Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ | THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW
ročník 117
č. 4/2019

s. 867-1138



STUDIE | STUDIES

HRUBÝ Petr – DERNER Kryštof – SKOŘEPOVÁ Markéta
Středověké hornické komunity v období Přemyslovců … s. 873
(Mediaeval mining communities in the period of Přemyslids)

The study summarizes the current knowledge of medieval mining communities, their professional social status and livelihood. Information on mining settlements, cattle breeding and food consumption is contained in the Mining Code and some other written sources of the 13th and 14th centuries. Specific knowledge has also been provided by archaeological research in recent years. A comprehensive evaluation of the material generates a number of specific questions: the community and spatial infrastructure of mining settlements, the social structure of their inhabitants, the religious administration, the character of their economy, subsistence etc. It is not possible to present clear answers and conclusions strictly speaking, but it is possible at the very least to formulate well a thesis reflecting the current research.

Keywords: mining communities – the Middle Ages – production of silver – metallurgy – archaeology

RESUMÉ
Mining communities are a former component of medieval European society, which was the only one defined based upon their professional membership. One of the issues is the proportion of food supply to mining centres with foodstuffs and the proportion and nature of their own agricultural production. Another issue is the position of these communities towards the majority medieval society and the mutual interaction: cultural, demographic and economic. In the study, we lack paleo-demographic data when only two burial sites of mining communities are known throughout Europe. The main sources of information are archaeological researches of former mining settlements. The study works with mining complexes on the territory of the Přemyslid state in the 13th and 14th centuries, the knowledge of which is based on the latest archaeological research.
The beginnings of mining in the Přemyslid state fall in the 1230s and 1240s and are marked by the founding of cities, the completion of settlement infrastructure and development of the market. The communities of workers in the mines, from the point of view of city dwellers, villages and probably nobility, were a source of problems. At the same time, however, the people in the mines stood outside the authority of the manorial lords, and it was probably desirable that these communities did not share common settlements with the inhabitants of villages and towns. From this point of view, the workers of the mines, metal finishing shops and smelting furnaces had a rather unprivileged position.
The archaeobotanical analyses generally point to a poorer and weak presence of grain production. The main reason was not so much the adverse climatic conditions of many mining centres as the legal boundaries between claim to the land in connection with mining activities and land ownership. Mining settlements are characterized by a small proportion of osteological findings, although animal husbandry and the presence of meat processors are suggested by contemporary legal texts that mention pasturelands. It is necessary to consider raising animals for slaughter and raising beasts of burden. In terms of meat consumption, a distinction must be made between one’s own slaughter production and systematic supply. For adult horses, ungulates and cattle, it is necessary to assume primarily working use. With cows, also raising them for milk. However, after being exhausted or dying, all the pieces were used for meat, skin (leather), bones, horns and hooves. The production of tallow for lamps was significant.
A significant role of supply through the market arises from the low percentage of one’s own grain production and breeding. In the developed phase of the mining economy from the 1250s, we record agricultural land in the hands of burghers, involved in the production of precious metals, in the vicinity of the mining companies according to the written sources. In the initial stages of mining, the mint master faced the task of starting mining activities in terms of material, financial and human resources. The solution was his own colonization activity, which increased agricultural production in the given mining area. If the mining entrepreneurs wanted to maintain labour productivity, they had to secure their supplies so that workers did not have to devote themselves to attending to their existential needs.
The seasonal or year-round regime of mining operations is difficult to solve. We do not know if some people went to the surrounding farms for the winter. Similarly, it is not clear whether, on the contrary, the mines absorbed the workforce from the countryside. The question of the survival of mining communities in winter is crucial to understanding their farming and supply. In all respects, the miners seem to have played a key organizational and subsistence role. The issue of the subsistence and supply to mining communities is also a question of the integration with the majority medieval society. This also determined the degree of the viability of these communities in terms of their own reproduction, or complementation in the form of migration.
Translation by Sean Miller


