Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

roč. 19, č. 1, 2016


Lenka BLECHOVÁ, s. 7–34
Knížecí zrcadla v českých zemích ve vrcholném a pozdním středověku
Princely mirrors in the Czech Lands in the High and Late Middle Ages

The article presents samples of medieval pedagogical and instructional treatises written in Latin and Czech with a connection to the Bohemian milieu and endeavours to provide an answer to the question of whether there was a coherent theory about proper education in the Kingdom of Bohemia. The answer tends rather to the negative, but it is beyond doubt that all of the essential works, which supplemented this shortcoming, enjoyed great popularity in the Bohemian cultural milieu. It is demonstrated by the large number of copies in the manuscript collections of our libraries as well as the clear takings of the Czech authors from these works.
Keywords: childhood – princely mirrors – Princely Mirror of Charles IV – Administration of Master Pavel Žídek (Paulus Paulirinus) – De liberorum educatione by Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini – Michael Pragensis – Zikmund Albík of Uničov – Smil Flaška of Pardubice and Rychmburk – De modulo studendi – Smil Flaška of Pardubice

Dana DVOŘÁČKOVÁ-MALÁ, s. 35–73
Literární prameny o dětech a pro děti. Příspěvek ke komparaci historiografických pramenů a literatury středověku v českých zemích
Literary sources on children and for children. A paper on the comparison of the historiographic sources and the literature of the Middle Ages in the Czech lands

The study deals with a comparison of the literary and historiographic sources of the Middle Ages in the Czech lands in relation to the life of children and conception of childhood in the written monuments. It starts from the fact that childhood has not yet been assessed in entertaining literature. The text follows the conception of childhood on several levels; the predestination of children, the reflection of the divine child and the education and way of life of children. At the same time, it makes distinctions in the individual genres and gender breakdowns, and also in the assessment of a good and bad society. Using the example of new translations form the domestic German literature and its comparison with the Latin and Old-Czech sources from the Czech lands, it proves that the literary monuments comprise a component of the source historiographic matter. At the same time, it also follows the genesis of literature for children with that, namely a comparison of the earliest evidence on the future fairy tales for children.
Key words: Childhood – historiography – comparison – literature – fairy tales – gender – lyric poetry – epic – Alexander – Wilhelm von Wenden – exemplum – Die Marienlegende – translation – Wenceslas II – Přemyslids – student literature

Eva DOLEŽALOVÁ, s. 75–85
Dítě a církev ve středověku
Child and the Church in the Middle Ages

The lives of both adults and children in the medieval Europe of western Christianity were shaped by societal and ecclesiastic norms. These norms were based, in particular, on the canon law and the liturgy. The life of a child is depicted in these sources in a static manner as depending on the decisions of the adults – parents and curators. However, other preserved sources besides the normative ones, namely, those produced by the Church administration and judiciary, make it possible to reconstruct the life of children in the Middle Ages more vividly.
Key words: childhood – Church – canon law – Church administration – Czech lands – Middle

Mlada HOLÁ - Martin HOLÝ, s. 87–109
Středověké studijní nadace v Čechách
The educational foundations in medieval Bohemia

The submitted article, which is based on the study of official and literary sources, concentrates on educational foundations in medieval Bohemia. Alongside establishment of new schools, their components (colleges) or support of the existing educational institutions, they represented the second most frequent form of educational patronage in all Europe of the western Christian circle. The main purpose of those foundations was material support of the students during their studies. It was not necessarily paid in the form of scholarship; it was also provided indirectly in the form of ensuring of meals, lodging, clothing, payment for medical treatment in case of an illness, purchase of textbooks, etc. Most importantly, it did not concern a one-time subsidy, which we often encounter in the Middle Ages, but support of a permanent character. The study monitors educational foundations that emerged in certain Latin parish schools, or later municipal schools, especially in the so called royal towns, as well as foundations established by the individual benefactors who came from the nobility and other classes of the then society under Prague University. Besides these, the authors also concentrate on foundations supporting students from the Czech lands during their studies at foreign universities (foundation of Adalbertus Ranconis de Ericinio being the best known in this context).
Key words: Bohemia – Middle Ages – education – educational foundations – patronage – scholarship

Jindřich MAREK, s. 111–156
Polemické spisy Václava Korandy mladšího proti papeži a představitelům katolické strany v Čechách
Václav Koranda the Younger and his polemical treatises against the Pope and the representatives of the Catholic Party in Bohemia

This paper deals with the literary polemics of the important representative of the Utraquist Church and master of the University of Prague Václav Koranda the Younger († 1519) with the Pope and representatives of the Catholic Party in Bohemia.
Key words: Václav Koranda the Younger, Utraquists, Catholics, polemical treatises, 2nd half of the
15th century