Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.


ročník 114
č. 3/2016
s. 581-890



Dítě a dětství v koronerových svitcích. Příspěvek ke každodennímu životu středověkých dětí ve městě a na venkově … s. 587
(Children and Childhood in Coroners’ Rolls: A Contribution to the History of Everyday Life of Medieval Children in the City and Countryside)

We encounter children already on the pages of the earliest Bohemian legends, later chronicles, books of exempla and miracles, municipal books and sources of a literary character. However, they provide mainly isolated data, which do not allow the creation of a compact image of the world of medieval children. Moreover, a specific problem is the orientation of the written sources on the elites and their lifestyle. The everyday life of the urban populace and their children can be followed only with the appearance of municipal sources from the High Middle Ages, not to mention the rural milieu. The possibilities of domestic research can be expanded by foreign sources. The study first introduces the testimonial potential of the Coroners’ Rolls, an exceptional source from the English milieu, which allows a view into the life of urban and rural families. In the second part, the text deals with the problem of the utility of the source for foreign (non-English) research and the pitfalls connected with the comparison of diverse source bases. The final brief analysis of selected domestic municipal books outlines the possibilities, which research on medieval childhood offers the study of these as-yet not very exploited documents.

Key words
: medieval childhood, coroners’ rolls, municipial books, books of conscience, comparison of sources

Research repeatedly returns to the theme of medieval childhood. Several decades of continuing interest stimulated the work of Philippe Aries Centuries of Childhood. A Social History of Family Life. The French historian was not by far the first who focused on the issue of pre-modern childhood, but his book contained controversial conclusions, which provoked researchers to a discussion that last in essence to this day. Not even Czech historiography has avoided it, although it did not reach the intensity of the Western European debates.
Access to medieval children is complicated by the preserved sources. We already encounter children on the pages of the earliest Bohemian legends, later chronicles, books of exempla and miracles, municipal books and sources of a literary nature. However, they provided mainly isolated data, which do not allow the creation of a compact image of the world of medieval children. The absence of ego-documents (with the exception of testaments) limits in a fundamental way also the view into the mental world of the parents. A welcome aid are the educational treatises and princely mirrors, although limited (like with legends or exempla) by the schematization of the testimony, which takes on significance particularly in the case that their testimony intersect with the records of other types of sources. An invaluable source of knowledge is provided by archaeological finds and artistic monuments, but the static, “dead” objects often lack placement in the context of the life situations, through which the imaginary circle of the shortcomings of the source base in essence closes. A specific problem is the orientation of the written sources on the elites and their lifestyle. The everyday life of the urban populace and their children can be followed only with the appearance of municipal sources from the High Middle Ages, not to mention the rural milieu.
The possibilities of domestic research can be expanded by foreign sources. The developmental trends and cultural milieu of medieval Europe show a number of the same features across the continent, but to what extent the concrete individual items concerning thought, institutions, legal customs or everyday life are transferrable remains a question. Not even the foreign sources provide a reliable and exhaustive description of reality, only their more or less true and incomplete image. Phenomenon that seem similar at first glance can thus arise from completely different cultural habits or can play out on the background of a dissimilar social context. Moreover, for sources that provides us with exceptionally rich information we often lack corresponding comparative material.
