Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

roč. 18, č. 2, 2015


I. Studie

Berounská sídelní komora v raném a vrcholném středověku (před r. 1419). Úvaha nad majetkovou strukturou mikroregionu a nad reprezentativností našich pramenů k dějinám osídlení
The Beroun District Settlement Chamber in the Early and High Middle Ages (before 1419). Consideration of the property structure of the microregion and of the representativeness of our sources on the history of settlement

(s. 7–68)

The study offers a regional look into Bohemian history on the example of a microregion in the vicinity of several key sovereign centres in close proximity to Prague (ca 20 km W): Tetín’s fortified settlement, the provostry of St John under the Rock (Skala), Castle Tetín and the town of Beroun. Since it follows the history of the region from the Early Middle Ages until after the beginning of the Hussite revolution, it allows for the understanding of the changing strategies, which the sovereign used in its control. In the same way, it considers a group little investigated – the lower nobility, which played an important role in this region. Here, the author focuses particularly on the question of their seats, properties, relation to the sovereign and to the question of their offices. Finally, there is an attempt to summarize the very meagre data on the situation of the serfs in the 14th century. As such, it is a certain prolegomena to the further research of the region in the Hussite Period.

Elizabeth WOOCK
Antimendicancy in Cetral Europe and bishop Robert of Olomouc in historiography
Antimendicancy in Cetral Europe and bishop Robert of Olomouc in historiography

(s. 69–93)

Bishop Robert of Olomouc is an early, prominent opponent of the stigmata of St. Francis and the first case of antimendicancy in East Central Europe, on the basis of three papal bulls from the thirteenth century. Through a close reading of the works of Bishop Robert, this paper will argue that the public denunciation of stigmata was not characteristic of the Bishop himself, but rather symptomatic of inter-mendicant conflict in the region. Beyond the accusations of antifraternal activity, mendicant orders spread actively and embedded themselves in the region unfettered, both before and after Robert held the bishopric, developing at the same speed as other monastic institutions in the region. However, the Dominican friars, who were strongly supported by the Polish province, were drawn into competition with the Franciscans in their shared duty to preach and administer various crusades. Where other attempts had failed, this conflict was subsequently utilized as a powerful political tool to finally remove Robert from the bishopric.

Mlada HOLÁ
Studentské koleje pražské univerzity a staroměstský měšťan Kříž
Student colleges of the University of Prague and the Old Town burgher Kříž

(s. 95–132)

Based on the preserved sources, the study presented attempted to clarify some of the circumstances connected with the role of the Old Town burgher Kříž in the foundation of two student colleges of the University of Prague, namely the Nazareth and Queen Hedwig Colleges. Also his tie to Bethlehem Chapel was investigated, the creation of which he made possibly through the donation of the plot and designated spaces. Other than the ecclesiastical benefices that he arranged in the chapel, also the ties of both colleges to the chapel were analysed and particularly then Kříž’s effort to connect their administration to the second preacher at Bethlehem Chapel. His endeavour to assure the influence of his own family on the operations of the College of Queen Hedwig was also outlined.

Vojtěch BAŽANT
Prostor a vyprávění. Narativní strategie středověkého cestopisu
Space and narration. Narrative strategies in medieval travel writing
(s. 133–161)

The study deals with an analysis of the 15th century Czech travel writings. First part is focused on narrative strategies of autobiographical travel writing and the relationship between narrator and reader model is studied. Second part of the study looks into the narrative and cultural contexts of the frame stories and anecdotes included into travel writings. Their function in a travelogue conception just as their role in the local identities is examined. These stories are an important instrument as they enable both the traveller to understand the region he visited and the travel writer to relate his experience.

Přemysl BAR
Údajný satirický list krále Zikmunda Pražanům z podzimu 1419. Rukopisné dochování a edice
The supposed satirical letter of King Sigismund to the people of Prague from Autumn 1419. Manuscript preservation and edition
(s. 163–178)

The study provides the first critical edition of the satirical letter intended for the Prague town councillors and burghers from the autumn of 1419. The letter is not of chancellery origin. According to the Basel copy, the author was Caspar of Lewbitz, registrator (registrar) from the chancellery of Wenceslas IV. In the introduction to the edition, it refers to the manuscript preservation, textual variations and existing inconsistent interpretation of the letter.

II. Diskuse, názory a inspirace

Buškové z Velhartic. Historie pánů z Velhartic ve 14. století ve světle kartoték Augusta Sedláčka
The Bušeks of Velhartice. A history of the lords of Velhartice in 14th century in the light of August Sedláček’s card files
(s. 181–191)

The genealogic and topographic card files of the Czech historian August Sedláček are valuable information sources that make it possible to restore the history of social ascent of several lower nobility families, such as the lords of Velhartice. The family of Bušek appears for the first time with the predicate “of Velhartice” in 1318. The last occurrence of this predicate can be found at the beginning of 15th century, when the Velhartice castle has already become a possession of the lords of Hradec. Members of the Bušek of Velhartice lineage (both ancestors and descendants) were associated with the royal court services since the second half of 13th century. The most outstanding career was that of Bušek the Younger of Velhartice, who in 1355 became an officer-in-chief (Hauptmann) of New Bohemia (in Bavaria).

III. Literatura

Prameny k dějinám Židů v Čechách a na Moravě ve středověku. Od počátků do roku 1347, edd. Lenka Blechová – Eva Doležalová – Martin Musílek – Jana Zachová ve spolupráci s Danielem Polakovičem a Tamásem Visi. Praha 2015 (Archiv český XLI) (Hana Pátková)
(s. 195–196)

Regesta Bohemiae et Moraviae diplomatica nec non epistolaria, Pars VIII 1364–1378, Fasciculus I 1364–1366, edidit Lenka Blechová, Praha 2014 (Pavel Krafl)
(s. 197–198)

Dana DVOŘÁČKOVÁ-MALÁ – Jan ZELENKA a kol., Ženy a děti ve dvorské společnosti, Praha 2015 (Jitka Friedlová)
s. 198–200)