NODL Martin
Táborský komunismus: ke genezi pojmu v historiografii 19. a 20. století … s. 906
(Taborite communism: Towards the Genesis of the Concept in Historiography of the 19th and 20th Centuries)

The study is devoted to the transformations of the content and usage of the term Taborite communism in medievalist research of the time of František Palacký. In it, the author shows how the political opinions of historians of the 19th and 20th centuries as well as contemporary and ideological conditionality of historiographic interpretations were reflected in the changes of the terminology. To label early Taboriticism with the word communism in the Czech medievalist discourse became entirely common under the influence of the second edition of The History of the Czech Nation until the February coup in 1948. The emerging Czech Marxist historiography in the tow of Friedrich Engels, who connected the social changes in Tabor exclusively with the organization of military power and purposely did not use the term communism in relation to Tabor, in the overwhelming majority of cases replaced Taborite communism with the term the chiliastic community of property.

Keywords: František Palacký – Taborite communism – Marxism – Hussite Revolution

RESUMÉ
The ma/in aim of the study is to turn attention to the history of terms, thus to a question, which has been incorrectly neglected in Czech historiography. As an example, the author chose the term Taborite communism, which in the 19th and 20th centuries resonated not only in historical discourse, but also in contemporary journalism and in ideologically conceived propaganda texts. The term Taborite communism was introduced into Czech historiography in the second edition of The History of the Czech Nation in Bohemia and Moravia, in which František Palacký constructed the image of early Taborite communism as a general ownership of all means and at the same time attributed to early Taborite Republican endeavours, which were to lead to the end of royal rule and secular power in the form of all rights, including the rights of serfs. Along with this, Palacký also brought the claim that Taborite communism, which lasted only a short time and could not be realized, was replaced by socialist principles of the division of power between domestic and field communities, where these principles were to entail the elements of Slavic democracy as well. In this respect, his ideas were subsequently elaborated in scientific form by Friedrich von Bezold and on the political ideological level by the Austrian socialist Karl Kautsky. Palacký’s concept of Taborite communism was rooted in Czech historiography without arousing greater controversy until the February coup in 1948. The reversal came with the rise of Marxist historiography, which under the clear influence of Friedrich Engels linked the social changes in early Tabor solely to the organization of military power. For this reason, in the person of Josef Mack, not only the use of the term Hussite Revolution was deliberately withdrawn from, but also the use of the term Táboritic communism and it was replaced by the term the chiliastic community of goods. Robert Kalivoda’s attempt to return the concept of revolution to Marxist discourse was also connected to an effort to revive the term Taborite communism. However, he received a response almost exclusively in Western Medieval Studies, thanks to which the term Taborite communism remained a part of the discourse on the Taborite way of life in its initial phase, even though the accents were shifted to utopian ideas as opposed to societal-social, and the emphasis began to be placed again on the conscious link between Taborite communism and early Christian consumer communism. At the beginning of the 21st century, with the ebb of interest in social history, the term Taborite communism almost disappeared from Czech historiography entirely.
Translation by Sean Miller


VOREL Petr
Habsbursko-osmanské soupeření v Uhrách v kontextu říšských a papežských dějin. (Tažení křesťanského vojska k Budínu roku 1542) … s. 935
(Habsburg-Ottoman rivalry in Hungary in the context of Imperial and papal history. /Campaign of Christian troops to Buda in 1542/)

The author provides new context in explaining the unsuccessful attempt of Western Christianity to reclaim the Hungarian city of Pest in 1542 in the wider political context of that time. He takes into account the interdependence of other military actions, which took place in parallel and significantly influenced the course of this campaign to Hungary (the French offensive in the Netherlands and Catalonia and the occupation of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by troops of the Schmalkaldic League). The vast majority of the Imperial army only passively participated in the brief siege of the city of Pest. The conquest of the city at the beginning of October 1542 was attempted mainly by Hungarian and Italian troops, especially the infantry units of the papal army, which was sent to Hungary by Pope Paul III. Based on a new research of sources from the accounting documentation of the Papal Chamber, the author performs a detailed analysis of the personnel composition of this papal army.