Coroners’ rolls are among these extraordinary types of sources. The question of to what degree the captured data have a more general testimonial value for research on the history of medieval childhood is connected with their exceptional testimonial value. A satisfactory answer could be offered only by a comparison with a similar source base. In the case of coroners’ rolls, however, it is a difficult to overcome obstacle, because we encounter an analogical type of source in the Europe-wide context to a limited extent only in a later period. In the absence of corresponding sources this handicap can be at least partially surmounted by amassing data of comparable content from different sources. Particularly municipal books registering the court agenda or records of the justice provenience general offer themselves for the urban milieu, but they are an entirely different sort of documents by their focus and qualitatively. The accidents recorded on the pages of the coroners’ rolls to a certain extent come from the nature of childhood itself and testify on the behaviour or characteristic features of a certain age groups. As against that, the capturing of children in municipal books, court records and other sources were mainly related with the acts and behaviour of adults, which necessarily limits research on childhood particularly to the collection of accidentally captured information. Any attempt at comparison will thus be limited by definition by a clear disparateness of the coroners’ rolls and other types of sources.
It is naturally also true for the Czech milieu. Research focused on the middle and lower classes of society are offered particularly the testimonial potential of municipal books, which not played a more substantial role so far in the research of medieval childhood. It is understandable. Only a fragment of the material remained edited and the usage of the manuscripts is undoubtedly influenced by the question of whether the efforts expended can bring adequate results at all. The state of the preserved manuscripts of the municipal books, furthermore, directs research rather to the period of the Late Middle Ages and later period. Also the selection of a suitable type of documents is an important criterion for consideration. Research focused on the history of everyday life recognizes the testimonial value of the Books of Conscience (Libri conscientiae), which capture the interrogation of witnesses within legal disputes. Unfortunately the majority of manuscripts come from the Early Modern Period.
Despite all the problems indicated, the municipal books are still a source of information not exploited to a significant degree for the theme of childhood, which is demonstrated by the examples acquired from the earliest Book of Conscience preserved for Prague’s New Town from 1490–1518. The short outline of its content did not aim to provide satisfactory background materials for a comparative analysis with the coroners’ rolls, but rather show the fact that the possibilities of study are not exhausted by far. Despite that, it is worth noting that when there were for instance considerations on the age of the neighbours’ children, the medieval residents of Prague did the same as their counterparts on the distant British Isles. They remembered the birth of their own children, baptisms, weddings or the end
of studying or journeyman years, the events of a social character, which shaped their life and became the points of reference in the stream of flowing time. Children remained alone also in the Czech milieu when it was required by the heavy workload of the parents. Archaeological research of burial grounds has revealed that the greatest representation in the group of children’s burials are children in the age of approximately six months to six years. The most critical period fell, as is indicated by the coroners’ rolls, between the second and third year of life. We can hardly apply the image acquired from the coroners’ rolls automatically to the domestic situation, but it is not possible to overlook the fact that the living conditions and mental and physical space in which children lived show certain areas of contact. Apparently not even the most detailed analysis of the municipal books will provide entirely comparable data. However, the questions broached by the foreign sources could be inspirational purely for the reason that it forces domestic research to seek new routes and possibilities of work with its own, albeit substantially more modest source base.

