Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ | THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW
ročník 116
č. 3/2018

s. 653-946



STUDIE | STUDIES

PEŠEK Jiří
Vznik, charakter a konec první Československé republiky (Několik úvah k aktuálním diskusím) … s. 659
(The Foundation, Character and End of the First Czechoslovak Republic. [Some reflections on current discussions])

The author has used the 100th anniversary of the foundation of Czechoslovakia to review its history and historiography. He confronts traditional (positive) myths with the current, intentionally extreme and historical facts disregarding critiques of „Masaryk‘s Republic“. To this end, the author puts the Czechoslovak narrative, usually presented in isolation, into Central European and pan-European contexts and comparisons. For it is only those contexts that, indeed, provide the framework for assessing this democratic experiment. Therefore, the author sketches the foundation of the Czechoslovak republic within the context of the collapse of the Central European monarchies transformed into military dictatorships during World War I. Further, he portrays the entrenchment of Czechoslovak democracy within the framework of the efforts of the Allied powers to base the post-war peace in Europe upon a system of democratic republics and the principle of collective security. Nazi Germany’s de facto annexation of democratic Czechoslovakia is then depicted as a result of the collapse of this European system once the great Western powers effectively abandoned it and the power of the main European dictatorships grew rapidly.

Key words: Czechoslovakia – republic – democracy – Central Europe – 1918 to 1938 – historical narratives

RESUMÉ
Der Verfasser nutzt das einhundertste Jubiläum der Gründung der Tschechoslowakei zu einer bilanzierenden Inventur. In deren Rahmen konfrontiert er die traditionellen, die Jahre der deutschen Besatzung und die Jahrzehnte des kommunistischen Regimes überdauernden Mythen über die erste Republik mit der aktuellen tendenziösen, die historischen Fakten ignorierenden Kritik an der „Masaryk’schen Republik“. Das tschechoslowakische, gewöhnlich isoliert erzählte und interpretierte, Narrativ bettet der Verfasser in die mittel- und gesamteuropäischen Kontexte ein. Denn erst ein Vergleich mit dem Geschehen in der näheren und ferneren Nachbarschaft der Republik gibt diesem republikanisch-demokratischen Experiment einen Rahmen, der eine Bewertung der zwanzigjährigen Geschichte der Ersten Tschechoslowakischen Republik ermöglicht.
Die Republikgründung schildert der Verfasser im Kontext des militärischen Zusammenbruchs der mitteleuropäischen Monarchien, die sich im Laufe des Weltkriegs in dysfunktionale und zugleich brutale Militärdiktaturen verwandelt hatten. Zu ihren Charakteristiken gehörte von Anfang an ein krankhafter, sich zu einer mörderischen Jagd auf den „inneren Feind“ auswachsender Argwohn der Heeresführung gegen die slawischen Völker, und hier in erster Linie gegen die Tschechen. Im Herbst 1918 brachen nicht nur die Fronten zusammen, sondern auch die gesamte Versorgung. Die zentralen Großstädte wurden in der Folge zu Zentren des Widerstands gegen die bestehenden, real kaum reformierbaren Reichsdiktaturen. Dort wurden auch die „Nachfolgerepubliken“ der Imperien ausgerufen.
