s. 891-1175 + I-XXII
OBSAH | CONTENTS
STUDIE | STUDIES
Práce s časem v díle Prvního Kosmova pokračovatele
(Handling Time in the Work of Cosmas’ First Successor)
This study deals with the work of Cosmas’ First Successor (for a long time referred to as the Canon of Vyšehrad) through the optics of his work with time, i.e. how and what he dates, which holy days and saints he considers significant, which public events he takes notice of and possibly highlights by pointing out their connection with the holy days. This all may not just confirm or disprove moving the writer’s place of work from Vyšehrad back to the Prague Castle (as Lukaš Reitinger did recently), but above all reveal the author’s world of thoughts and his notion of sacredness of various days and possible sanctification of certain events, or point out a constituency of events and persons that he considered important and that he was likely to be around. Last but not least, it allows to compare the concepts of time in the work of Cosmas and his Successor, focusing on their potential teacherstudent relation.
Key words: Cosmas, Cosmas’ Successor, holy days, saints, public events, Soběslav I, bishop Menhart, Prague Castle, Vyšehrad, Czech lands, 12th century
This study deals with the work of Cosmas’ First Successor (for a long time referred to as the Canon of Vyšehrad) particularly through the optics of his work with time, using this approach also for more general questions regarding his work and especially his place of work. At the beginning the concepts of time in the work of Cosmas and his Successor are compared, focusing on the potential teacher-student connection. Nevertheless, comparing the approach to dating or to the definition of the beginning of the day failed to prove such connection. Attention was also paid to saints and their connection to certain locations in Bohemia. However, the group
of saints highlighted in the work of the First Successor makes us believe that the author could be found at the Prague Castle, not at Vyšehrad. While there are holy days and saints connectable to Vyšehrad in his work, these are always mentioned in close connection with the duke Soběslav I, giving evidence of the duke’s relation to Vyšehrad rather than the author’s own relation.
The next part deals with public events and the potential effort to highlight them through the connection with holy days. As it turns out, though, such effort can hardly be found in the work of Cosmas’ First Successor; with the exception of the christenings of duke’s children often taking place at Easter and Pentecost or colloquia of Bohemians taking place after Saint Wenceslas Day (it is worth noting though, that the colloquia are only mentioned in the work when regarding bishops). However, just like with Cosmas, it seems that the reasons for colloquia taking place on a holy day or following a holy day were purely practical, making use of the leaders’ presence at the celebration of the holy day, rather than governed by the effort to sanctify and protect the meeting with the authority of the saint.
With public events, it turned out much more interesting to follow the specific people and events that the annalist had focused on. Great attention was given to the bishops of Prague, often overshadowing the actions of the duke. The First Successor seemed more interested in the election of bishops than in the colloquia of Bohemians; he wrote down ordinations of bishops as well as their first coming into their residential city. He got so carried away describing the welcoming of bishop Menhart by the king Bela II that he failed to inform the readers about duke Soběslav’s arrival in Hungary at the same time. He was meticulous in writing down the funerals of bishops but remained silent about the funeral of the duke or his relatives. On top of all these bishop-related events, we should add the fact that the annalist interrupted his work in 1130 (after bishop Menhart has been accused of planning the duke’s assassination) and after resuming, his work turned into a defense of the bishop. The work also celebrates the cult of St. Gothard, who was closely connected to bishop Menhart and bishop Jan. Given all these findings, we can conclude that not only should Cosmas’ First Successor’s place of work be looked for at the Prague Castle, but he was also likely to be found around bishops rather than around duke Soběslav I.
Ve službách císařovny. Jana z Pernštejna ve světle své korespondence uložené v archivu vévodů z Alby
(In the Service of the Empress. Jana of Pernštejn in the Light of Her Correspondence Stored in the House of Alba’s Archives)
This study gives a detailed analysis of the correspondence of Jana of Pernštejn stored in the family archive of the Dukes of Alba. Using this source, the author attempts to look in detail at the important position which the daughter of Vratislav of Pernštejn and his Spanish wife, Marie Manrique de Lara took on at the court of the widowed Empress Maria. Following her arrival in Spain at the latest, where she followed her Habsburg patron in 1581, Jana of Pernštejn became an important mediator between Empress Maria and her Central European clients. In this way, she managed to maintain Maria of Habsburg’s influence at Prague’s imperial court. Due to the trust the Empress placed in her, she was also given the opportunity to intervene in events at the Royal court in Madrid.
