843–1918), a writer, poet, journalist and politician, who also translated Josef Wenzig’s German librettos for Smetana’s operas Dalibor and Libuše; and August Švagrovský (1847–1931), a patron of cultural activities and of a number of artists (such as Anto¬nín Slavíček) and founder of the Gallery of Modern Arts in Roudnice (1910). Also the marriage of August’s three sisters, whose husbands were Jan Zeyer (brother of the poet Julius Zeyer, architect, builder, and representative of Czech Neorenaissance), František Vejdovský (founder of modern Czech zoology), and the lawyer Vojtěch Frič (brother of J. V. Frič), who married Růžena Švagrovská (1851–1935) in Roudnice in 1875, helped establish close contacts between the region and Prague. The other reason was the important role of “ripe circumstances”, the emergence of suitable social conditions that enabled further development of the national movement. This resulted in various activities, such as those situated in the surroundings of Mount Říp, which became a national symbol and a place of national myth in the 19th century. Inspiration in that landscape, constituting an important cultural symbol in general, was sought – in addition to poets – also by painters, such as Mikoláš Aleš, Josef Mánes or Julius Mařák. The complexity of national requirements where not only cultural, but also political, economic and social aspects were mixed and intertwined, can also be seen in particular events and happenings held in the area of Mount Říp. Thus, the cultural life in the region was also influenced by political party disputes and by the strongly perceived national problems.
Key words: History, 19th and 20th centuries, Czech national movement, culture


Jan ČOPÍK – Jaroslav ČMEJREK
Political parties and their provincial activities from the late 19th century to 1945

The beginning of a modern political party system is closely linked with the beginning of parliamentarism, emergence of public opinion, and upswing of political and social life. The latter was developing in former Cisleithania from the 1860s on, and as of the 1890s the political parties, which until that time had been based on nobilities, were gradually transformed into mass organizations. The aim of the study is to explain the emergence and evolution of political party life in the Czech provincial milieu by using eight municipalities as examples. Most of the communities are situated in the region of Náchod and their local political life is followed from the late 19th century to 1945. The study, which is based on a number of various documents (local chronicles, lists of candidates, lists of local council members, meeting records of local political party organizations) and to some extent also on interviews, shows a close interconnection between the emerging local political party life and the evolution of civic society, as well as other forms of public activities in Bohemia’s countryside. It also shows, to a much greater extent than it is possible today, the close connection of political activities with the economic interests of particular political stream membership. Another typical feature of political party life during the existence of Cisleithania and postwar Czechoslovakia is the deep rootedness of national political parties in local communities. The links to local communities were broken with the destruction of the party-based political system after 1938 and were never fully restored.
Key words: History, 19th and 20th centuries, Bohemian Lands, Czechoslovakia, political parties


Andrej TÓTH
The Provincial Christian Socialist Party in Czechoslovakia led by Count János Esterházy in the period of 1933–1935

Count János Esterházy, the new chairman of the Provincial Christian Socialist Party (OKSzP) elected to its leading position in December 1932, confirmed his commitment to the Party’s main political line of opposition to the centralistic state administration and the unambiguous political support to territorial autonomy for Slovakia. He made it clear that the Hungarians in Czechoslovakia categorically refused any concession in this particular question. Thus, the OKSzP under Esterházy’s leadership continued to be committed to the negativist opposition policy of the Hungarian Christian Socialists as stabilized since the appearance of Géza Szüllő in its top position in 1925. Irrespective of the common political goal of the Hungarian Christian Socialists and the Slovakian autonomists and in spite of the ongoing talks with Hlinka’s Slovakian People’s Party (HSĽS) it proved impossible before the fourth Parliament elections in prewar Czechoslovakia to create a monolithic Slovak-Hungarian autonomist bloc. Also the relation of the Hungarian minority’s political representation to the Sudeten German parties remained rather lukewarm, taking only the form of unbinding consultation contacts without reaching the level of organized and coordinated binding political cooperation, in spite of the pressure of German government circles. The fourth Parliament elections in prewar Czechoslovakia only confirmed the already constant opposition and negativistic policy of the OKSzP, which obtained seven mandates in the country’s National Assembly. On the MP benches was now sitting also Party Chairman János Esterházy, who used the very first opportunity in the House to unambiguously reconfirm the constant opposition and autonomist political line of the Hungarian Christian Socialists.
Key words: History, 20th century, politics, Czechoslovakia, Hungarians


Miroslav ŠEPTÁK
Seeking Beneš’ successor. Background of the appointment of a new Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia

