Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ | THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW
ročník 115
č. 3/2017

s. 625-952




STUDIE | STUDIES


HLAVAČKA Milan
Family business history – nova disciplina na hraně hospodařskych a socialnich dějin? … s. 661
(Family Business History – New Discipline on the Threshold of Economic and Social History?)

Today, the business history constitutes an important branch of economic and social history, primarily in western historiography. It is defined as scientific documentation of the history of particular companies, especially their manufacturing and social work. In its research, classical historical methods are combined with those of the history of technology, trade, and mentalities. The business history is a branch that encompasses a number of additional disciplines; it is close to business economy and is closely linked to the economic theories. Family companies or firms as economic units constituted also a field of delicate social and cultural policy. In Western Europe and North America, they organized a major part of socially needed labour and became an arena of activity for different interest circles and groups. The family business history as a part of the business history and history of society has been studied in recent years, mostly in the German and American scientific and business milieu, with a special accent placed on its political, mental and cultural connotations. Especially in the United States established magazines, institutions, guides, professional associations and job positions. Family business research developed an original methodology and conceptualized new topics. If we had to answer the question tents after the existence of the family business history as a new scientific discipline, the answer is not clear. In most developed countries of the world except the United States remained the family business history still part of the history of business or, like in Germany, part of the social and economic history. The historical dimension of the family business is still so by‑product of most research centers dedicated to the family business. However, investigative provides promising potential for the future.
Key words: family, modern entrepreneurship, family firm, corporate culture, methodology

RESUME
Family Business History has long struggled for recognition and acceptance as an intellectually and scientifically independent discipline. They have long been looking for distinctive criteria that would make it unique. In the early years of existence before 1980, family business fell into the portfolio of sociology and business and corporate management. At that time, Family Business History “borrowed” methodology and terminology that was not its own. In the 1990 s, especially in the United States, it was the professionalisation of this discipline and its emancipation from sociology and “adherence” to corporate management and social history. In particular, magazines, institutions, guides, professional associations, positions and study fields and doctoral training were created in the US. In recent years, original methodology has been developed and new themes have been conceptualized. Every year there is a large number of workshops and a conference on family business and its history. If we should answer the question after the existence of Family Business History as a new scientific discipline, the answer will not be unambiguous. In most developed countries of the world, apart from the USA, they have still been part of business history or, as in Germany, part of social and economic history.


KUBŮ Eduard – ŠOUŠA Jiři
Rodinná firma. Pojem a historický kontext jeho současného obsahu se zřetelem k českym zemím … s. 684
(A Family Company. The Term and Historical Context of Its Current Meaning with View to Bohemian Lands)

The presented text is a reflection on family entrepreneurship in the Czech milieu. It asks when the current term of family company originated and how its meaning developed. It concludes that modern family entrepreneurship, which results in a modern entrepreneurial tradition gradually transforming into a family brand or logo and constituting business culture inside as well
as outside the company, can be traced to the late 18th century. A massive development of private family companies arrived in Central Europe in the second half of the 19th century, but the companies had no need to present themselves as family companies. Establishment of the term as we know it now occurred almost undetected in the interwar period. The tradition of the company and its roots are often much older than the term “family firm” itself.
Key words: family, modern entrepreneurship, family firm, corporate culture, company brand (logo)

RESUME
The concept of a family firm is, by its nature, linked with the enterprise of a capitalist type. Therefore, guild craft workshops of the Middle Ages (and the Early Modern Age) should not be subsumed under this concept, albeit they also operated
on a family basis. Similarly, in our view, a medieval trade enterprise does not belong within this framework either. The constitution of a modern business is linked with a wide range of facts and preconditions. Capitalism institutionalizes enterprise; it provides it with what is formally relevant, with legal frameworks. It is only capitalism that in a principal manner changes the relation of the wider public to money, their thesauration, the perception of money as a means of profit, i.e. the perception of money as capital. The firm (company) is the central institution of capitalism. A company owned by a family represents the earliest type of business continued by other types – joint‑stock company, public company, limited company, cooperative, state owned company, et al. It means that the company no longer defines the place where production is organised (workshop, factory, studio, office), but becomes an institution, imbued with a legal dimension and additional fiscal and accounting dimensions connected to it; it becomes a firm (the money destined for the upkeep of the family and their other consumption needs are gradually separated from the money allocated for enterprise, which is subject to a special regime – it is invested – it becomes capital). The firm acquires defined inner structures and bureaucratizes itself; its growth is linked with the professionalization of both managerial output and its technical staff.
Translated by Alena Linhartova


DOLEŽALOVÁ Antonie
Business History. Vědecký obor mezi historií a ekonomií … s. 708
(Business History. A Scientific Discipline between History and Economics)