Key words: Empress Maria’s court, marriage alliance, Jana of Pernštejn, Duchess of Villahermosa, Lords of Pernštejn, network, political communication, Hispanic Monarchy, correspondence, Archivo de la Casa de Alba
The objective of this study was to introduce the figure of Jana of Pernštejn, and to use her life story to demonstrate that service at the sovereign’s court brought noble women not just significant social capital, but sometimes also not insignificant power and influence. From her early childhood, Jana of Pernštejn had been brought up together with Habsburg princesses Anne and Elisabeth at Maria of Habsburg’s court. When Maria of Habsburg left Prague in 1581, Jana of Pernštejn followed her to the Iberian Peninsula. Her presence accompanying the widowed empress was proof of the Pernštejns’ loyalty to the House of Habsburg, and a means by which Jana’s father, Supreme Chancellor of Bohemia, Vratislav of Pernštejn could contact the Spanish king, which was to help him boost his position within Philip II’s network of clientele. It was anticipated that Jana would regularly inform her family of events at the Madrid court during her stay in Spain, and personally defend her interests.
But Jana’s activities far surpassed those of a family agent and informer to Supreme Chancellor Vratislav of Pernštejn. Soon after her arrival in Spain, this intelligent court lady also became an important mediator between Empress Maria and her Central European clients. In this way, Maria of Habsburg received information on events at Prague’s imperial court, and this helped her maintain her authority and political influence within the Habsburg monarchy. She also helped her informers receive various favors from the Spanish king. Using this power strategy, Jana of Pernštejn build up unusual trust from the widowed Empress, and significant respect from both principal Habsburg courts.
This study is based mainly on the testimony of correspondence, which is located in the collection of the Montijo archives of the House of Alba entitled Correspondencia y Solicitudes dirigidas a la duquesa de Villahermosa. This is a set of almost fifty documents dating back to the 1580s which were sent to Jana of Pernštejn by members of her family, members of the Habsburg dynasty and other senders. Although this is a source of primary importance which uncovers the mechanisms of political communication between Prague’s imperial court and the royal court in Madrid in an unusual manner, it has as yet escaped the attention of Central European and Spanish historians.
Legační kaplani ve službách císařských vyslanců ve Stockholmu ve druhé polovině 17. století
(Legation Chaplains in the Services of Imperial Envoys in Stockholm in the Second Half of the 17th Century)
The submitted study analyses the spiritual and secular activities of the legation chaplains within the structure of the imperial embassies in Sweden in the second half of the 17th century. The Catholic clergy, recruited mainly from the Society of Jesus order, exploited numerous tactics and strategies in the strictly Lutheran environment which were meant to secure the success of illegal activities often undertaken. In this light, legation chaplains did not act merely as obedient servants of the envoys, but also as representatives of one of the most important religious orders specialising in missionary activity.
Key words: Sweden , 17th century, Jesuits, diplomatic mission, legation chaplains, Daniel Josef Mayer, Jan Sterck
Many Catholic clergy visited Sweden in the second half of the 17th century under the protection of imperial envoys. The activities of these legation chaplains, who were most often members of the Society of Jesus, were not limited merely to the private premises of the embassy. The opportunities for missionary work and promotion of the Catholic faith were so attractive and irresistible that they could not be disregarded by some of the most evangelical Catholic priests.
With the development of permanent Habsburg‑Swedish diplomatic relations following the Thirty Years’ War, an imperial embassy was set up for the first time in history within the enclosed space of Sweden’s seat of government, Stockholm. The newly codified concept of diplomatic immunity secured the Catholic legation chaplains considerable rights and freedoms in performing their more or less tolerated activities. Illegal Catholic elements collecting around these free islands of faith were naturally a thorn in the side of the strictly Lutheran majority. As such, any and all major changes in international relations represented a serious threat to the performance of legation chaplains’ daily activities. In extreme cases, Jesuit priests could even be imprisoned with the death penalty hanging over them, as happened to priest Jan Sterck in 1671.
