Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

MODERNÍ DĚJINY
roč. 18, 2010, č. 1. 251 s.



OBSAH • CONTENT


STUDIE • STUDIES


Kristýna ULMANOVÁ
Český cestovatel-turista na světových výstavách ve druhé polovině 19. století
[Czech tourists visiting world exhibitions in the latter half of the 19th century]
s. 1–34

Jiří MATĚJČEK
Existence v českých zemích v 19. a 20. století („Jak se lidi měli“, „co měli ze ľivota“, co chtěli a nechtěli, co mohli (a co bylo „správné“) a jak se o to přičiňovali.) Výchozí úvaha
[Way of life in the Bohemian Lands in the 19th and 20th centuries (How did people do, how did they enjoy life, which were/were not their needs and wishes (and what was „correct“), and what they did to that end.) Introductory study.]
s. 35–75

Andrej TÓTH
Nástup hraběte Jánose Esterházyho do čela maďarské Zemské křes»ansko-socialistické strany v Československu na sklonku roku 1932
[Count János Esterházy‘s rise to the leading position in the Hungarian Provincial Christian-Socialist Party in Czechoslovakia at the end of the year 1932]
s. 77–101

Martin MAREK – Vít STROBACH
„Batismus, urychlená modernita a průkopníci práce“. Personální politika Ba»ova koncernu a řízené přesuny zaměstnanců v letech 1938–1941
[„Batism, accelerated modernity and labor pioneers“. Ba»a Group’s staff deployment policy and controlled staff transfers in 1938–1941]
s. 103–153

Валентина Владимировна МАРЬИНА
Российская историография Второй мировой войны после крушения коммунистического режима: традиции и ревизия
[Russian historiography of World War II after the fall of the Communist regime: Tradition and Revision]
s. 155–183

Jindřich DEJMEK
Byla v roce 1948 reálná „finlandizace“ Československa? Stručná komparace situace Finska a Československa v letech 1944–1948
[Was a “finlandization“ of Czechoslovakia realistic in 1948? A brief compa-rison of the situation of Finland and Czechoslovakia in the years 1944–1948]
s. 185–207

MATERIÁLY • MATERIALS


Jan NĚMEČEK
Korespondence Karola Sidora a Ferdinanda Kahánka z roku 1940
[Correspondence between Karol Sidor and Ferdinand Kahánek in 1940]
s. 209–230

KRONIKA • CHRONICLE



Redakce a Vědecká rada časopisu Moderní dějiny
Prof. PhDr. Vladimír Nálevka, CSc. (21. února 1941 – 6. června 2010)
[Prof. PhDr. Vladimír Nálevka, CSc. (21 February 1941 – 6 June 2010)]
s. 231

Petr PROK©
Prezentace nové publikace o Karlu Kramářovi (1860–1937)
[Presentation of new publication about Karel Kramář (1860–1937]
s. 232

Petr PROK©
Vědecký seminář Vatikán a Československo 1918–1938
[Scientific seminar “The Vatican and Czechoslovakia 1918–1938“]
s. 233–235

RECENZE • REVIEWS


Jakub RÁKOSNÍK, Odvrácená tvář meziválečné prosperity / Nezaměstnanost v Československu v letech 1918–1938, Praha, Karolinum 2008, 461 s.
ISBN 978-80-246-1429-8.
(René Petráą)
s. 237–241

Lukáą FASORA, Svobodný občan ve svobodném státě? Občanské elity a obecní samospráva města Brna 1851–1914, Brno, Matice moravská pro Výzkumné středisko pro dějiny střední Evropy Masarykovy univerzity 2007, 381 s.
ISBN 978-80-86488-43-1.
(Milan Hlavačka)
s. 241–242

René PETRÁ©, Menąiny v meziválečném Československu, Praha, Karolinum 2009, 437 s.
ISBN 978-80-246-1639-1.
(Josef Harna)
s. 242–244


SUMMARY

Kristýna ULMANOVÁ
Czech tourists visiting world exhibitions in the latter half of the 19th century

One of the types of Czech travelers visiting the world exhibitions that were held in Paris, London or in the USA in the latter half of the 19th century was, in addition to intellectuals and politicians, the tourist type. Tourists exhibited two main features: they traveled by the train, and they often used travel guides that reassured them about various clichés of the particular country where the exhibition was held. The tourist-type travelers constituted the largest group of visitors to the world exhibitions, and the exhibition organizers made therefore every endeavor to adapt those events to the needs of this particular group of people, as proved by a great number of attractions in the exhibition venues to the detriment of technical inventions, which were then increasingly displaced from the central area to marginal exhibition spaces. Czech tourists visiting the exhibitions could also meet members of other nations and get acquainted with their habits, such as meals etc., while their new experience was often a contradiction to the established cultural stereotypes and prejudices. Not infrequently the visitor’s confrontation with the foreign country motivated his own self-reflection.
Key words: History; 19th century; Czechs; traveling; tourism


Jiří MATĚJČEK
Way of life in the Bohemian Lands in the 19th and 20th centuries
(How did people do, how did they enjoy life, which were/were not their needs and wishes (and what was „correct“), and what they did to that end.) Introductory study.