Die Tschechoslowakische Republik, die auf einem Teil der Trümmer Österreich-Ungarns entstand, knüpfte zwar im Grunde an die großen tschechischen politischen Erfolge aus alten konstitutionell-monarchistischen Zeiten an, stützte sich allerdings ideologisch auf das „postkoloniale“ Konzept einer „nationalen Revolution“. In dieser Lesart war es eben jene, die das Regime stürzte, unter dem die Tschechen „dreihundert Jahre lang gelitten hatten“. Eine gewisse Diskontinuität und ein symbolischer Neustart waren gleichwohl notwendig: Der junge Staat befand sich in einer Lage, in der die Schulden und Trümmer der Kriegsjahre beseitigt sowie die Gesellschaft der böhmischen Länder und insbesondere jene der östlichen Teile der Republik intensiv modernisiert werden mussten. Der Verfasser erläutert die Notwendigkeit, sich aus Gründen der Staatsräson gegen die großdeutschen, sozialistischen Konzepte abzugrenzen. Zugleich weist er auf die zu jener Zeit allgemein vorherrschende Angst der neuen Regierungen vor bolschewistischen, antidemokratischen Umsturzversuchen in Mitteleuropa hin, die in der Regel mit harten Mitteln verhindert bzw. niedergeschlagen wurden. Er erklärt, dass der „Tschechoslowakismus“ (ähnlich wie die Erneuerung der polnischen Nation) keine Zwecklüge war, sondern ein ernsthaftes zeitgenössisches Konzept, das u. a. schon vor 1918 von einem Großteil der slowakischen Eliten mitgetragen worden war. Der Autor macht deutlich, dass die starke Stellung der Minderheiten in der Tschechoslowakei – zumindest seit der Verfassung von 1920 – im gesamteuropäischen Kontext einzigartig war, und zwar sowohl im Hinblick auf die staatliche Unterstützung des Minderheitenschulwesens (einschließlich der Hochschulen) und der Minderheitenkultur als auch und insbesondere (seit 1926) in Anbetracht der ständigen Beteiligung deutscher Minister an der Regierung.
Über die Führung der Republik kann gesagt werden, dass es in vernünftiger Kooperation von Regierung und Präsident und auch dem – vielleicht durch eine zu starke Parteiendisziplin charakterisierten – Parlament in Krisensituationen stets von Neuem gelang, die Demokratie aufrechtzuerhalten. Keines der umliegenden Länder vermochte in den Zwischenkriegsjahren Bürgerkriege, Militärputsche oder Diktatorenregimes abzuwehren. Die Tschechoslowakei blieb trotz Erschütterungen, u. a. hervorgerufen durch die Weltwirtschaftskrise, eine parlamentarische Demokratie, die sich auf die demokratischen Grundsätze westeuropäischen Typs stützte. Sie wurde im Vertrauen darauf konstituiert, dass die Großmächte die Stabilitätsgaranten für den Kontinent bleiben, so wie im Jahr 1919, als sie seine neue Struktur bestimmten. Die Basis dafür war der Völkerbund. Die Republik konnte sich jedoch in ihrem einsamen Kampf gegen die benachbarte Nazidiktatur nicht behaupten. Die inneren radikal zentrifugalen Kräfte in Gestalt der sudetendeutschen Nationalsozialisten und der slowakischen faschistoiden Katholiken destabilisierten die Republik erheblich. Ohne den aggressiven militärischen Druck von außen, der den fatalen Zerfall des europäischen kollektiven Sicherheitssystems ausnutzte, hätte Hitlerdeutschland jedoch keine Erfolgschancen gehabt. Die Tschechoslowakei wurde zum Opfer des Nationalsozialismus ebenso wie nur wenig später die meisten anderen europäischen Länder. Dies war kein Beweis für eine Fehlkonstruktion der Republik oder für fatale Mängel ihrer Demokratie, sondern vielmehr für ein falsch und zu schwach konstruiertes, auf dem Konsens der Großmächte basierendes Systém der europäischen Stabilität und Sicherheit. In der Nachkriegszeit musste schließlich der Versuch unternommen werden, dieses System neu und wenn möglich auch besser zu gestalten.


