Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ | THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW
ročník 117
č. 1/2019

s. 1-268



STUDIE | STUDIES

FEJTOVÁ Olga
Jednota bratrská – nové pohledy na její postavení a roli v městech pražských doby předbělohorské … s. 7
(Unity of Brethren – new views of its position and role in the towns of Prague of the Period before the Battle of White Mountain)

Based on an analysis of the edition of the list of the members of the Prague-Tuchoměřice congregation, compiled by the bishop of the Unity of Brethren Matouš Konečny in 1607 and found in 2006 within the episcopal archive. It was a group of burghers tending to the creation of significantly closed communities of connected familial, friendship and professional ties, which settled in a concentrated fashion on the prestigious addresses of all three towns of Prague. It was precisely these Prague fraternal burgher elites that intervened in a fundamental way in the course of the Bohemian Revolt in 1618–1620 and paid for its defeat also with death sentences and to a degree much more distinctive than was the case with the representatives of other social classes of estates’ society, or other Protestant confessions.

Key words: 16th century – Period before the Battle of White Mountain – Prague – Unity of Brethren – Prague-Tuchoměřice congregation – burgher elites – estates’ policy

RESUME
Over the past three decades, Czech historiography has largely succeeded in changing the image of the Unity of Brethren in the Period before the Battle of White Mountain as a closed sect with a dominant representation of the rural, uneducated population. Still, there remained a significant deficit of the research, and that was the question of the role of burghers in their structures, or the issue of the influence of the Unity in the urban estates’ milieu. The deficit was all the clearer that Czech historiography thematized already in the 1950s the substantial role of Prague’s “evangelical patriciate” in the estates’ politics of the Period before the Battle of White Mountain, without being able to more precisely define its confessional background.
Thanks to the discovery of the archive of the Brethren’s bishop Matouš Konečný in 2006, part of which was inter alia even a list of the members of the Unity from the three towns of Prague compiled in 1607, it was possible to reconstruct the Prague membership base of the brethren’s congregation in the land’s centre. The paper notices not only its extent in the context of the land-wide development but also the functioning of the Prague, or Prague-Tuchoměřice brethren’s congregation first in the connections of the regulating royal towns and their self-government with sovereign measures reaching from the second half of the 16th century and further in the context of the confessionally exacerbated re-Catholicization sovereign policy of the turn of the 17th century. However, particularly the period after the issuance of the Majesty in 1609 providing religious freedom, which characterized the emancipation efforts of the Unity of Brethren manifested in Prague’s towns especially with the effort to create and occupy their own sacral space, found itself at the centre of attention. It took into account also the close organizational and personnel ties of the Prague congregation on the international reformed community, active at the Rudolphine Period in the background of the sovereign court and representing one of the potential sources of the “Calvinization” of the brethren in the Prague conurbation.
Using typical examples of the strategy of the conduct of the most famous and most important Prague brethren from the ranks of the political, economic and intellectual burgher elites the background is introduced from which they came and in which one of the most important powers of the estates’ confessional policy of the Period before the Battle of White Mountain and the Period of White Mountain was formed. It was a group of burghers tending to the creation of significantly closed communities of connected familial, friendship and professional ties, which settled in a concentrated fashion on the prestigious addresses of all three towns of Prague. It was precisely these Prague fraternal burgher elites, often however from outside of Prague in origin, that intervened in a fundamental way in the course of the Bohemian Revolt in 1618–1620 and paid for its defeat also with death sentences and to a degree much more distinctive than was the case with the representatives of other social classes of estates’ society, or other Protestant confessions.


SANDER-FAES Stephan
Staats-Desintegration in Praxis. Krieg, Kredit und Steuern in Böhmen unter Joseph I. … s. 36
(State Disintegration in Practice. War, Credit and Taxes in Bohemia under Joseph I)
(Desintegrace státu v praxi. Válka, kredit a daně v Čechách za Josefa I.)