The worsening health of Tomáš G. Masaryk made the question of his successor closely linked with the appointment of a new head of the country’s diplomacy, since the President in case of his abdication designated Beneš as his successor. Based on unpublished sources of Czech and Austrian origin, memoirs and professional literature the author analyzes in his study the background of the appointment of a successor to Beneš between 1934 and 1936. Much attention is paid to the implementation of foreign policy by Milan Hodža, as it was at that time that the key negotiations concerning the appointment of a new head of the Foreign Office were taking place. The strongest “Czechoslovak” Agrarian Party, seeking redress for its failure at the recent Presidential election, wished to have in that position its own candidate and refused to accept Kamil Krofta, suggested by Beneš. Hodža’s poor success and some of his wrongdoings soon caused his recall and helped Beneš to put through Krofta’s candidacy. Thus, the President could continue significantly influencing the formulation of Czechoslovak foreign policy. During the ten weeks in his position of Foreign Office head Milan Hodža developed his own idea of arrangement for Central Europe whose first stage, cooperation between the Little Entente countries and the Rome Protocols signatories, was to be achieved via personal contacts with selected politicians. The poor success achieved during that period of time cannot be ascribed to his incompetence, but rather to the limitations of a small state in the international system where the interests of great powers, often conflicting, prevailed. Hodža as Foreign Minister was quite active, but he sometimes acted impulsively. His poor success and some mistakes (such as the ill-judged promise to visit Vienna, controversial comments for newspapers) were used for his recall by Beneš, who could also break the resistance of the Agrarians who did not want, even at the cost of another major defeat in a short period of time, to further stir the relations between them and the President. The appointment of Kamil Krofta as Foreign Minister was a great success of Beneš who could thus achieve two goals.  He became Masaryk’s successor and, at the same time, he could continue strongly influencing the formulation of foreign policy. Krofta became head of Czechoslovakia’s diplomacy on February 29th and remained in that position until the dramatic autumn events of 1938.
Key words: History, 20th century, Edvard Beneš, Milan Hodža, Kamil Krofta, Czechoslovak foreign policy, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Agrarian Party


Jan KUKLÍK – Jan NĚMEČEK
Sir Frederick Leith-Ross and the negotiations about a post-Munich loan to Czecho-Slovakia

The study deals with the economic consequences of the Munich Agreement and with their solution by the Czechoslovak government. One of the key items of the plan was expected to be a financial loan granted by two Munich Agreement signatories, France and Great Britain. Sir Frederick Leith Ross as Chief Economic Advisor to the British Government played a very important role in the negotiations. The financial loan, for which 10 million pounds were to be provided by the British government (although the Czechoslovak costs were much higher), was intended to cover the economic reconstruction of Czechoslovakia after the cession of industrially developed regions and the interruption of transportation ways, as well as the financial support to the refugees from Czechoslovakia. The talks between the British representatives and the Czechoslovak delegation, headed by Vilém Pospíšil, started in mid-October 1938 and their first material result was an advance of 10 million pounds granted by the British party to the National Bank of Czechoslovakia. Further difficult negotiations followed with the Czechoslovak side having to accept the obligation of not discriminating the refugees in access to the loan, not misusing the funds for other purposes, etc. The talks were closed on 27th January, 1939 by signing a three-party agreement on the financial loan granted to Czecho-Slovakia, according to which a total amount of 12 million pounds (including the advance already provided) was agreed, out of which 4 million pounds constituted a special gift as a support to refugees and 8 million pounds were a loan primarily intended to create the conditions needed to accommodate the refugees from ceded regions, with the remaining funds to be used to reconstruct the Czecho-Slovak transportation infrastructure. Then, a special British law (Czecho-Slovakia, Financial Assistance Bill) was passed by the British Parliament, which was followed by an exchange of diplomatic notes between Czecho-Slovakia and Great Britain confirming the parliamentary approval. Unfortunately, the German aggression against Czecho-Slovakia of March, 1939 made it impossible to make full use of the loan.
Key words: History, 20th century, Munich Agreement, economic relations, Czechoslovak-British relations


Martin MAREK
From Baťa’s Zlín abroad: Destinations and qualification criteria for Baťa workers transferred in 1938–1941