At the beginning of this introductory study to future research the notion of “existence“ is defined and the following theoretical chapter contains main connections of social development concerning the theme. Then the significance of the research for Czech historiography is pointed to and the recent stage of research results is described, mainly in the field of the standard of living. After this ”quality of life“ is defined as a system of objective elements and „life feeling“ as an emotional evaluation of existence. A list of biological and social needs of life follows and the possibilities of research into their satisfaction are partly explained. For the research on the quality of population in the long-term development, influencing the recent si-tuation, a set of “pass-ports“ (lists of qualities) was elaborated, which our team has already published in a monograph from the year 2008: for some social groups and classes and some important periods repeatedly, too: so could changes be followed. The pass-ports are to be developed mainly for the sphere of „existence“ (dealing with needs, emotions, patterns, stereotypes…) and they have to be completed with a list of qualities for the groups little known until now in such important periods as the First Czechoslovak Republic or the period of socialist decultivation. In the last part of the paper useful issues and steps are shown.
Key words: History; 19th and 20th century; Czech Lands; social existence


Andrej TÓTH
Count János Esterházy‘s rise to the leading position in the Hungarian Provincial Christian-Socialist Party in Czechoslovakia at the end of the year 1932

The turn of the 1920s constituted an important milestone in the political life of the Hungarian minority in Czechoslovakia. One of the factors influencing the happenings in the Party structures at that time was the pressure from the new matu¬ring generation.  However, the internal unity of the apparatus of Hungarian minority parties was also compromised by the general crisis concerning their political orientation that produced different opposition fractions across all age categories. The diversity of opinions and concepts in the two biggest Hungarian minority parties was particularly strong in the Hungarian Provincial Christian-Socialist Party (OKSzP), which was also the first to regenerate its Party structures. Budapest, too, showed interest in the changes taking place in the Hungarian minority party structures after the decade-long existence of the government headed by Count István Bethlen had come to an end on August 16th, 1931. With the new Hungarian political teams new expectations appeared that the new Hungarian Government in Budapest did not link any more to the merited political representatives of the Hungarian minority in Czechoslovakia. As a result, the position of the then Party Chairman Géza Szüllő was undermined. From the autumn of 1931 on, the new Hungarian Government called for a change in the top position of the Party suggesting Count János Esterházy as the most suitable Party Chairman candidate. Many people were quite surprised by Esterházy’s rocketing career, as he had not held any posts in the OKSzP Party structures before and, therefore, failed to have the necessary experience. Although some top Party structures opposed Esterházy as a candidate for the position of new OKSzP Chairman, the Party Committee elected János Esterházy on 14th December, 1932 to that position. Esterházy’s promotion strengthened even more the Christian political orientation of the Party, which under his leadership became a true Christian social party. Thus, in the early 1930s, Esterházy became one of the most important political leaders of the Hungarian minority in Czechoslovakia.
Key words: History; 20th century; politics; Czechoslovakia; Hungarians


Martin MAREK – Vít STROBACH
„Batism, accelerated modernity and labor pioneers“. Ba»a Group’s staff deployment policy and controlled staff trans¬fers in 1938–1941

The study deals with what is known as controlled dispatch of selected staff to be deployed as labor pioneers in new Ba»a factories abroad, and with the organization of such transfers in the years 1938–1941. As the topic dealt with is very broad a wide range of sources are available for research and interpretation. Quite broad is also the research method as well as the ways of presentation, which makes it possible to apply different viewpoints and ask different questions. During the research the issue of disciplinary policy of batism arose which by means of certain practices shaped the staff member identity in the Zlín-based Group and aimed at forming an ideal member of the Company staff. It is not our goal to only prove the “almightiness“ of the discourse; we also try to point out the degree of disciplination and, if any,  the resistance to such practices. The Ba»a-type management system is described by some authors as a hierarchical process of carrying out orders issued from a single management center. We believe that such interpretation is insufficient. Although the transfer planning exhibits a tendency towards an administrative form of Group staff control by means of scientific simplifications, the final form of controlled transfers differed from the rational view of the Group Management. The eventual result was actually due to a power unbalance in a wider social field of actors linked through interpersonal networks. The elaborated concepts and schedules constituted idealized programs whose accurate implementation was hindered by a number of both internal and external factors. In addition, their course and orientation were also influenced by the selected candidates, who were supposed to accept them in accordance with the Management’s intentions. Thus, the eventual form, which was largely due to improvisation and chance, differed from the initial visions and the efforts made.
Key words: History; 20th century; Czechoslovakia; Ba»a; management


Valentina Vladimirovna MARYINA
Russian historiography of World War II after the fall of the Communist regime: Tradition and Revision