This essay investigates the unknown episode of the fiscal-financial history of Bohemia during the reign of Joseph I (1705–1711) and considers its disintegrative consequences. These events played out against the background of the – well-known – role of the Jewish “court factors” of Leopold I. At the height of War of the Spanish Succession, the emperor found himself threatened by the French and by the Rakoczi-led Hungarian War of Independence in the east. With empty state coffers, Joseph in 1706/07 turned to the Bohemian diet and proposed to negotiate a loan of 1,333,333 gulden with a consortium of Jewish bankers from Wurzburg and Frankfurt am Main, which was to be underwritten by future tax revenues. In exchange the Bohemian diet conferred upon the financiers the right to collect the outstanding sums. This de facto ‘outsourcing’ of royal prerogatives to a third (foreign) party led to a series of entanglements and disputes, which are investigated from the perspectice of the Eggenberg domains in Southern Bohemia. Reconstructing the interrelated consequences that tied together Prague, Wurzburg, and Český Krumlov, this episode offers insights into into the little-known realities of the fiscal-financial activities of the Bohemian diet around 1700.

Key words: Joseph I – Bohemian estates – War of the Spanish Succession – fiscal-financial history – Jewish bankers – Early Habsburg Studies

RESUME
Předložená studie se zaměřuje na dosud neznámou epizodu zeměpanskostavovských finančních a fiskálních dějin z období vlády Josefa I. (1705–1711) a zvažuje státně desintegrační důsledky této události. Zázemí příběhu představuje mimořadná – do velké míry ovšem známá – role židovských „dvorských faktorů“ Leopolda I., která Leopoldovu synovi a nástupci přinesla studii vylíčené komplikace. Na vrcholu války o španělské dědictví stál osud císaře na ostří nože: Byl ze západu a jihozápadu tísněn Francouzi a jejich spojenci, zároveň však také „zezadu“ ohrožen uherským bojem o nezávislost pod vedením Františka II. Rakoczyho. S vědomím prazdné pokladny a nebezpečné situace na několika frontách zároveň se Josef na přelomu let 1706 a 1707 obrátil na české stavy s následujicím projektem: Čeští stavové si v jeho prospěch vzali půjčku ve vyši 1 333 333 zlatých u konsorcia židovských bankéřů z Frankfurtu nad Mohanem a Wurzburgu, které pojistili na příštích daňových výnosech. Jako protislužbu přiznal zemský sněm bankéřům právo tuto sumu v příštích letech umořit cestou výběru daní.
Tento „outsourcing“ královských práv na třetí – zahraniční – subjekt vedl k řadě komplikací a sporů, které autor analyzuje na příkladě eggenberských majetků v jižních Čechách. V centru zájmu analýzy stojí především řada střídajících se propojení a opět separovaní finančních vztahů mezi Českým Krumlovem, Prahou a Wurzburgem. Na základě jejich rekonstrukce je možno získat nové poznatky o vzájemném těsném spojení důsledků dynastických ambicí s válečnou desintegrací státu. Zkoumaná epizoda nadto dovoluje vhled do dosud málo znamého finančnictví českých stavů okolo roku 1700 a ukazuje, že daňový tlak i administrativní integrace „shora“ – nikoliv nepodobné situaci ve Francii Ludvika XIV. – vedl k řadě souběžně probíhajících, avšak protichůdných vývojových procesů.