Keywords: Europe – Holy Roman Empire – Ottoman Empire – Emperor Charles V – King Ferdinand I – Hungary – War – 1542 – Budapest – Pope Paul III

RESUMÉ
The unsuccessful attempt of Western Christianity to reclaim the Hungarian city of Pest and the Buda castle (contemporary Budapest, the capital of Hungary) in 1542 is one of the less remembered events from the long period of wars between European powers and the Ottoman Empire. The German army then withdrew from Hungary with great disgrace and the Habsburgs were forced to accept the de facto division of the country. Repeated defeats and the inability to face the Turkish pressure in the Balkans, where Sultan Suleiman I continued to occupy still larger parts of the Hungarian territory, led the Habsburgs to temporarily give up active resistance on this front and to accept unfavourable peace conditions.
Later comments attributed the failure of the 1542 campaign mainly to the incompetence of the commander-in-chief of the Imperial army, Brandenburg Elector Joachim II. Hector Hohenzollern, who reportedly was not able to effectively command the large army. However, the situation in the Christian army was much more complicated. The wasted costs and disappointment that this campaign brought had to be explained to those who did not even know what was happening during the campaign and what happened at the gates of Pest. King Ferdinand refused the allegation that he had broken his promise and did not personally participate in the campaign to defend „his“ country. Finding the main culprit in an incompetent commander-in-chief and traitors within his own camp (Ferdinand’s Hungarian chancellor Petr Perényi was marked as such) was probably a more merciful generally acceptable explanation than identifying the real causes of discord among several monarchs who were merely pretending their willingness to participate on joint military action. A few years later, the Schmalkaldic War (1546–1547) fundamentally changed the power situation in the Roman–German Empire, the relationship between the Pope and the Emperor, and indeed the generally accepted standards of the inner political culture of the Empire at that time and its results completely overwhelmed the disappointment and indignation of the shameful campaign to Hungary in 1542.
This was also reflected in the relative interest of historians researching European history of the 16th century. Especially for contemporary European and world historiography, including works ficusing on military history of the first half of the 16th century, the attempt to recapture Pest and Buda in 1542 remains only a marginal episode that is hardly worth mentioning.
In the presented study, the author offers a completely different perspective on this event:
It sets the whole campaign in broader context of the internal history of the Empire, which, in the period 1538–1542, sees culminating efforts to reach a compromise on confessional issues between the (then jointly acting) Habsburg–Papal camp and the Schmalkaldic Union, including most of the German Protestant opposition. The massive military assistance (in the form of an approved Imperial tax) by the Schmalkaldic Union to the Habsburgs in order to reclaim Buda, Pest and the whole Kingdom of Hungary in 1542 was clearly offered under the condition that the Habsburgs would not resist spreading of the Reformation on the territory of the Empire.
It takes into account the interdependence of other military actions, which took place in parallel with the campaign of the Imperial troops to Hungary and significantly influenced the course of this campaign. That is the launch of the French offensive in the Netherlands and Catalonia and the occupation of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by troops of the Schmalkaldic League. These three military campaigns were being prepared and progressed at the same time and, in terms of politics of that time, these were perceived as part of one complex conflict.
The author also provides new context in explaining the deeper circumstances of the apparently absurdly slow transfer of the Imperial troops from Vienna to Pest during July-September 1542, which could not have been influenced by the commander:
1) The slow advancement of the ground troops was not only due to the indecision of the army command, but its schedule also had to be synchronized with transport of gunpowder, ammunition, siege artillery and food supplies, which was supposed to be arranged by the Danube fleet. Any rapid advancement to Pest was meaningless, as long as the army lacked ammunition and artillery to be able to lay siege to the city and the castle. This was supposed to be personally arranged by Ferdinand I.