This study aims to examine the defining attributes of entrepreneurship and both the methodological and the historiographical aspects of the history of doing business with the emphasis on the original tradition of business history in the USA. The study answers questions about definition of the entrepreneurship, differences between entrepreneurship and family entrepreneurship, the development of the scientific field of “business history” and the relationship between business history, economic theory and economic history.
Key words: Business History, Economic History, Historiography of Business History, Entrepreneurship, Economics

RESUME
This study analysis the defining attributes of entrepreneurship and both the methodological and the historiographical aspects of the history of doing business with the emphasis on the original tradition of business history in the USA. The study answers four questions:
1. how is the entrepreneurship defined;
2. what is the difference between entrepreneurship and family entrepreneurship;
3. what was the development of the field of “business history”;
4. what is the relationship between business history, economic theory and economic history.
Being an entrepreneur means finding gaps in the market and dealing with scarce resources. In today’s economic research of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs, the question stands in how entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship change social reality. The fundamental debate consists in asking whether opportunities exist as an objective reality awaiting discovery or are a social construct. In any case, the majority of entrepreneurs are of a family nature; the whole capitalism is but a family affair. Exploring entrepreneurship in a historical perspective is a domain of business history. The subject field has been established in the USA since the 1930s partly under the influence of both personal and opinion conflicts among the proponents of various ideas on economic history and partly under the influence of methodological impulses coming from the whole spectrum of social sciences.
Today business history is an interdisciplinary discipline par excellence; it stands astride over economics, history, sociology, psychology, and other social sciences.
It is a discipline that examines what role business and entrepreneurs play in society in the historical perspective. Descriptive history of companies, businesses and entrepreneurs are now already only a very distant beginning of the discipline.
The relationship between business history, economic theory and economic history remains dialectical and very narrow in order to capture the place of business in the widest sense of the word in history.


POPELKA Petr – KUBŮ Eduard – ŠTOLLEOVÁ Barbora
Podnikatelé českých zemi. Pokus o historiografickou bilanci … s. 731
(Entrepreneurs in the Czech Lands. An Attempt to Provide a Historiographical Account)

Subsequent to the 1989 revolution, the scope of historical research expanded such that researchers’ focus was transferred to topics which had been of peripheral concern in previous decades because they were ideologically unsuitable. A natural departure from the preferred history of the workers movement towards research of social elites took place, a trend that was marked in Czech historiography for at least two decades. The study of modern businesses and entrepreneurship was no different, with a consistent rise seen in the study of this field of research from the early 1990s. As in many other fields of historical investigation, domestic research had to confront the thorough methodology and rich ideas of modern business history, which has been a fully established research field for many decades. Looking back retrospectively, despite all its limits, research in this historiographical segment had many years of tradition and current research builds on this tradition. There are now an almost inexhaustible number of studies on various issues related to the development of industrial production in the Czech lands during the industrialisation period. Over the past few decades, it has mainly been studied on individual entrepreneurs or entrepreneurial families which have been published on the history of entrepreneurs. There are significantly fewer papers on entrepreneurial groups defined by sector or region, and we have only vague notions of entrepreneurship as a social group.
Key words: modern entrepreneurship, business history, historiography, methodology

RESUME
Research on the development of entrepreneurship has undergone turbulent developments within Czech historiography. To begin with, Czech historians displayed little interest in researching the history of entrepreneurship. This research handicap was the result of causes with historical roots. The dominance of German and Jewish entrepreneurs within medium‑sized and large businesses before the establishment of Czechoslovakia means that Czech historians primarily focused on agrarian history, or the history of trades. In contrast, the history of entrepreneurship was mainly investigated by German historians living in the Czech lands, who indirectly supported through their publications the idea of the German economic benefit and general civilising influence on the Czech lands. During the interwar period, this basic trend remained. There was a fast and fundamental change in Czechoslovak historiography following the Second World War towards a historical and materialistic methodological focus. In this period, there was a fundamental reassessment of previous historiographical tradition. Although economic and social history came into the limelight, creating the core of the new thinking about history, these began to evolve into an ideologically predestined form. By the 1950s, there was already extensive research into fundamental historical economic transformations in which the entrepreneur did not have a place. In these research studies, entrepreneurs, or rather the bourgeoisie, were clearly assigned the role of “exploiters” and “class enemies”. It was inconceivable for the history of entrepreneurship to be studied along the American or West European models; using the Soviet model, it was reduced to the history of factories. Subsequent to 1989, the scope of historical research also expanded such that researchers refocused their attention on topics which had been of peripheral concern in previous decades due to their ideological unsuitability. There was a natural movement from the preferred history of peoples’ movements to research into social elites, with this trend clear in Czech historiography for almost two decades.
Translated by Alena Linhartova