Rekonstrukce událostí, spojených s přijetím kreditu ve výši 1 333 333 zlatých ve prospěch Josefa I. a zajištěných na výnosu daní království českého, nás vede k následujícím závěrům:
Za prvé se jako vysloveně vydatná pro dosažení nových poznatků jeví být perspektiva nahlížení dvorských záležitostí zvenčí, resp. prostřednictvím stavovských institucí, tedy vhled „into the means of income rather than into the mechanisms that underpinned expenditure“. Předložená studie tak v tomto ohledu odkazuje ke zcela podobně koncipovaným studiím Luciena Febvre, Johna Elliotta, připadně nejnověji Darryla Dee. Takto zaměřené práce navíc zvýrazňují noetický potenciál lokálně nebo regionálně založených studií, využitelných pro výzkum raně novověké státnosti.
Za druhé předložená rekonstrukce fiskálně finančních rozčlenění habsburské monarchie okolo roku 1700 představuje první krok ve směru zpracování nedávno Petrem Maťou identifikovaného desideratu. Maťův zavěr: „ve výzkumu českých financí této epochy by bylo třeba silněji tematizovat také otázku kreditu“ poukazuje zároveň na to, že řada témat nadále čeká na zpracování. V každém případě by na tomto místě bylo třeba zmínit také dosud v uvahu nevzaté dobové diskuse o zavedení nepřímých daní (akcízu) nebo obdobně pro tuto epochu nepostradatelnou otázku statního kreditu.
V tomto kontextu má za třetí zásadní význam prozkoumání jednotlivých vlastnických titulů (majetků), které byly „základním strukturálním prvkem veřejné správy na lokální úrovni a zároveň nejdůležitějím prvkem tehdejší ekonomie“. Jejich zásadní podstata – a v případě přijetí kreditu roku 1700 všechny s tím spojené problémy – dosvědčují epistemologickou přidanou hodnotu provedeného výzkumu. To s sebou nese dodatečnou výhodu, totiž že otázky války, uvěrovaní a daňové praxe, resp. státnosti nezůstávají rezervovány pouze výzkumu dvora a stavovství nebo oněm studiím, které nabízejí „systemické“ zvýznamnění takovýchto neplánovaných a nesystémových postupů.
Právě posledně jmenovaný aspekt nadto vysvětluje čtvrtý diskusní podnět. Podniknuté kroky totiž zároveň poukazují na zřejmé, ale v diskusích o válce a státnosti obvykle zanedbávané konfliktní pole: válkou podmíněné „problémy“ obvykle vyžadují válkou podmíněná „řešení“. Ta se sama o sobě nemohou jevit ani logická, ani „racionální“ nebo dokonce plánovaná (přičemž se ovšem zeptejme, kdo, případně jak plánuje bezpříkladné reformy?). Uznání těchto skutečností pak může posloužit jako další myšlenkový impuls v debatách, které znovu – a dílem nepřiměřeně – zdůrazňují primát státu.