KLEČACKÝ Martin
Převzetí moci. Státní správa v počátcích Československé republiky 1918–1920 na příkladu Čech … s. 693
(The Takeover of Power. The State Administration at the Beginnings of the Czechoslovak Republic 1918–1920 using the Example of the Czech Lands)

This study deals with the process of the takeover of the political administration as the most important branch of the Austrian state administration on the territory of the Czech Lands by the Czechoslovak state, both at the level of individual district units (okresni hejtmanstvi) as well as at the level of the Governor’s Office (mistodržitelstvi) between 1918–1920. It primarily focuses on personnel changes, which are used to document the degree of continuity between the Austrian and Czechoslovak administrations.

Key words: the foundation of Czechoslovakia – administration of the state – district units – the Office of Governor General

RESUMÉ
This study deals comprehensively with the personnel changes at the key places of the administration of the state in the former Czech Lands after the foundation of Czechoslovakia until 1920. It focuses upon the so-called political administration as the most important component of the Austrian administration, whose task it was to maintain law and order and to simultaneously ensure the observance of laws and regulations on the territory under their protection. The representatives of political administration, firstly the Governor and the subordinated district commissioners, played the crucial role in how the new Czechoslovak administration conducted themselves towards the public and whether and how quickly the consolidation of the new state might be achieved.
In its first part, the study deals with the takeover of the Office of the Governor in Prague as the highest state office in Bohemia, the appointment of a new head of this Office and personnel changes in the leadership of important departments. It attempts to throw light on the motivation of the members of the National Committee in deciding to keep Jan Kosina in the crucial post of the Governor. It pays attention to Kosina’s career in the civil service prior to 1918 in comparison to other top officials. In the second part the author turns his attention to district units directly subordinated to the Governor’s Office and responsible for their respective administrative areas in the country. On the example of more than one hundred districts it lays out all possible scenarios which occurred when Imperial-Royal District Commissioners transferred to the Czechoslovak administration and thus documents a degree of continuity not merely at the level of institutions, but primarily in terms of the personnel, both in the Czech and German districts, which were led by officials of German origins. These changes are consequently quantified and the most pronounced examples are further examined in the next part. It reflects on possible reasons leading to the recall of a district head and even further careers of officials for whom the October upheaval either meant a new chance for professional advancement or the other way round, thwarted personal ambitions and the enforced end of one’s career in the civil service. At the same time, these personnel changes are placed within the framework of the further development of the political administration in the new Republic.


HÁLEK Jan – MOSKOVIĆ Boris
„Maffie“ (1914–1918) pohledem československé historiografie: strategie – význam – interpretace … s. 733
(„Maffie“ [1914–1918] as viewed by Czechoslovak historiography: strategy – importance – interpretation)

The current study analyses changes relating to the approach of Czechoslovak historiography to the phenomenon of Czech domestic anti-Austrian resistance (1914–1918), better known by its later name „Maffie“. Firstly, the authors observe how the circumstances of academic research and also the manner of interpretation of this issue changed during the 1918–1968 period. In Part I, they firstly deal with the initial references to „the Maffie“ following the foundation of an independent Czechoslovak state, namely the politisation and instrumentalisation of this concept in the public domain and especially its reflection in contemporary historiography. In Part II, the authors’ attention turns to the reflection of „the Maffie“ on the part of Marxist historiography in the years 1948–1968. The authors demonstrate the changes of academic research on Czech anti-Austrian resistance not merely in the approaches of individual authors but also on the basis of a wider development of the science of history.

Key words: historiography – anti-Austrian resistance – Maffie – World War I – Czechoslovakia

RESUMÉ
Following the foundation of Czechoslovaka, the „Maffie“ as the designation for the domestic Czech anti-Austrian resistance between the years 1914–1918 was to become an integral part of the construed narrative of the „Czechoslovak revolution“, alongside T. G. Masaryk’s Action Abroad and the armed Czechoslovak legions. However, in the era of the First Republic (1918–1938), the term „Maffie“, despite its initial success, found it relatively difficult to become established as an attractive symbol of the „Czechoslovak revolution“. It lacked transparency and there was a shortage of reliable information, which would throw light on its activities and importance during World War I as well. These limitations were also manifest in historiographic production related to the activities of the „Maffie“, which only appeared, after certain peripeties, in the course of the 1930s.
It was especially the monumental work by the first female Czech Associate Professor Milada Paulová „History of the Maffie“ (Dějiny Maffie). The first two volumes, which appeared during 1937–1939, represented the seminal work contributing to our understanding of Czech domestic developments and the forms of anti-Austrian activities during the Great War. Simultaneously, Paulová’s work greatly influenced further research in this area. She, as a Prague historian, completed the process of the affirmation of the „Maffie“ as an organisationally well co-joined, cohesive in its programme and exceptionally influential constituent part of the „revolutionary action“. Yet, as early as the inter-war period, a somewhat different interpretations of the history of the „Maffie“ appeared not merely in the public domain but also in historiographical circles (for example in contributions by Zdeněk Václav Tobolka and Karel Horký).
After World War II, research of the „Maffie“ took place in completely different socio-political circumstances, which principally influenced the direction of Czechoslovak historiography also. After the period of the 1950s when the Marxist historiography devoted significant attention to directly challenging the conclusions of the „legend-making“ production of the First Republic’s „burgeois historiography“, the era of Reformist historiography arrived. Within its Framework a number of historians developed their research by either specialising in the period of 1914–1918 or dealing with this period as a part of their more broadly-conceived research (history of the international working class movement, the foundation of the Communist Party, the echoes of the Russian October Revolution, et.al.). Apart from Milada Paulová’s final work, other titles by Jurij Křížek, Karel Pichlík and Zdeněk Kárník appeared in the second half of the 1960s. Thus, they dealt with the circumstances surrounding the foundation of the Czechoslovak state and also with the phenomenon of the „Maffie“ in broad outlines. The interpretation of the activities of the domestic anti-Austrian resistance was no longer marginalised and intentionally criticised as in the previous period, but once again its historical merits in the „national liberation movement“ were recognised in some works of the above mentioned authors.