The present study closes the preceding research into the mass transfers of Baťa staff on the eve of the Second World War and at its outbreak. A priority of the present study is the interpretation of mass transfers in the context of questions and problems related to the Company management strategy on the one hand and the general political situation on the other. Attention is particularly paid to the preferred transfer destinations and, in relation to the transferees, also to some of the selection criteria applied (education level, knowledge of languages, etc.), whose detailed analysis was only possible owing to the available database containing almost eleven hundred staff members transferred.
In our research into the topic under consideration we have always deliberately selected the problem orientation which makes it also possible to answer some more general questions related to the phenomenon of Baťa business, while trying to integrate our findings concerning these isolated facts into the general spectrum of different social phenomena. A similar “problem-integrating” procedure was also applied here, which made it possible to identify the main points of intersection of the Baťa transfers with the then typical forms of migration and of the most suitable concepts of their study. The Baťa transfers representing a specific type of economic migration exhibit most of the characteristic features of today’s frequent phenomenon of internal company transfers implemented by large private corporations. The practice of sending and withdrawing staff members serves in the study as evidence of the fact that already at that time the internationalization of business activities brought an advantage to companies in the form of flexible qualified labor doing not only their narrow profession, but possessing also large experience gained in international operations of their parent company. This approach, however, could constitute a great handicap for workers subject to racist attitudes if the political situation complicated their return to their original country. Baťa Company, viewing them as one of the investment forms, was no more interested in sending them abroad if the future use of their experience gained abroad in the parent company was at stake.
Key words: History, 20th century, Czechoslovakia, Baťa, economy


Jana HAVLÍNOVÁ
The Czechoslovak Olympic Committee 1945–1948 and the preparation for Summer Olympic Games in London 1948

The first postwar Olympic Games held in London in 1948 played a particular role in the history of sports as that event was intended to become a symbol of the reestablished unity of all nations.  As a result of the six-year war conflict a number of Olympic committees were affected both by a suspension of their activities and by a loss of many outstanding sportsmen.  Resumption of activities was also an important task for the Czechoslovak Olympic Committee, which since the very first days of its existence had not only to cope with the poor financial situation, but primarily to solve the problem of its relation to the Slovak Olympic Committee that had become independent during the war. An agreement was reached and both committees merged. Then, the Czechoslovak Olympic Committee dealt with the preparation for the forth¬coming Olympic Games, including such tasks as pre-Olympic training of sportsmen and funding of the national delegation, or promotion of the Olympic idea among the sports-related and general public. Owing to the Committee’s efforts and also thanks to the government a sufficient amount of money was obtained and many excellent sportsmen could attend the event. Czechoslovak representatives often showed surprising performances. Through its work, the Czechoslovak Olympic Committee could influence to some extent the political development in the country even after February 1948, as the Communist regime was still consolidating at that time and paid much more attention to other priorities than to sports. Although the difficult postwar situation was far from promising a smooth course of the Games, the challenge could finally be coped with and both the sportsmen and the spectators eventually enjoyed unforgettable sports events.
Keywords: History, 20th century, Czechoslovakia, Olympic Games


Wolfgang MÜLLER-FUNK
Burdens of the past: Austrians and Czechs in the European context

The common Czech-Austrian past can be discussed at a different level than before, namely at the nonpolitical level to identify the preconditions of mutual reconciliation. There is probably a general rule saying that reconciliation between persons, groups of people and nations can only be achieved if they rid themselves of their past, abandon their traditional national positions and cross the symbolical boundaries of previous behavior patterns. In addition, the term ‘reconciliation’ has different meanings on the Austrian and the Czech sides. In Czech, it means rather a compromise and settlement with legal consequences. In German, however, the word “Versöhnung” has, in addition to the ethical connotation, also a religious aspect meaning symbolical sacrifice. Thus, the act of “Versöhnung” means a return to the previous friendly relations, but with the reservation that I give up a part of my conviction and put in advance a certain dose of (conditional) trust in my counterpart. The act of reconciliation also requires creation of a common symbolical intermediate space that must be respected by both sides and that serves as a space of mutual remembrance, while the remembrance must be a dialog, not only an intellectual explanation of (and sometimes dispute over) symbols and meanings. And this remembrance in that intermediate space includes also something specifically Christian, something similar to man’s reconciliation with God through the figure of Jesus Christ, while nationalism is the current gospel and post-Christian ethics is represented here by psychoanalysis. The result of such cleansing should be the feeling of shame, guilt, and a new cognitive and emotional reconsideration of memories. Accepting one’s own responsibility may have a positive effect, as it is also a sign of national maturity. Although clearly naming the past evil that is encoded in memory is certainly no guarantee that it would never repeat any more, it still is a promise of inner peace and is a sign of breaking with one’s own past in the interest of the future. In other words: It is possible to forget because we have remembered, and the cleansing process of remembering turns into apparent mental hygiene. Currently, we are also facing the fact that the Czech-Austrian history is part of European remembrance and that it is also part of an important political decision whether we want to “structurally” revise and break with our ideas of classical national state and of its ideological expression. Of course, such structural breaking with the past means also to stop instrumentalizing at every suitable opportunity the political trump-card of the counterpart’s old guilt.
Keywords: History, 20th century, nationalism, Czechs, Germans, reconciliation