2) There was no point in taking the risk that part of the Hungarian troops could join the Turkish side before a new treaty on sharing of influence in Hungary was concluded with Queen Dowager Isabella Jagiello- Zapolya. This agreement was negotiated by diplomats of Ferdinand I.
3) Against all expectations, King Ferdinand did not personally participate in this campaign. He was a master of behind-the-scenes diplomatic negotiations, not a warrior. He tried to gain time to negotiate with Suleiman I and after 10 July 1542 he wanted to use the existence of the imperial army moving to Hungary as a leverage to make the Sultan more forthcoming towards his offer of financial settlement. He changed his attitude only in September 1542, when reports of a great Turkish army sent by the Sultan to Buda started to emerge from the Danube region. Only then King Ferdinand started pushing for acceleration of combat operations, but it was too late.
The vast majority of the Imperial army only passively participated in the brief siege of the city of Pest at the turn of September and October 1542 and it retreated from the battlefield on 7 October 1542. The conquest of the city at the beginning of October 1542 was attempted mainly by Hungarian and Italian troops, especially the infantry units of the papal army, which was sent to Hungary by Pope Paul III. Based on a new research of sources from the accounting documentation of the Papal Chamber, the author performs a detailed analysis of the personnel composition of this papal army and its role in the attempt to recapture the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom, both with regard to specific combat actions and in the wider political context of that time.
The attempt to conquer Pest and Buda in 1542 symbolically ended one era of military struggle in the Balkans. Yet it was also the last (and fatally unsuccessful) attempt to overcome the internal power crisis of the Roman-German Empire, which was then in a state of de facto diarchy. In terms of territorial division of the Roman-German Empire and in terms of economic potential, in the early forties of the 16th century the Schmalkaldic League had a clear superiority over the pro-Habsburg power structures and for Germany it offered an alternative way of unification as a modern federal state, which does not need an Emperor. The fact that, in the years 1541–1542, the Emperor was able to agree with the Schmalkaldic League on a joint military action and to define a common power interest naturally brought positive expectations that an agreement would be possible also in confessional and other matters.
At the moment, the fatal failure of the Christian army in Hungary presented a great danger especially for the Austrian hereditary territories of Ferdinand I. However, in the joint camp on the Hungarian battlefield, the Imperial and papal diplomats could experience the problematic coordination with mostly Lutheran troops in battle conditions and problems caused by personal animosities within the command corps of the Schmalkaldic League. After 1542, they started to use their knowledge of these dynamics to systematically undermine the opposition camp from within.
The campaign to Hungary in 1542 also very clearly showed the difficulties of using local provincial armies for such an operation and how time consuming and complicated it is to dispatch such a structured army. Professional and wellpaid units, even in fewer numbers, managed to achieve better results in combat operations. In the campaign to Hungary, these were represented primarily by the „Italians“, that is the units of papal and Milanese soldiers. Unlike the German soldiers, the papal army was paid well and in advance; the Pope did not need to rely on decisions of any assemblies to raise enough money for the army. He could easily use his credit potential, just as Emperor Charles V was then doing.
In this context, the unsuccessful joint campaign to Hungary in 1542 was very important from a military point of view and the author considers it a fundamental mistake that it is neglected in the interpretation of Central European history of the relevant period. He concludes that this campaign was one of the key events that led to abandoning the policy of confessional compromises of 1538–1542 and to the Schmalkaldic War several years later (1546–1547).