KURHAJCOVÁ Alica
Dominancia a marginalizácia historickej pamäti v Uhorsku (na príklade pomníkovej kultúry Slovákov) … s. 764
(The Dominance and Marginalisation of Historical Memory in Hungary [using the example of the Memorial Culture of the Slovaks])

This study documents how the dominance of the historical memory of one national group is reflected in the public domain, while at the same time the memory of another national group is marginalised. This phenomenon is demonstrated using the example of secular monuments created by Slovaks in Hungary in the second half of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. It documents not merely the symbolic meaning of the monument in Hungarian, namely Hungarian-Slovak relationships, but also the form of memorials reflected in the Slovak national discourse before the outbreak of the Great War.

Key words: monument – historical memory – symbol – Magyar-Slovak relations – 19th century

RESUMÉ
Scholars are of the view that the most important period in which the onset of the construction of secular national memorials culminated was during the “lengthy” 19th century. Their spread towards the end of this period was linked to the nationalistic takeover of public spaces, the modernisation of places, secularisation and the spread of mass political culture and propaganda. As a consequence of these socio-political changes and the introduction of new values, new tasks were assigned to the memorials. Using the example of the Hungarian monument creation from the second half of 19th century, the study presented here documents the national monument as a symbol, which reflected the dominance of historical memory in the Hungarian national community in public space. At the same time it was also a marker of the marginalisation of the Slovak memory. It shows not merely a symbolic importance for the memorial in Hungarian-Slovak relations but also which forms of memorials dominated the Slovak nationalistic discourse before the outbreak of the Great War: tomb stones, memorial plaques and busts on the one hand and on the other hand places of pilgrimage and literary memorials as alternative ways of building memorials. It is seen that the Slovak discourse about a memorial and its constructions during the period of dualism was rather lively, yet the Slovak national monument as a sculpted form did not find an appropriate place in Hungarian society. Because of the unfavourable attitude of Hungarian representations it was not wanted. As a result it did not become a fully fledged tool for cultivating the historical memory of the Slovaks. Its qualities, however, excelled in written and verbal communications of Slovakian patriots. Indeed, literary output by Slovak poets and writers was quite often referred to as monuments, similar to activities which were carried out for the benefit of the Slovak language and nation in the area of social associations, as well as education.


XI. SJEZD ČESKÝCH HISTORIKŮ | THE 11TH CONGRESS OF CZECH HISTORIANS

BUŇATOVÁ Marie
Úvěr a finance v obchodní praxi. Evropa – české země – Praha: směry a perspektivy výzkumu … s. 787
(Credit and finance in commercial practice. Europe – the Czech Lands – Prague: directions and perspectives of research)

This study deals with the theme of commercial practice in the pre-industrial period and presents some of the contemporary directions of the German, Austrian and Italian historiographies. Simultaneously, the study attempts to evaluate the potential application of these methodological approaches for researching the Czech environment. Its text presents some recent results of research in the environs of merchants in Early Modern Age Prague. Namely, recent findings related to commodity and finance credit; book-keeping and accounting, as well as managing customer-supplier relations are dealt with. At the same time further fields of research themes are defined and potential directions and perspectives of future research are proposed.

Key words: commerce – commercial practice – the Early Modern Age – merchants – methodology – Prague – account ledgers – credit.

RESUMÉ
In the course of research of history of the Early Modern Age commerce contemporary historiography poses a number of questions for itself. They relate to its own existence and the functioning of economy and trade. Yet, they are also devoted to researching the influence of commerce on the general development of society. One of the themes, which has enjoyed an increasing attention abroad in recent decades, is the issue of commercial practice, namely the strategy and procedures used by merchants when conducting trade, negotiating with their partners and customers, but also in communications with institutions. The theme of commercial practice is researched from a range of different angles and methodological starting points, which comprise purely economic, financial and operational levels, legal aspects, up to socio-economic and socio-cultural links and impact. Thus, the study presented here aims to introduce some of these contemporary trends in foreign research, namely German, Austrian and Italian studies, and simultaneously to assess the possibilities of applying them to the Czech environment. It pays attention to the theoretical definition of the term „commercial practice“ and simultaneously describes some methodological approaches which are applied during the research of the commercial practice in the pre-industrial period. The main attention is, however, devoted to the Czech environment. The main types of primary resources, which are at our disposal for such a specific research (e.g. commercial manuals and textbooks, account ledgers, traders’ correspondence, municipal crime statistics) are briefly introduced and the ways of their further use for research are proposed at the same time. This study also presents some research findings ascertained so far in the environs of merchants in Early Modern Age Prague. Primarily, recent findings related to the theme of commodities and finance credit; book-keeping and accounting, as well as the management of customer-supplier relations (commercial credit, sale on commission) are dealt with. At the same time further research questions, not tackled until now, are defined and potential directions and perspectives of future research are proposed.