EFMERTOVÁ Marcela
Hospodařské dějiny a business history ve francouzské historiografii … s. 756
(Economic History and Business History in French Historiography)

Since 1929 French historiography has been influenced by the Annales School (Ecole des Annales). Both the founders and the first generation (1929–1945) Annales are considered by Marc Bloch and Lucien Febvre. Its leading lights at that time drew their inspiration from Auguste Comte’s positivist philosophy and proceeded in a way different from the so‑called methodic school that had affected the historical branches in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Until 1945, the Annales School represented of edge branch of French historiography. After 1945, her leaders came to the top positions in universities (and especially in Paris) and began to point the whole of French historiography. It was only then that they became a real school. It was the Annales that had changed approach to history. Its achievements were based on its more global view of the historical issues under review and especially on its efforts to foster cooperation and links among interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary institutes (among historians, sociologists, economists, mathematicians, geographers, anthropologists, psychologists, etymologists, statisticians, demographers, climatologists etc.).
Key words: Annales School, economic and social history, business history, history of technology, historiography, Czech Lands, France, French universities, grandes ecoles, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Ecole polytechnique, Ecole normale superieure, Universite Paris‑Saclay, academic institutes, International Economic History Association

RESUME
Since 1929 French historiography has been influenced by the Annales School (Ecole des Annales). Its leading lights at that time drew their inspiration from Auguste Comte’s positivist philosophy and proceeded in a way different from the so‑called
methodic school that had affected the historical branches in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. As a matter of fact, it was the Annales that had changed approach to history. Its achievements were based on its more global view of the historical issues under review and especially on its efforts to foster cooperation and links among interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary institutes (among historians, sociologists, economists, mathematicians, geographers, anthropologists, psychologists, etymologists, statisticians, demographers, climatologists etc.). The school received its name after the journal it issued, Annales d’histoire economique et sociale (at present it is known as Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales).
Up till now the Annales School has been represented and formed by as many as four generations of distinguished historians who have had a lion’s share also in shaping international history research – primarily in the field of economic and social history and business history (history of technology… but not only those branches named above). There are other journals associated with the focus espoused by the Annales School, namely the Revue des annales, Nouvelle histoire, Anthropologie
historique, Histoire des mentalites etc. Since 1945 historians have been interested in studying broader development trends in society, their individual and determining tendencies, cycles, measurement of boom periods (e.g. large economic sectors), while the first quantitative (quantifying) methods emerged, employing the possibilities offered by mathematical and statistical procedures. During the 1960s and 70s this excessive impact exercised by economists (mostly those from the Ecole polytechnique and the Ecole Normale Superieure) on the School had subsided to be replaced by emerging scrutiny of historical anthropology, followed by history of mentalities and cultural history, gender history with historical methods emanating from those novel approaches.
The specific process of historical description shifted its accent onto micro history in the context of great histories, and within its framework, for instance, on the history of industrial plants, family businesses, commercial relations – business history etc. In this way, liberal elements of history research have been promoted.
Interest in and focus on specificity, contextuality and realistic presentation of  historical facts have thus been revived. Research has zeroed in on studying the actual ways people used to live, work and think in the past, on the specific economic processes, technological changes, social transformations, transfer of technological findings and know‑how… i.e. preference has been granted to regular and mass phenomena, to a thoroughgoing historical discourse and to building each nation’s memory rather than to eventualities connected with a single fate or cult of a nation. There emerged the notion of history as a synthesis of different social sciences. The 1980s brought the added necessity of launching historical studies of research and development (R & D) and of investing funds into it (just as to education) in an effort to sustain continued growth on a long‑term basis, which had to be duly reflected in the works penned by historians specializing in economic and social history.
In recent years, historiography in the field of economic and social history and business history in France has been focused on four basic areas – establishment of large corporations and entrepreneurial elites (including family companies), science and technology, innovation, role of the state. Particular attention has been devoted to the study of issues concerning the socio‑professional status of technical engineers, the process of shaping engineering cadres and their impact and position in society. The topic of education and training of technical engineers and the development of technical colleges and schools was closely connected with the application of technological innovations, science and technology in practical life.
The subject of institutional arrangement has come under scrutiny as another major accentuated moment. This had its impact on the training of historians in such disciplines, adding weight to those branches in their own right.
In France, economic and social history, business history and history of technology are studied most frequently at faculties of philosophy (art), academic institutes (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), mixed scientific groups (unites mixtes – UMR) or other institutions, for example learned societies. The key background materials for such research projects are found in archive documents summarized into les archives d’enterprise, which are kept in the Archives nationales in Paris, and also in the Archives de l’Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Serving the purpose of promoting the given branches was primarily the 6th Section of the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (established in 1868), where also researchers from the “East” could, but quite exceptionally, work during the time their countries were ruled by totalitarian regimes. In 1975 this institution gave rise to the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences sociales, operating, once again, with an international focus and in collaboration with the Maison des Sciences et de l’Homme. The school figures among the group of major French universities, so‑called grands etablissements (grandes ecoles).
The International Economic History Association was established at the initiative of F. Braudel and M. Postan at the turn of the 1950s and 1960s. As the supreme organization bringing together economic historians, the Association originated by splitting from the French international society Comite International des Sciences Historiques. As a matter of record, French societies and institutions have mostly (and often up to the present) been operating as international platforms, associating French as well as foreign historians. Centers of excellence (e.g. Universite Paris‑Saclay) are now being formed in France, creating research units that are smaller than UMR, for instance laboratories or small teams (equipement).
Translated by Jan Valeška