BAR Přemysl
Protihusitská propaganda v písemnostech Zikmunda Lucemburského. Definice – dochování – texty … s. 614
(Anti-Hussite Propaganda in the Writings of Sigismund of Luxembourg. Definition – Preservation – Texts)

This study contributes to the research on anti-Hussite propaganda and on the policies of Sigismund of Luxembourg. The subject of analysis is represented by Sigismund’s writings and correspondence (diplomas, public and private letters) which contain to varying degrees several propaganda passages. From the viewpoint of form and content and compared to the papal and imperial anti-Hussite campaigns, these passages do not represent a novelty if not for the fact that their formulations were determined by the political interest of Emperor Sigismund. It manifested itself through a variety of nuances depending on the type of environment for which the documents were intended for – whether the Catholic (both in the Czech lands and the Empire) or the Hussite. For Emperor Sigismund these propaganda texts fulfilled two roles – on the one hand they presented him as the defender of Catholic orthodoxy and of the Church, while on the other hand they justified his own policies against the Hussites.

Key words: Sigismund of Luxembourg, the Hussite movement, heresy, propaganda, diplomatice

In connection with the research on anti-Hussite propaganda and the policies of Sigismund of Luxembourg, the latter’s writings (diplomas, public and private letters) have been to some extent disregarded, although it has been possible to find in such documents declarative and appellative passages containing anti-Hussite rhetoric. This analysis focuses on the writings of Sigismund, and considers the issues surrounding their preservation, forms, and the rhetoric and propaganda deployed. The definition of propaganda is based on a study by Karel Hruza and Birgit Studt, whose research focussed on Hussite manifestos and in particular on papal propaganda.
The anti-Hussite content of Sigismund’s writings was etermined mainly by the intended recipients, whether they were listed among the addressees or not. A typical example is the letter to “all Czechs” dated 4th September 1417, whose significance was not only limited to its appeal to the inhabitants of Bohemia and Moravia to turn away from the Wycliffe-Hussite heresies, but which was also intended to lend Sigismund legitimacy before the Council and the Catholic public. In the texts aimed at Catholic lay audiences, he used stereotypical descriptions of heretical abuses and emphasised their inhumanity which in turn excluded them from Christian and human society. In his writings for the Church prelates, Sigismund used several biblical quotes and associations, and warned the secular Catholic monarchs and princes of heretics who were violators of the social order, who rejected the rightful heir to the kingdom and thus insulted His Royal Majesty. In his correspondence with the Hussite representatives and their supporters in the Czech lands, Sigismund most often used political and social arguments. The paramount idea was reconciliation with the Church, restoring or maintaining the existing social order and the “general good” of the kingdom.
The response to the appellative passages was clearly limited even if this statement cannot be proven due to the lack of testimony on the distribution of and response to anti-Hussite texts. Similarly, it is impossible to determine accurately how much importance Sigismund of Luxembourg attached to the written word since he preferred to organize public performances with a clear anti-Hussite message. Two realities which were sometimes difficult to reconcile were key to him: on the one hand, his self-representation as the Catholic monarch – as protector of the Church, the Council, of Catholic orthodoxy and of the divine order in society – and on the other hand the justification of his own policies against the Hussites. The anti-Hussite propaganda of Sigismund of Luxembourg succeeded in integrating when necessary the rich instrumentation of anti-heretical ideas, and in simultaneously introducing into his own and into papal propaganda foreign elements (e.g.: the search for common platforms of agreement with heretics on a political level – the general good, the order of the country, etc.), an approach which fits in well with the overall coordinates of his policies characterised by the supremacy of pragmatism over ideology.

Obchod mezi Prahou a Norimberkem v první polovině 16. století … s. 652
(Trade Between Prague and Nuremberg in the First Half of the 16th Century)

The study deals with the development of the economic relations between Prague and Nuremberg in the first half of the 16th century analysed in the light of the legal documents which affected the bilateral trade (privileges, the Prague–Nuremberg treaty, hosting rights). At the same time, it provides information on the major buyers and on the networks of their customersupplier relations, the assortment of goods and the specific trade practices (factoring, consignment sales, loans).

Key words: Praha, Nürnberg, Kutná Hora, early modern period, international trade, markets, financing, traders, Jews, hosting rights, business practices, copper, wool, cattle, peddler goods

The study deals with the development of the economic relations between Prague and Nuremberg in the first half of the 16th century analysed in the light of the legal documents which affected the bilateral trade (privileges, the Prague–Nuremberg
treaty, hosting rights). At the same time, it provides information on the major buyers and the networks of their customer–supplier relations, the assortment of goods and the specific trade practices (factoring, consignment sales, loans). During the last quarter of the 15th century, international trade in Prague gradually began to flourish and Nurembergers played a vital role in the process. The promising contacts which were in development were supported by a series of political steps, among which the most significant in shaping future relations and in reinforcing the buyers’ legal certainties was the contract treaty between Prague and Nuremberg in 1488/1489. From the economic viewpoint, the Nurembergers showed interest in establishing mutual trade due to their need for raw materials (copper, wool) for the Nuremberg workshops and for agricultural products (corn, cattle, fats) used to supply the increasingly populous upper German regions. At the same time, however, trade was also motivated by the growing demand by the Prague agglomeration for Nuremberg products and for goods from southern and western Europe. At the turn of the 16th century, a number of upper German traders (Nurembergers) were active in Prague, and to varying degrees and forms attempted to break into the lucrative trade with Kutná Hora copper which contained silver, while at the same time supplying the Prague market with the peddler goods that were in high demand (Hans Nyczl, Hans Troy, the company Dychtel-Ebner and others). Besides the import of peddler goods which involved a number of other wholesalers in both towns (Šebestián Wolf, Michal Karyk, Zikmund Freyskut, Mikuláš Pastor) and the Prague cloth traders (Martin z Vlkanova), an important role was played by the transit Polish-Silesian-Nuremberg cattle trade which passed through Prague. Since the beginning of the 16th century, the local Jewish businesses (Žalman Munka, Samuel Sachs) had also grow in intensity and represented a powerful competition to Christians. The development of trade brought with it immigration which was visible in Prague at the beginning of the 16th century and which intensified during the 20s and 30s when a number of buyers settled both temporarily and permanently in the city. They gradually grew close to the local settings and to the domestic patricians, and like in Wroclaw, Krakow or Vienna they participated in the creation of a new class of traders.