We can also clearly see the close interdependency of the spiritual and secular activities of the imperial legation chaplains in Stockholm. A good example of this are the activities of Daniel Josef Mayer, later Archbishop of Prague and probably the only imperial legation chaplain in the second half of the 17th century in Sweden who was not a member of the Society of Jesus. Mayer’s preferences also differed to a marked extent from his predecessors and successors holding the office of imperial legation chaplain. Besides the spiritual services provided to the empire’s ambassador and his family, he also took on the role (with significant support from his master) of an information agent, bringing important news from the Scandinavian Peninsula to leading politicians within Central Europe. Mayer’s correspondence network markedly expanded during his service, and his close personal relations with a number of leading members of the imperial embassy, thus stood at the beginning of a great spiritual career. Daniel Josef Mayer had left in 1685 for Stockholm as a twenty‑nine year old regular priest from Straž pod Ralskem (Wartenberg). Seven years later, he returned as a man whose name even Leopold I was aware of, having a personal interest in the spiritual and political activities of this legation chaplain in Sweden.
Habsburské koncepty vnútornej bezpečnosti po Viedenskom kongrese (1815–1820). Príklad Moravy a Sliezska s. 968
(Habsburg Concepts of Internal Security Following the Congress of Vienna /1815–1820/. The Example of Moravia and Silesia)
In this study, the author uses Daase’s concept of extended security to analyse the main line of the Habsburg monarchy’s territorial stabilisation between 1815 and 1820 in the context of preserving the status quo and preventing the outbreak of new wars and revolutions in Europe. Using the example of the provinces of Moravia and Silesia, it then specifically looks at the issues of establishing a secret political police, detecting and monitoring dangerous persons and last but not least investigating public opinion before the Congress of Troppau in 1820.
Key words: Habsburg Monarchy, Vienna System, state security, secret police, situation reports
The submitted study looks at the issue of the Austrian Empire’s internal security policy between 1815 and 1820 with a special focus on Moravia and Silesia, an area which has not previously been the subject of much research. In the study, the author applies the concept of extended security as elaborated by German political scientist, Christopher Daase, in which four dimensions of security are differentiated, these being the dimensions of reference, issue, geography and danger.
In this context, the reference object is the security of the Austrian state itself and its political regime, and not Austrian society or Habsburg subjects. In the second security dimension, we have not investigated issues of economic security, but we have limited ourselves to the Habsburg defence against revolutions and preventing political upheaval domestically and abroad. Another dimension of Austria’s extended security is its geographical extent, with Austria’s status as a great power allowing it to a certain extent to connect the ultraconservative Habsburg national interests and
fears for the stability of the international system as a ‘common good’.
The final, fourth, security dimension affects first the reactive security policy focused on countering threats, or reducing the state’s vulnerability. At the same time, we can also identify certain proactive security strategies, such as intervention and (political) collaboration in Habsburg politics, which was focused on the causes of (i.e. preventive) revolutionary threats.
During the period of 1815 to 1820, the bureaucratic police‑state Habsburg regime considered the Western European states (France, Switzerland, the states of the German Confederation) and the non‑German and heavily nationalistic Habsburg territory on the Apennine Peninsula and in Galicia as the main zones of
revolutionary potential and danger. As such, the security issue dimension involved preserving the political regime and the status quo, and the danger dimension involved preventing revolution and a strategy to eliminate ‘anti‑state’ persons, groups and ideas. This was clearly reflected in the priority focus of the political police of foreign and passport control, censorship, detection and monitoring of dangerous persons and investigating the mood of the people.
Implementing a proactive security strategy in the form of intervention and co‑operation, however, was shown to be restricted to a multi‑polar system of ‘balanced’ powers, and also – to a certain extent surprisingly – a growing sensitivity of the Habsburg security authorities to national and international public opinion.
Dát minulosti nový řád: (dis)kontinuita v čínském historickém myšlení
(To Order the Past: /Dis/Continuity in Chinese Historical Thinking)
The article is conceived in response to recent debates about a specifically Chinese historical thinking in modern times. It turns to the earliest articles about “new historiography” published since the very end of the Qing dynasty and during the early republican period, when history became an independent academic discipline in China. The research is based on several polemical essays beginning with Liang Qichao’s Xin Shixue from 1902, followed by the debate about “national past” (guogu) started in the radical student journal Xin Chao during the early May Fourth period, and the “reorganization of national past” (zhengli guogu) movement which followed afterwards. Besides Liang Qichao, ideas of younger authors are discussed extensively, such as Mao Zishui and Hu Shi, as well as Gu Jiegang and to some extent also He Bingsong. Comparison of the first systematic formulation of the concept of new historiography by Liang Qichao with the May Fourth debate shows mostly similarity in the basic demands for radical transformation and new orientation of the discipline. This observation confirms our understanding of the process of intellectual transformation of China and the influx of western ideas between the Late Qing and early republic as continuous.