OBZORY LITERATURY | REVIEW ARTICLES AND REVIEWS

RECENZE
s. 787-836

Tomáš ČERNUŠÁK a kol.
Papežství a české země v tisíciletých dějinách
The Papacy and the Czech Lands. A History of Mutual Relations
(Zdeněk R. Nešpor) … s. 787

Jaroslav PÁNEK
Češi a Jihoslované. Kapitoly z dějin vzájemných vztahů
(František Šístek) … s. 793

Jiři MACHAČEK – Martin WIHODA (edd.) a kol.
Pád Velké Moravy aneb Kdo byl pohřben v hrobu 153 na Pohansku u Břeclavi?
(Peter Bučko) … s. 797

Johannes Hus deutsch
(Jana Nechutová) … s. 802

Lenka VESELÁ
Rytíř a intelektuál. Hieronym Beck z Leopoldsdorfu (1525–1596)
a jeho knihovna
(Olga Fejtova) … s. 805

Georgij Pavlovič MEĽNIKOV
Specifika kuľtury češskogo Renessansa Dinamika polikonfessionaľnoj modeli Češskogo gosudarstva v ranneje Novoje vremja
(Jaroslav Panek) … s. 810

Markéta PRAŽÁKOVÁ SELIGOVÁ
Život poddaných v 18. století: osud, nebo volba? K demografickým, hospodářským, sociálním a rodinným aspektům života venkovských poddaných na panství Horní Police
(Alice Velková) … s. 813

Jurgen KOCKA
Arbeiterleben und Arbeiterkultur. Die Entstehung einer sozialen Klasse
(Jakub Raška) … s. 816

Gunter Johannes HENZ
Leopold von Ranke in Geschichtsdenken und Forschung, I–II
(Jaroslav Pánek) … s. 821

Václav HORČIČKA – Jan ŽUPANIČ
Šlechta na křižovatce: Lichtenštejnové, Schwarzenbergové
a Colloredo-Mannsfeldové v 1. polovině 20. století
(František Stellner) … s. 825

Antoine MARES
Edvard Beneš. Drama mezi Hitlerem a Stalinem
(Jindřich Dejmek) … s. 828


ZPRÁVY O LITERATUŘE
s. 837 - 888


Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA | CHRONICLE

DOLEŽALOVÁ Antonie – HLAVAČKA Milan
První světový kongres Business History v Bergenu … s. 889
(First World Congress of Business History in Bergen)

DOLEŽALOVÁ Antonie
Konference European Business History Association … s. 895
(European Business History Association Conference)

PÁNEK Jaroslav
Čestné členství Sdružení historiků ČR třem zahraničním bohemistům (Marie-Elizabeth Ducreux – Robert J. W. Evans – Wojciech Iwańczak) … s 898
(Three Scholars of Czech Studies – Honorary Members of the Association of Historians of the Czech Republic /Marie-Elizabeth Ducreux – Robert J. W. Evans – Wojciech Iwańczak/)


Nekrology

Josef Válka (13. července 1929 – 13. května 2017)… s. 909
(Jaroslav Pánek)

Milan Myška (13. dubna 1933 – 8. července 2016) … s. 919
(Petr Popelka)

Bedřich Loewenstein (29. června 1929 – 11. května 2017) … s. 925
(Milan Hlavačka)

Mečislav Borák (31. ledna 1945 – 15. března 2017) … s. 928
(Dan Gawrecki)

Jarmila Horáková (16. dubna 1928 – 17. července 2017) … s. 933
(Jaroslav Pánek)

Knihy a časopisy došlé redakci … s. 939

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků … s. 939