PODOLAN Peter
Veľká Morava a veľkomoravská tradícia u generácie Kollára a Šafárika … s. 59
(Great Moravia and Great Moravian Tradition of Generation of Kollár and Šafárik)

This study focuses on factography and symbolism of Great Moravia in the works of Ján Hollý, Ján Kollár and Pavol Jozef Šafárik. It gives an insight in their the most important works for historism and historiography and tries to cast light on its connection to nationalism, Romanticism and forming of a modern nation. The analysis uncovered that main tendency of presented information about the Slavic empire was positive. All scholars believed to close interconnection between events of the 9th century and territory of Slovakia or straightly with Slovaks. The image of Great Moravia varied from historic Slovak kingdom to last Panslavic empire. They used similar heuristic base and showed sizeable knowledge of various sources and secondary literature. The distinction is visibly mostly in quantity and quality of the texts because references in Kollár’s works are only fragmentary; Hollý only wrote a few works and commentaries; Šafárik offered several times richer and more complex interpretation.

Key words: Great Moravia – Great Moravian tradition – Ján Hollý (1785–1849) – Ján Kollár (1793–1852) – Pavol Jozef Šafárik (1795–1861) – 19th century – Slovak historiography

RESUME
Using the example of the works of three authors – Ján Hollý, Ján Kollár and Pavel Jozef Šafárik – we try to outline the image of Great Moravia in the first half of the 19th century, connected with its historical events and period updated correlations. Their works also represent appropriate case studies of the poles of the form of the contemporary historiographical discourse – the elements of historical matter within historicism in the primary non-historical works (ideological, artistic) and on the contrary purely historiographic synthesis.
The period intellectuals were well aware of the need to disseminate scientific results and their re-use to the purposeful propaganda data in the sense of increasing the attractiveness of their nation/tribe in the form of historicism. The syncretism of the scientific and artistic direction was accepted at that time, and, from the point of view of the activity, the factual content and the needs of the national movement were put on (almost) the same level.
In the cases of Kollár and Šafárik, it was provision of the confessional line of the Slovak Protestants, leading from the (pan)Slavic framework to Slovakness; in the case of Holly then the continuation of the Catholic line of the interpretation with reinforcement of Slovakness. The opinions presented formed the majority of the sum of the views, which were generally identical across the entire period literature with Slovaks.
The theme of Great Moravia is a composite topic in the given period, a node, in which many of the period lines conflict and also not only in historiography but also social events, reflections of national ideology and visions of the future. It became a symbol that combined a number of interpretational levels. Through this aspect, Christianization proved the supremacy of the Slavs (the transfer of Christianity to the Bohemian duchy/kingdom, the baptism of the apostolic king of Hungary St Stephen from the hands of a Slav – St Adalbert). It also brought a picture of successful military action (vastness, territorial gains, defence against the Franks and Magyars). It was a symbol of the independent reign of the Slavs, respectively the Slovaks on the level of the “golden age”. It was perceived as a Slovak statehood (preferentially with Holly, specifically with Kollar and Šafarik), although Kollar also worked with the concept that it was the last offshoot of the Pan-Slavic community, since it included Slovaks, Moravians, Bohemians, and Poles, Rusyns (Hungarian Rus’ - Ruthenians) and South Slavia tribes (Serbs, Croatians and others). It thus could be even a model for a vision of a functioning pan-Slavic state. It represented the Slovak counterweight against the Hungarian/Magyar state bulit by King Stephen. Its demise was also symbolic as a manifestation of disunion - not only the sons of Svatopluk, but also the mentioned Slavic tribes. It was also used as a contemporary analogy to the split in the Slovak national movement on the issue of the written language following Štúr’s codification of the Slovak language.
The concept set in this period has become the new basis for the perception of the problem by the younger generations of the Slovak National Movement to be as well as for defensive use in the historiography and the historicism of the second half of the 19th century, but also for later definition of the new critical approach to positivism. In spite of the refutation of some original texts and descriptions, in the basic form, this theme has remained a permanent heritage of Slovak national history even in the 20th century, setting a tradition whose offshoots can be observed to this day.


ŠIMA Karel
Rytmus veřejných festivit. České národní slavnosti v 60. a 70. letech 19. století … s. 94
(The rhythm of public festivities: Bohemian national celebrations in 1860s and 1870s.)

This study argues that national festivals can be analysed as specific space-time entities that construct meanings related to the Nation and thus help to sediment national identity. Based on works of M. Maurer and M. Ozouf the author explores the festive space-time in three phases: parade, settling and festive act that reflect three vectors of festive culture, ie. dynamization, stabilisation and concentration. On examples from Czech national festive culture in 1860s and 1870s the detailed effects of this space-time are shown.

Key words: modern celebrations – nation – nationalism – time – space – identity – Bohemia1