K postavení levobočků v raně novověké společnosti (s důrazem na prostředí sociálních elit) … s. 677
(On the Position of Illegitimate Children in Early Modern Age Society (regarding particularly the milieu of the social elites)

Genealogical illegitimacy represents a highly topical issue whose historical roots have not yet been comprehensively mapped in Czech historiography. This presented study pays attention to the relevant Early Modern Age legal norms and mechanisms of ameliorating the position of illegitimate children. From the point of approach to bastards the Bohemian Lands represented an integral part of Central Europe for which a less benevolent attitude was typical. The perspectives of a further research of illegitimacy focused on the milieu of the social elites in the Bohemian Lands are indicated through the
intermediary of two specimen cases which are based on archival sources from the 16th and 17th centuries. In the cases of a Southern Bohemian knight Jindřich Pouzar of Michnice resident at Žumberk († 1600) and a military figure Don Balthasar de Marradas y Vique († 1638) of Spanish origins, the author follows the sophisticated strategies of nobles who strove to secure the material standing and a dignified social position for their illegitimate offspring.

Key words: history, Early Modern Age, family structures, illegitimacy, social standing of bastards, legitimization of offspring born out of wedlock

In connection with the increased break up of the structures of the traditional family, the share of illegitimate children amongst newly born children has rapidly soared in the Czech Republic since the early 1990s. The phenomenon of genealogical illegitimacy thus represents a highly topical issue whose historical roots have not yet been comprehensively mapped in Czech historiography. On one hand this presented study summarizes current knowledge of both local and foreign literature dealing with the topic of illegitimate children in pre-modern society, on the other hand it postulates new findings based on the study of Bohemian research resources. Once the key terminological issues have been addressed, attention is paid to legal norms, which determined the social position of illegitimate children between the declining days of the Middle Ages and the early 19th century, as well as to the mechanisms of amelioration of their social status (dispensations, legitimizations and adoptions). From the point of territorial specifics with regard to dealing with illegitimacy, the Bohemian Lands represented an integral part of Central Europe. The contemporary attitude to illegitimate children there, showed a manifestly less benevolent approach in comparison with the Romance and Anglo-Saxon countries. Amongst others, it manifested itself in a more complicated integration of Central European bastards into the social elites. A reflection of this disproportion can also be traced in incommensurable careers and different prestige of offspring born out of wedlock in the Spanish and Austrian branches of the House of Hapsburg.
A number of relevant thematic fields arises from the question to what degree the illegitimate origin in the Early Modern Age determined the quality of life of illegitimate children not merely normatively but also in their everyday life. Apart from the social and proprietary aspects, historico-anthropological categories of honour and noble birth, came to the foreground, as well as the very genealogical identity, whose perception was connected with the settled methods of passing on the family name and possibly other attributes of belonging to a family or tribe. The clarification of all relevant questions cannot be managed without the mapping of sufficient numbers of specimen cases. However, prosopographically based research as an alternative to the demographical-statistical approach to births out of wedlock cannot be interchanged with collections of sensational scandals, nor limited to the appealing milieu of ruling dynasties. In all social classes we come across the tendency to cast off illegitimate children to the margins of society on one side, as well as, on the other side, strategies aiming at getting rid off the stigma of illegitimate origins and the discrimination that inevitably followed from it. The mapping of different approaches to illegitimacy in the samples of population, which are representative in terms of time, space and social class on the basis of systematic, material probes is, however, combined with a number of heuristic and methodical difficulties. Amongst others they follow from the fact that the reflection of illegitimate origins in primary sources from the 16th–18th centuries was often influenced by social strategies which aimed at the weakening of its stigmatising impact.
The readiness to accept responsibility for the consequences of extra-marital relationships was closely connected to the patterns of behaviour characteristic for individual cultural environments and with temporally and territorially determined metamorphoses of the social climate. Simultaneously, it always mirrored individual specifics such as social position, personality characteristics and the emotional bonds of the protagonists in individual cases. Possibilities and perspectives for further research of illegitimacy with a prior regard for the milieu of the social elites in the Early Modern Age in the Bohemian Lands are indicated in this study through two comprehensively mapped specimen examples, which are based on an analysis of the original archival sources from the 16th and 17th centuries. In the case of a South Bohemian knight Jindřich Pouzar of Michnice resident at Žumberk († 1600) and that of a military figure Don Balthasar de Marradas y Vique († 1638) of Spanish origins, who made a distinctive mark in the history of the Thirty Years’ War and gained extensive land possessions in Southern Bohemia after the Battle of the White Mountain, it is possible to follow the strategies of nobles who headed long-term functioning quasi-family structures (concubinates) and simultaneously strove to provide the financial security and a dignified social inclusion for their illegitimate descendants – born to them by plebeian women. In both cases there were some mechanisms at play which made it possible to relativize the limits of the inheritance law in the estates’ society. In addition to transferring real estates not belonging to the Bohemian Land Register Estates (including such possessions which were purposefully detached from it), the last wills and testaments of the named noblemen were sophistically adapted to suit the interests of their illegitimate offspring. It is evident from both cases that the efforts to relativize the consequences of extramarital conception were not restricted merely to the use of official mechanisms of destigmatisation of illegitimate children. This fact will also have to be taken into consideration in further concentrated researches aimed at a complex mapping of post-medieval illegitimacy.