Key words: Chinese historiography, 20th century cultural transformation of China, debates about Chinese national past, reorganization of national past, May Fourth Movement, Liang Qichao, Hu Shi, Gu Jiegang, cultural conservativism
The article is divided into four parts titled as 1) New historiography for a strong and healthy national state; 2) Critical attitude to domestic tradition; 3) Western science as the basis of new historiography and the medicine to cure China; and 4) Reorganization of national heritage. At the core of the investigation stands the position of the studied authors toward domestic tradition and the question of
The studied sources reveal generally shared highly critical opinion about traditional Chinese historiography. Both Liang Qichao, a man by his education and early intellectual endeavor still immersed in the tradition, and the younger authors who were from early age exposed to reformed, western oriented education, or even studied abroad, equally deny the Chinese historiography of the past any substantial value. Their occasional acknowledgment of the contribution of several early Chinese historians is highly selective, and they demand radically new ways of writing about China’s past. The issue of historical narrative is prominent here, as both Liang Qichao and the younger authors criticize traditional Chinese historiography as lacking the ability to present the past in a systematic and meaningful way, i.e. to make selection from among the mass of individual recorded facts, and to connect these facts into a coherent story. The proponents of new historiography are also all fascinated by the idea of “scientific objectivity”; besides the May Fourth generation authors also demanded that the new discipline must be “pure science” free of any political entanglement.
The understanding what is scientific study of history means for these authors as fitting the past into the evolutionary model of the development of human society. At the same time they are convinced that the embodiment of such objective history can be found in the history of European nations as described in 19th and early 20th century western books; some even explicitly demand writing new Chinese history according to the western models. Another common theme observed in the early 20th century sources discussing new historiography for China is understanding the work of a historian as a part of nation building efforts.
The adaptation of Chinese history to western models and compliance with the goals of nationalism is certainly contradictory to the demand for objectivity and pure historical science, however it was not perceived as such at that time. The evident contradiction including the easiness with which the demands for active shaping of Chinese culture so that it would be competitive in the modern world are made is unusual for a western reader today and it does reveal a specific feature of Chinese historical thinking even in the process of its conscious westernization.
In the concluding part the article also briefly touches upon ideas of some cultural conservatives involved in the early polemics about new historiography, and demonstrates how even they also embraced new western inspired epistemic framework including the admiration for science and evolutionary model. Particularly surprising in the writings of conservative critics of new historical thinking is a shared conviction that Chinese past and Chinese culture must be “rebuilt”. The culturally activist dimension is something to be explored by further research.
DISKUSE | DISCUSSION
„Postheroická“ společnost a „Nové války“
(The “Post-Heroic” Society and “New Wars”)
This paper is a consideration of German political scientist and historian Herfried Munckler’s book, ‘Kriegssplitter. Die Evolution der Gewalt im 20. und 21. Jahrhundert’ (Berlin 2016). It discusses whether – despite a certain fragmentation of the concept – this could represent a new theoretical guidebook on war for politicians, historians and perhaps even soldiers. We can argue that particular passages in the book looked at can only be understood from their historic context, but analyses are also markedly important as a political guide in the present day.
Key words: post-heroism, war mythologization, First World War, new wars, 20th and 21st centuries
„Nejpokrokovější církevní pracovník“ v zajetí průměrnosti
(“The Most Progressive Church Worker” Confined by Cediocrity)
In 2015, the book “Nejpokrokovějši cirkevni pracovnik”. Protestantske cirkve a Josef Lukl Hromadka v letech 1945–1969 (“The Most Progressive Church Worker”. The Protestant Churches and Josef Lukl Hromadka between 1945 and 1969) was published, written by church historians Peter Moree and Jiři Piškula. This study uses their reflections to consider the nature of historiography, as well as the Church and protestant society, to which renowned Czech theologian, J. L. Hromadka (1889–1969) – known for his linking of theological identity with the political regime – declared himself. Amongst other issues, discussion is made of to what extent the changes to the geopolitical map in the second half of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st century have affected the legitimacy of Hromadka’s programme of securing a place for Christianity in socialist society.