CERMAN Ivo
Stavitel nového světa. Vladimír Zákrejs a československý urbanismus 1918–1938 … s. 992
(The Builder of a New World. Vladimír Zákrejs and Czechoslovak Urbanism 1918–1938)

The article discusses the activities of the Institute for the Construction of Cities and its president Vladimír Zákrejs (1880–1948). It explains the origins of the urbanism movement and its connection with the republican empiricism of the era. It provides examples of Zákrejs’s activities in Czech towns and reconstructs the arguments of his inedited manuscript „The Czechoslovak Repulic as an urban building site“. It proves that Zákrejs left the Institute already in 1927 and continued in his activities as an independent urban planner until 1933. His comprehensive approach was replaced by a technocratic tendency, which put emphasis on transport, and a left- -leaning tendency, which focused on housing.

Keywords: urbanism – environmentalism – Institute for the Construction of Cities – Masaryk’s Academy of Labour – Vladimír Zákrejs – Cyrus Kehr

RESUMÉ
The article discusses the activities of the Institute for the Construction of Cities and its president Vladimír Zákrejs (1880–1948). The introductory part evaluates the current schlarship on the history of Czech urbanism and argues that historiography has proceeded from the research of exceptional art buildings to urban landscapes. The Czech urbanism movement originated in the time of Prague slum clearance and its views were connected with the republican empiricism of the era. Zákrejs’s method sought to respect the real terrain and satisfy basic needs of air, water, food, housing and human company. He applied his theory in many Bohemian and Moravian cities and in several ‚regional plans‘ (regions of Ostrava, South Bohemia, the Labe and Orlice plains). His urbanism was supposed to proceed from the larger context of the whole republic to the regions and then to towns. He expounded this method in his inedited manuscript „The Czechoslovak Repulic as an urban building site“, which is reconstructed here. Zákrejs left the Institute already in 1927 and continued in his activities as an independent urban planner until 1933. His comprehensive approach was replaced by a technocratic tendency, which put emphasis on transport, and a left-leaning tendency, which focused on housing.



OBZORY LITERATURY | REVIEW ARTICLES AND REVIEWS

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BOLOM-KOTARI Martina
Pečeti jako výzva historickému bádání … s. 1030
(Seals as a challenge to historical research)

This paper deals with the current state of one of the auxiliary scientific disciplines – sphragistics in the Czech and European milieus. Utilising the example provided by two recently published works, it shows the possibilities of the interpretation of seals that can be used in the framework of historical research, although there are still large reserves in this respect at least in the Czech environment.

Keywords: sphragistics – history – interpretation – Czech Republic – Europe


Recenze

Michal TOMÁŠEK
Právní systémy Dálného východu, I–II
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František ŠMAHEL – Gabriel SILAGI (edd.)
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(Jiří Pešek) … s. 1045

Miroslav ŽITNÝ (ed.)
Korespondence Šťastného Václava Pětipeského z Chýš a Egrberku z let 1600–1610 a 1611–1621. Prameny k českým dějinám 16. – 18. století
(Marek Starý) … s. 1048

Eva STEJSKALOVÁ
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Tomislav VOLEK
Mozart. Die italienische Oper des 18. Jahrhunderts und das musikalische Leben im Königreich Böhmen.
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(Jiří Pešek) … s. 1056

Wolfram SIEMANN
Metternich, Stratege und Visionär. Eine Biographie
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Anne-Marie PATHÉ – Fabien THÉOFILAKIS
Wartime Captivity in the Twentieth Century. Archives, Stories, Memories
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Jiří PEŠEK
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(Jaroslav Šebek) … s. 1072

Eduard KUBŮ – Jiří ŠOUŠA (eds.)
Rozmluvy s Antonínem Švehlou a o Švehlovi.
Vzpomínky agrárního diplomata Karla Mečíře. Historicko-kritická edice
(Pavel Máša) … s. 1076

Frédéric BOZO
French Foreign Policy since 1945. An Introduction
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Matěj SPURNÝ
Most do budoucnosti: laboratoř socialistické modernity na severu Čech
(Sixtus Bolom-Kotari) … s. 1086

Sabine STACH
Vermächtnispolitik: Jan Palach und Oskar Brüsewitz als politische Märtyrer
(Zdeněk Nebřenský) … s. 1089

František STÁREK ČUŇAS – Martin VALENTA
Podzemní symfonie Plastic People
(Zdeněk R. Nešpor) … s. 1094

Elena MANNOVÁ
Minulosť ako supermarket? Spôsoby reprezentácie a aktualizácie dejín Slovenska
(Vojtěch Kessler) … s. 1099

Douglas MURRAY
Podivná smrt Evropy. Imigrace, identita, islám
(Jaroslav Pánek) … s. 1102

Zprávy o literatuře … s. 1106


Knihy a časopisy došlé redakci … s. 1121


Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků … s. 1121