ZIEMANN Benjamin
Resistance to War in Germany, 1914-1918: The Traces of the German “Schwejkiade” … s. 717
(Odpor proti válce v Německu v letech 1914–1918: Stopy německé „Švejkiády“)

The article discusses the nature and the narrative framing of resistance by German front line soldiers against the war machine from 1914 to 1918. It develops the argument that not pacifist motives or collective anti-militarist agency, but rather individual acts of refusal and shirking had a negative impact on the efficiency of the German military. These selfish acts of soldiers who tried to save their lives culminated in the mass shirking in the late summer and autumn of 1918. The article suggests to describe these individuals acts of refusal along the lines of Jaroslav Hašek’s novel ‘The Good Soldier Švejk’, and describes them as a German version of the Schwejkiade.

Key words: First World War, German Army, Shirkers, Jaroslav Hašek, ‘The Good Soldier Švejk’

Odpor proti světové válce z let 1914 do roku 1918 se v německém prostředí obvykle zasazuje do heroického narativu, ve kterém jednotliví pacifisté a odpůrci války veřejně popírali logiku válečného úsilí svého národa/státu a pokoušeli se budovat progresivní – většinou socialistickou – nenásilnou budoucnost. Jakkoliv je jejich příklad povznášející a morálně poučný, v případě pacifistů šlo jen o malou menšinu mužů a žen mezi miliony Němců, kteří sloužili v armádě nebo podpořili válečné úsilí prací na „domácí frontě“.
Oproti schématu protiválečného narativu pacifistů navrhuje studie ke zvážení jiný typ příběhu, který nejlépe zastupuje humoristický román Osudy dobreho vojaka Švejka za světove valky od Jaroslava Haška (dílo napsal v letech 1921–1923). Josef Švejk bývá prezentován jako archetypální postava ulívajícího se simulanta, jenž podvrací mocenské struktury armády pomocí činů falešné servility, což v konečném důsledku odhaluje neschopnost byrokracií založených na mocenské přesile.
Zmapováním různých typů simulování, sebepoškozování a vyhýbání se válce studie argumentuje, že vzdor Švejkova typu měl podstatnou přítomnost také v německé armádě, a to od roku 1916. Nakonec přinesl zastavení německé válečné mašinérie na podzim 1918. V závěrečné části uvažuje autor na základě stručného přehledu německojazyčné beletrie na téma první světové války z dvacátých let 20. století, proč akce mnoha „švejků“ v německé armádě let 1914–1918 nenašly odpovídající literární ohlas, který by byl srovnatelný s jejich českým protějškem.