Key words: Josef Lukl Hromadka, Protestantism, Marxism, church and state, Cold War
OBZORY LITERATURY | REVIEW ARTICLES AND REVIEWS
Raně novověká judaika
(Andrea Jelínková) … s. 1038
David Gans. Pražský renesanční židovský historik
(Lenka Veselá) … s. 1042
GREENBLATTOVÁ Rachel L.
„Aby vyprávěli svým dětem.“ Paměť židovské obce v raně novověké Praze
(Olga Fejtová) … s. 1045
SEMOTANOVÁ Eva – ZUDOVÁ-LEŠKOVÁ Zlatica - JANATA Tomáš – SEEMANN Pavel a kol.
Frontiers, Massacres and Replacements of Pupulations
in Carthographic Representation Case Studies (15th–20th Centuries)
(Jiří Lach) … s. 1049
Frühmittelalterliche Siedlungen in Mitteleuropa.
Eine vergleichende Strukturanalyse durch Archäologie und Geophysik
(David Kalhous) … s. 1052
Nitrianske kniežatstvo. Počiatky stredovekého Slovenska
(Peter Bučko) … s. 1060
ZAORAL Roman (ed.)
Money and Finance in Central Europe during the Later Middle Ages
(Petr Vorel) … s. 1066
Pečeti hradiských premonstrátů v pozdním středověku a raném novověku
(Jitka Křečková) … s. 1070
ŠMAHEL František – BOBKOVÁ Lenka (edd.)
Lucemburkové. Česká koruna uprostřed Evropy
(Jiří Stočes) … s. 1072
FUDGE Thomas A.
The Trial of Jan Hus. Medieval Heresy and Criminal Procedure
(Ota Halama) … s. 1077
Martin Luther. Rebell in einer Zeit des Umbruchs
(Ondřej Macek) … s. 1079
JANIŠOVÁ Jana (ed.)
Zřízení zemské Markrabství moravského z roku 1604
(Ludmila Sulitková) … s. 1081
GALILEI Galileo a KEPLER Johannes
Hvězdný posel / Rozprava s Hvězdným poslem
(Josef Smolka) … s. 1089
Czechy a Polska na progu czasów nowożytnych
(Henryk Gmiterek) … s. 1093
Mezi starou vlastí a Amerikou. Počátky české krajanské komunity
v USA 19. století
(Josef Opatrný) … s. 1099
JEMELKA Martin (ed.)
Ostravské dělnické kolonie I, II, III
(Zdeněk Nebřenský) … s. 1103
DOKOUPIL Lumír – NESLÁDKOVÁ Ludmila – LIPOVSKI Radek
Populace Rakouského Slezska a severovýchodní Moravy v éře modernizace (od 60. let 19. století do první světové války)
(Josef Grulich) … s. 1108
JANČÍK Drahomír – KUBŮ Eduard – ŠOUŠA Jiří
Arisierungsgewinnler: die Rolle der deutschen Banken bei der
„Arisierung“ und Konfiskation jüdischer Vermögen im Protektorat
Böhmen und Mähren (1939–1945)
(Hana Kubátová) … s. 1110
Auf der Suche nach politischer Gemeinschaft. Oppositionelles
Denken zur Nation im ostmitteleuropäischen Samizdat 1976–1992
(Tomáš Vilímek) … s. 1112
Zprávy o literatuře … s. 1117
Z vědeckého života | Chronicle
Udělení čestného členství Sdružení historiků ČR zahraničním vědcům
(Jaroslav Pánek - Petr Vorel) … s. 1141
I. Nicolette Mout … s. 1141
II. Krzysztof Mikulski … s. 1144
Činnost Česko‑německé komise historiků v roce 2015
(Miloš Řezník) … s. 1148
Dagmar Čapková (13. září 1925 – 24. května 2016) … s. 1153
Výběrová bibliografie Dagmar Čapkové … s. 1157
Práce o Dagmar Čapkové … 1160
Knihy a časopisy došlé redakci … s. 1162
Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků … s. 1162