Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

MODERNÍ DĚJINY
roč. 17, 2009, č. 1, 212 s.


OBSAH • CONTENT


STUDIE • STUDIES



Jana MALÍNSKÁ
Financování českého dívčího gymnázia Minerva, spolku pro ženské studium
[The Minerva Association for financing secondary schools for Czech girls – its financial support of girls’ gymnasium Minerva]
s. 1–33

Dalibor VÁCHA
Českoslovenští legionáři na Rusi a jejich pohled na ženy v letech 1914–1920
[Czechoslovak legionnaires in Russia and their views of local women in the years 1914–1920]
s. 35–66

Alena FERIANCOVÁ
Československá diplomacia a vstup Nemecka do Spoločnosti národov. Príprava na mimoriadne Zhromaždenie Spoločnosti národov v marci 1926
[Czechoslovak diplomacy and Germany’s joining the League of Nations. Preparation of an extraordinary League of Nations Session of March 1926]
s. 67–112

Jan BENDA
Státní správa a problém uprchlíků z odstoupených území v letech 1938–1939
[State administration and the problem of refugees from the regions ceded in 1938–1939]
s. 113–167


MATERIÁLY • MATERIALS


Josef HARNA
Idea národa československého na stránkách týdeníku Přítomnost (1924–1938)
[The idea of one Czechoslovak nation in Přítomnost weekly (1924–1938)]
s. 169–193


KRONIKA • CHRONICLE


Jindřich DEJMEK
Za Bořivojem Čelovským (1923–2007)
[In memory of Bořivoj Čelovský (1923–2007)]
s. 195–200


RECENZE • REVIEWS


Eva DRAŠAROVÁ – Roman HORKÝ – Jiří ŠOUŠA – Luboš VELEK (eds.),
Promarněná šance. Edice dokumentů k česko-německému vyrovnání před první
světovou válkou. Korespondence a protokoly 1911–1912. 1, 2, Praha, Národní archiv 2008, 1729 s.
(Petr Prokš)
s. 201–203

Miroslav JEŘÁBEK, Za silnou střední Evropu. Středoevropské hnutí mezi
Budapeští, Vídní a Brnem v letech 1925–1939, Brno 2008, 302 s.
(Drahomír Jančík)
s. 203–208


SUMMARY


Jana MALÍNSKÁ
The Minerva Association for financing secondary schools for Czech girls – its financial support of girls’ gymnasium Minerva

By the early 1880s, the Czech civic women’s organizations achieved considerable success in building up a network of girls’ schools, but there was a serious need for a type of secondary school that would provide the possibility of special exams (maturita) to enter the university studies. In 1890, Eliška Krásnohorská established such a school, a ‘gymnasium’ connected with the Minerva Association, which was fully responsible for funding the school. The school had a private status and consequently, the students had to pay fees, contributions for books, various requisites, etc. The school received regular and considerable financial support from the Council of the Royal Capital City of Prague and from the Land Committee of the Diet of the Czech Kingdom. Other sources of funds for operational activities were the contributions of Minerva Association members, occasional donations from corporations (usually women’s civic organizations), local governments, financial institutions, industrial enterprises, and private persons. The women’s activities related to the public sector, and especially to girls’ education, largely contributed to the process of democratization and to the gradual establishment of equal of rights for women in Czech society.
Key words: History; School funding; Education for women


Dalibor VÁCHA
Czechoslovak legionnaires in Russia and their views of local women in the years 1914–1920

The Czechoslovak legionnaires in Russia often met local women. They paid attention not only to their faces, but also to their character. The social status of women was also important. Most of the contacts were of short duration. In some cases, however, long-term relationships and even weddings also occurred. The most frequent forms were single contacts with prostitutes. This brought about the danger of contagious illnesses, particularly in Siberia and the Far East ravaged by the civil war. Nevertheless, some ”serious” relationships survived and many legionnaires  brought their wives or girlfriends back to their home.
Key Words: History; Czechoslovak legions; Women


Alena FERIANCOVÁ
Czechoslovak diplomacy and Germany’s joining the League of Nations. Preparation of an extraordinary League of Nations Session of March 1926

From the beginning, the year 1926 was oversaturated by the „spirit of Locarno“. However, some serious proofs awaited the Locarno understanding. There were many hopes laid on the Locarno treaties. These treaties could have come into power only in connection with the German membership in the League of Nations. The process of Germany’s admission met with several solemn complications. These complications jeopardized even the Locarno understanding and revealed the long lasting problems of the Geneva organization. Germany’s admission represented an important change in international relations. The Czechoslovak minister of foreign affaires counted with the German membership in the League of Nations. He expected increased security in the region from this step. Locarno and Germany’s admission closed one period of the post-war history. These two events had a great impact on the Czechoslovak position in the political arena, and also on Czechoslovak-German relations.
Key words: History; League of Nations; Czechoslovak-German relations


Jan BENDA
State administration and the problem of refugees from the regions ceded in 1938–1939

As a result of the aggravated situation in the border regions and of the Munich Agreement the Czechoslovak authorities had to intensely cope with the problem of refugees from the border areas, particularly as of September 1938. In November 1938, a central body – the Refugee Aid Center – was established to provide large-scale support for refugees. Simultaneously, a number of volunteer organizations were providing help. A very important role in this particular activity was played by the District authorities that were responsible for the basic aid to the refugees at the local level. In addition to state budget funds money coming from abroad was also available, particularly donations from Great Britain and a dedicated loan to cope with the consequences of the Munich Agreement. Aid to refugees was one of the very complex problems that Czechoslovakia had to cope with after Munich. The consequences of the huge migration of population from the border regions to the core of the country constituted a hot problem for the state during the whole period of war, which continued even after the end of the war.
Key Words:  History; Social policy; Refugees


Josef HARNA
The idea of one Czechoslovak nation in Přítomnost weekly (1924–1938)

The liberal-democratic weekly Přítomnost played a very important role among the Czechoslovak periodicals during the existence of the First Czechoslovak Republic. It helped shape the spiritual and political atmosphere in the country. Its focus could not avoid the relations between Czechs and Slovaks, whose coexistence constituted the main axis of political stability in the new state. From the very beginning these relations were complicated by the idea of ”Czechoslovak Nation” that was intended to compensate for the absence of a „state-forming nation“. Being weaker partners, the Slovaks viewed this concept as a discriminating factor and felt a need to preserve their national identity.  A debate on different aspects of this ideological construction started on the pages of the above weekly. Heavy polemic focused on the notion of what was called ”Czechoslovak language”, formally including both Czech and Slovak. However, the whole complex of Czecho-Slovak relations failed to be solved, and in the 1930s the debate on the idea of common Czechoslovak State was pushed into the background by a stronger struggle of the Slovak side for Slovakia’s autonomy. Research into the debate may help us better learn the character of the First Czechoslovak Republic as an important stage in the evolution of Czech and Slovak society.
Key words: History; Czecho-Slovak relations; Czechoslovakianism; Journalism

ISSN 1210-6860