Recenzní článek

Nové Dějiny Ruska ve 20. století jako inspirace i výzva
(A new “History of Russia in the 20th Century”
as an inspiration and challenge) … s. 735


Europäische Privatrechtsgeschichte
(Milan Hlavačka) … s. 756

Zdeněk NEŠPOR a kol.
Dějiny české sociologie
Zdeněk NEŠPOR a kol.
Slovník českých sociologů
(Jiří Lach) … s. 759

BARON Roman – MADECKI Roman a kol.
Česká polonistická studia: tradice a současnost
(filologie – historie – politologie – právo)
(Henryk Gmiterek) … s. 763

Tisky 16. století v zámeckých knihovnách České republiky, I.–III.
(Ivan Hlaváček) … s. 768

Východočeští nekatolíci v době baroka a osvícenectví.
Chrudimský kraj v letech 1621–1781
(Michal Severa) … s. 774

Světla a stíny barokní církve ve Slezsku.
Frýdecké arcikněžství v letech 1654–1770: struktury, procesy, lidé
(Zdeněk R. Nešpor) … s. 778

The Transatlantic World of Higher Education.
Americans at German Universities, 1776–1914
(Svatava Raková) … s. 780

German Philhellenism. The Pathos of the Historical
Imagination from Winckelmann to Goethe
(Jakub Zouhar) … s. 786

TRNKOVÁ Petra (ed.)
Krajina-sídlo-obraz. Romantický řád Jiřího Jana Buquoye /
Landscape-Residence-Image. Georg Johann Buquoy’s Romantic Order
(Michal Morawetz) … s. 788

HLAVAČKA Milan a kol.
České země v 19. století. Proměny společnosti v moderní době
(Milena Lenderová) … s. 791

LITERA Bohuslav
Cesta na výsluní. Zahraniční politika Sovětského svazu 1917–1945
(Vratislav Doubek) … s. 795

ŠMÍD Marek
Apoštolský nuncius v Praze. Významný faktor
v československo-vatikánských vztazích v letech 1920–1950
(Jaroslav Šebek) … s. 799

GAFKE Matthias
Heydrichs Ostmärker. Das österreichische Führungspersonal
der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD 1939–1945
(Jiří Pešek) … s. 803

Constantin von Neurath: eine politische Biographie
(Jiří Pešek) … s. 808

„Nejpokrokovější církevní pracovník“. Protestantské církve
a Josef Lukl Hromádka v letech 1945–1969
(Zdeněk R. Nešpor) … s. 815

NĚMEC Ludvík
František Dvorník – mistr historické syntézy
(Lukáš F. Peluněk) … s. 820

Zaženem dějin klisny! Vyznání potlučeného jezdce
(Ludmila Lambeinová) … s. 822

THER Philipp
Nový pořádek na starém kontinentě: příběh neoliberální Evropy
(Barbora Pecková) … s. 825

Historické krajiny Čech. Třeboňsko – Broumovsko – Praha
(Jaromír Karpíšek) … s. 828

Kladsko. Historickogeografický lexikon
(Marie Ryantová) … s. 833

Historický atlas měst České republiky, svazek č. 27 – Sušice
(Jaroslav Pachner) … s. 835

Zprávy o literatuře … s. 839

Z vědeckého života | Chronicle

Janusz Tazbir (5. srpen 1927 – 3. květen 2016) … s. 857
(Marceli Kosman)

Ljudmila Pavlovna Laptěva (9. září 1926 – 16. květen 2016) … s. 862
(Georgij P. Meľnikov)

Miroslav Pojsl (8. května 1945 – 16. února 2016) … s. 868
(Tomáš Parma)

Jan Frolík (16. července 1947 – 24. ledna 2016) … s. 871
(Michal Svatoš)

Václav Veber (31. srpna 1931 – 24. května 2016) … s. 873
(Tomáš Jiránek)

Knihy a časopisy došlé redakci … s. 876

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků … s. 876