RESUME
The study starts from the current research of modern festivities that addressed the problem of time and space only exceptionally and if so, then separately. Within the framework of his holiday theory, Michael Maurer pointed to the important problems of time and in her work on the French Revolutionary holiday Mona Ozouf analysed the problem of time and space separately. In the study, the approach is proposed of how to analyse the interconnected space-time dispositions of festive events, defined by the meanings assigned to them within the celebrations.
Based on the sources on the Bohemian national celebrations in 1860s and 1870s, an ideal model is proposed, which the festivities had to meet in order to complete the identification process in relation to their participants. What is important in that is how the formation of this process has been reflected and purposefully-rationally organised, which shaped its modernist framework. On the other hand, there is an essential element of continuity here with the traditional festival time and space, which consisted in overlaying traditional pilgrimages and other festival forms in the new national framework.
The first phase of the model is the arrangement of space-time into meaning hierarchies that are dynamized by the ceremonial procession. Here it performs how the idea of the modern Czech nation, its symbols and its arrangement are being shaped.
The second phase is the stabilization of the festive time-space on the site of the festival. It is possible to distinguish a closed space here that theatrically focuses attention on the ceremony, which at the same time allows the development of a hierarchy within the ceremonial community. On the other hand, a possibility appears, in the case of Bohemian national celebrations less frequently, of an open space, which shapes a horizontal symbolism of equality. In the case of the camps of people and other public events in the open landscape, both a similar concentration appears around one point like in the case of urban festivities and the surrounding landscape becomes a hierarchized nationally defined space, by which the symbolism of horizontal equality and universality is weakened.
The third phase is the ceremonial act itself, which by gradually increasing the concentration matures to a time-space moment of singularity, in which the importance of the celebration (ceremonial gesture, slogans, singing) and the identification action with respect to belonging to the nation are concentrated.
The national celebrations of the 1860s and 1870s established the festival culture, which in principle survived until the middle of the 20th century, although new forms (large exhibitions) emerged from the 1890s and included the state framework after the First World War. For further research, the question arises as to how and why this type of festival culture began to lose legitimacy after the mid-20th century.


DISKUSE | DISCUSSION

HLADKÝ Ladislav
Problémy interpretace dějin Černé Hory … s. 123
(The problems of interpretation of the history of Montenegro)


OBZORY LITERATURY | REVIEW ARTICLES AND REVIEWS

Recenzní článek

PEŠEK Jiří
Zamyšlení nad Jarauschovými „modernizačními“ dějinami Evropy 20. století … s. 139
(A consideration of Jarausch’s “modernization” history of Europe of the 20th century)


Recenze

Libor JAN a kol.
Osmičky. Osudová výročí českých a československých dějin končící na jednu číslici
(Jakub Marša) … s. 160

Elisabeth GRUBER – Christina LUTTER – Oliver Jens SCHMITT
Kulturgeschichte der Überlieferung im Mittelalter. Quellen und Methoden zur Geschichte Mittel- und Südosteuropas
(Robert Šimůnek) … s. 162

Katalin SZENDE
Trust, Authority and the Written Word in the Royal Towns of Medieval Hungary
(Peter Bučko) … s. 164

Kristýna SOLOMON
Tristan-Romane: Zur spätmittelalterlichen Rezeption von Gottfrieds Tristan in den böhmischen Ländern
(Dana Dvořáčková-Malá) … s. 168

Martina MAŘÍKOVÁ
Finance v životě pražské metropolitní kapituly. Hmotné zabezpečení kanovníků optikou účetních rejstříků z let 1358–1418
(František Šmahel) … s. 171

Vladimír SPÁČIL – Libuše SPÁČILOVÁ
České překlady Míšeňské právní knihy
(František Šmahel) … s. 172


Zprávy o literatuře … s. 207


Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA | CHRONICLE

EBELOVÁ Ivana – HOJDA Zdeněk
XIV. kongres Evropské asociace pro dějiny měst … s. 229

MAREK Pavel
Rusko a Západ v době smuty,
náboženských konfliktů a třicetileté války … s. 233


Nekrology

Zdeňka Hledíková (23. října 1938 – 13. listopadu 2018)
(Eva Doležalová) … s. 237

Michaela Marek (22. srpna 1956 – 24. září 2018)
(Roman Prahl) … s. 240

Knihy a časopisy došlé redakci … s. 243

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků … s. 243

Pokyny pro autory … s. 265