DISKUSE | DISCUSSION

HOCHEDLINGER Michael
Diskuse o „Domu dějin Rakousko“ … s. 822

PEŠEK Jiří
Potřeba diskuse o problémech (nejen vlastních) dějin aneb odpověď Michaelu Hochedlingerovi … s. 824


OBZORY LITERATURY | REVIEW ARTICLES AND REVIEWS

Recenzní článek

HORSKÝ Jan
Přemostění propasti mezi biologií a historií pomocí (hermeneutické) antropologie?
Zamyšlení nad knihou Wolfganga Reinharda Geschichte als Anthropologie … s. 827
(Bridging a large gap between Biology and History using [hermeneutic] Anthropology?
Reflection on the book by Wolfgang Reinhard Geschichte als Anthropologie)

Recenze

Ondřej BERÁNEK – Pavlína CERMANOVÁ – Jakub HRUBÝ (eds.)
Jedno slunce na nebi, jeden vládce na zemi.
Legitimita moci ve světě 14. století
(Petr Charvát) … s. 853

Karl HÄRTER
Strafrechts- und Kriminalitätsgeschichte der Frühen Neuzeit
(Petr Kreuz) … s. 855

Elke SCHLENKRICH
Gevatter Tod. Pestzeiten im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert im sächsisch-schlesisch-böhmischen Vergleich
(Bohdana Divišová) … s. 860

Kateřina BOBKOVÁ-VALENTOVÁ – Alena BOČKOVÁ – Magdaléna JACKOVÁ – Martin BAŽIL – Eva PAUEROVÁ – Jan ZDICHYNEC – Zdeněk ŽALUD (eds.)
Sv. Jan Nepomucký na jezuitských školních scénách
(Petr Polehla) … s. 863

Christopher HOGWOOD
Georg Friedrich Händel
(Lukáš M. Vytlačil) … s. 868

Barthold Heinrich Brockes – Werke
Ed. Jürgen Rathje
(Martin Bojda) … s. 871

Vojtěch SZAJKÓ
Železnice, pošta a telegraf rakouské armády v letech 1848–1914
(Tomáš Jiránek) … s. 874

Jakub S. BENEŠ
Workers and Nationalism. Czech and German Social Democracy in Habsburg Austria, 1890–1918
(Pavel Cibulka) … s. 877

Tomáš SNIEGOŇ
Zmizelá historie. Holokaust v české a slovenské historické kultuře
(Kateřina Králová) … s. 883

Vladimír P. POLÁCH
Krajané v USA a druhá světová válka.
Studie na pozadí krajanského tisku
(Jaroslav Kříž) … s. 886

Jakub ŠLOUF
Podvedená strana. Zrod masového komunistického hnutí na Plzeňsku, jeho disciplinace, centralizace a byrokratizace (1945–1948)
(Václav Kaška) … s. 888

Milada POLIŠENSKÁ
Czechoslovak Diplomacy and the Gulag. Deportation of Czechoslovak Citizens to the USSR and the Negotiation for their Repatriation, 1945–1953
(Emil Voráček) … s. 892

Dominika GRYGAROVÁ – Tomáš HERMANN – Antonín KOSTLÁN – Michal ŠIMŮNEK – Soňa ŠTRBÁŇOVÁ – Tomáš PETRÁŇ
Homines scientiarum. Třicet příběhů české vědy a filosofie, I–V
(Jiří Pešek) … s. 897

Jan KELLER
Evropské rozpory ve světle migrace
(Jaroslav Pánek) … s. 904


Zprávy o literatuře … s. 908

Knihy a časopisy došlé redakci … s. 928

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků … s. 928