The fundamental changes taking place in Russian historiography after the fall of the Communist regime are dealt with and analyzed. The author concentrates primarily on highly delicate issues, namely the outbreak and the events during the first years of World War II. The international position of the Soviet Union was quite difficult at that time and in addition, the country had to cope with the consequences of Stalinist purges in the Army. Although the Russian archives have been made available to the public and a number of document editions and new publications have appeared, this topic continues to be a hot problem of modern Russian history. Attention was mostly paid to the period of 1939–1941 and to the circumstances of the attack on the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany. Therefore, this period and its events continue attracting the attention of Russian historians. At the same time, the gap in the debate between the two main streams existing in today’s Russian historiography is deepening. On the one hand, there are the “Conservatives“ who, although they do not stick too much to the ideological clichés of history explanation from the ancient regime, in fact  still use the “advocating“ approach in explaining Moscow’s (particularly foreign) policy. Contrary to them, the “Liberals“ take more critical positions and show more courage in explaining the domestic situation in and the international position of the Soviet Union. Traditionally, most attention is paid to military operations, while some hot topics have not been adequately studied yet, such as the situation in the rear of the Soviet side, repressive measures against Soviet citizens, expulsion of whole ethnic groups to harsh regions in Siberia, logistic problems with supplies for the Soviet Army, causes of the failure of a number of military operations, etc. Thus, the Russian historiography of modern history still faces many complex tasks to cope with in a responsible way.
Key words: History; 20th century; Soviet Union; World War II; historiography


Jindřich DEJMEK
Was a “finlandization“ of Czechoslovakia realistic in 1948? A brief comparison of the situation of Finland and Czechoslovakia in the years 1944–1948

The situation in Czechoslovakia after World War II is often compared to that in Finland while the successful Finnish defense against the sovietization efforts of the local Communists in 1947–1948 is contraposed to the failure of “Beneą’s“ policy in Czechoslovakia. Actually, there were a number of substantial differences between the two countries resulting from their different historical development and from their incomparable geopolitical situation. Certainly, Finland was a “defeated“ country in 1945 and the Allied Control Commission, whose key positions were in the hands of Soviet representatives, could strongly interfere in its domestic affairs. Unlike the Czechs, most of the Finnish population viewed the USSR and/or the Russians, based on their experience from the 19th century and also from the years 1939–40, as the main enemies of the country. This found also its reflection in the attitude of the Finnish population to the local Communist Party. Although the Party after its legalization in 1944 endeavored to achieve more influence via the Democratic League of the Finnish People (SDKL), its membership never exceeded 30 thousand, which was incomparably less than the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. Quite different was also the position of social democrats in the two countries. While the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party was weakened (also due to the growth of the Communist Party) and closely cooperated with the Communists, the Finnish social democrats became the strongest political party after 1945 and we¬re able, also in cooperation with the local “Agrarians”, to offset the influence of the SDKL. The Finnish Communists could occupy important positions in the police, but not in the army. Finland’s political representation, however, was aware of the USSR’s supremacy in the region, and was therefore ready to accept the Defense Alliance Agreement proposed by Moscow. Its signing on April 5th, 1948 provided a framework for the follow-up “finlandization“ policy personified by the then president J. Paasikivi that made it possible for Finland to retain – with some limitations – the domestic liberal structure at the cost of giving up an independent foreign policy.
Key words: History of 20th century; Finland – domestic and foreign policy; Czechoslovakia – domestic and foreign policy; Communist movement; beginning of Cold War


Jan NĚMEČEK
Correspondence between Karol Sidor and Ferdinand Kahánek in 1940

The paper consists of two parts. In the first part, the author explains the po-litical views of the above persons at the beginning of World War II in the general domestic and international context. Karol Sidor, a leading Slovak politician in the First and the Second Czechoslovak Republic, opposed the total submission of Slovakia to Nazi Germany. Therefore, upon Germany’s pressure, he was “cleared away“ being appointed Slovakia’s Ambassador to the Vatican. Ferdinand Kahánek, on the other hand, as an Agrarian journalist and opponent to ex-President E. Beneą, was unacceptable to the Czechoslovak foreign representation being formed and hea¬ded by Beneą. Therefore, after his emigration, he preferred to stay in Bucharest. Both politicians were exchanging opinions concerning, in particular, the future form of constitutional relations between and the coexistence of Czechs and Slovaks. The other part includes eleven documents throwing more light on the then political situation in and the foreign policy of Slovakia. Much attention is devoted to considerations concerning the potential restoration of Czechoslovakia as an independent country or within a larger confederation or federation with Poland, or even with Poland and Hungary. The material adds to our knowledge of the polarization of views of the Czecho-Slovak relations in connection with the formation of Czechoslovak foreign resistance movement during World War II.
Key words: History; 20th century; World War II; Czechoslovak exile; Slovakian State; relations between Czechs and Slovaks