Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.


ročník 114
č. 1/2016
s. 1-284 



Kníže a král v souřadnicích přemyslovského věku … s. 7-31
(Duke and King in the Framework of the Přemyslid Era)

From the beginnings of statehood the Přemyslids reigned under the title of Dukes (dux, princeps). Similar to their neighbours in Central Europe (Poland, Hungary) they soon aspired to a royal title (rex), namely from the hands of the Holy Roman (Holy Roman–Germanic) emperors. The first one to reach this elevation was Vratislaus II in 1085/1086, yet, merely for his own person. It was only Přemysl Ottokar I (1197−1230) who was awarded a hereditary royal title in 1198. This study researches and comments on the problems facing the Přemyslids not merely in their confrontation externally but also with a conservative domestic environment. Thanks to recent publications, this subject is currently topical and much discussed in Czech Medieval studies.

Key words: Bohemia, Middle Age, coronation, Přemyslids, nobility

Fürst und König in den Koordinaten der Přemyslidenzeit
Die Bildung der „politischen“ Ordnung Mitteleuropas begann bereits an der Wende vom 10. zum 11. Jahrhundert, als sich die Staatsformationen von Böhmen, Polen und Ungarn allmählich festigten. Zu den angestrebten Zielen ihrer Herrscher gehörte die Annahme der Königswürde, was insbesondere in Böhmen lange nicht gelang. Entgegen standen einerseits äußere Umstände, die stark von der momentanen Beziehung der Přemysliden zum Reich abhingen, andererseits die misstrauische Beziehung des böhmischen Adels zur Institution des Königreichs und zum Königstitel als solchem. Gerade diesen Fragen widmete sich vor Kurzem sehr erhellend und umfassend Martin Wihoda (První česká království /Erste böhmische Königreiche/, 2015), und die vorgelegte Studie nimmt nicht nur zu seinen Hauptthesen Stellung, sondern überhaupt zur gesamten Palette der Fragen, die den „böhmischen Weg“ zur Königswürde säumen. Die Frage, welches Echo der Königstitel in der Gemeinschaft der böhmischen Magnates, Comites, Nobiles, Primates usw. hatte, lässt sich am besten an Vratislav II. erkennen, dem der Kaiser Heinrich IV. im Jahr 1085/1086 die Königswürde, allerdings nur für seine Person, verlieh. Den erblichen Königstitel erhielt definitiv im Jahr 1198 Ottokar I. Přemysl (1197−1230). Nicht unbeachtet bleibt auch die zweite Komponente der „vollen“ Krönung, nämlich die heilige Salbung (Unctio), die den so gekrönten König zur Hälfte zu einer geistlichen Person machte. Zu einem Gegenstand der Disputationen wird auch die Bedeckung des königlichen Hauptes, also die Krone, und damit ist auch andere Frage verbunden: ab wann sich nur noch eine einzige Krone als Symbol des gekrönten Herrschers und „seines“ Staates durchsetzte. Im böhmischen Umfeld wurde das erst die St. Wenzelskrone, die mit dem Namen Karl IV. (1346−1378) verbunden ist.

Christomimésis. Habsburkové jako Kristovi následovníci v 17. a 18. století … s. 32-63
(Christomimesis. The Hapsburgs as Imitators of Christ in the 17th and 18th Centuries)

In the Early Modern Age the legitimacy of monarchy was linked to kings being the chosen ones of God. The unique position of a king in society simultaneously called for the ruler to identify himself with the role of being an imitator of Jesus Christ. Parallels with his life were already expressed during the ruler’s coronation, yet also on the occasion of royal entries to towns, during processions (such as the feast of Corpus Christi) and especially during the period of Easter when the connections between the life and death of Christ; the treatment of consecrated bread (hostia) and the temporarily transformed royal ceremonial can be observed. The author of the study researches these occasions on the example of the 17th and 18th century Austrian Hapsburgs in the context of other European monarchies.

Key words: coronation, Easter ceremonials, the Hapsburgs, 17th and 18th centuries, royal piety

The Hapsburg rulers of the 17th and 18th centuries derived their power from the concept of being the chosen ones of God, elected both as individuals and as the entire dynasty, which presented itself as the defender of the Catholic confession in the Early Modern Age. Their deep personal piety, which focused on certain subjects (devotion to Mary, preference for chosen saints, faithfulness to the Cross, Eucharistic devotion) was connected to the image of the ruler as a quasi-spiritual individual. This status was acquired during the coronation rituals and was manifest in certain moments of the Christian year. Devotion due to the ruler was a reflection of devotion as expressed to God. The way of treating the persona of the king corresponded in many aspects to the treatment shown to consecrated hostia, which represented the true body of Jesus Christ in the Catholic environment. This parallel was expressed most significantly during Easter rituals when certain honours were denied to the king at a time when Christ was (temporarily) humiliated according to the Gospels. Analogically, the resurrection of Christ meant the festive restoration of all the ceremonial honours which belonged to the Hapsburg emperor (the use of baldaquin, keeping the head covered in sacred spaces, access to forbidden zones, etc.). Similarities in the fate of the Eternal Ruler (Christ) and the terrestrial emperor were emphasized by the Hapsburgs (and not merely by them) on Maundy Thursday, e.g., when, following the example of ecclesiastical superiors, the emperor washed the feet of the earlier selected elders, while the relevant passage of the Gospel of St. John, which tells that Christ washed the feet of his disciples, was chanted. Another similarity to the fate of Christ can be noted in the case of self-torment (for example during highly exalted moments of Good Friday) or healing of the sick, possibly in performing exorcism. The authors of festshrifts then pointed out to the exceptional qualities of the Hapsburg rulers, through which they participated in the perfection of God and became saints ipso facto. Yet, the question remains to what degree the rulers of the Early Modern Age really lived out and experienced the notions of the similarities of their own fate with the fate of Christ and to what degree they merely used ritual practices (for example the healing of rickets in France) as a means of royal propaganda. Joseph II, for example, found to his cost, how strong the monarchic traditions and rituals connected to them were as he continuously fought their prosecution, yet much too often he still had to comply with them. I personally cannot endorse the view that royal rituals be merely viewed as simple (artificial) means of strengthening royal authority towards insufficiently educated subjects; which was the position endorsed by Enlightement scholars and later by, for example, Marxist historiography.

Kmotrovství jako badatelský problém. K sociálním dějinám raného novověku a 19. století … s. 64-88
(Godparenthood Relationships as a Research Topic. On the Social History Both of the Early Modern Age and the 19th Century)

This study summarizes the results of contemporary research on the issue of godparenthood. Whereas this theme is relatively popular abroad, there has merely appeared a few partial studies in the Czech environment. The aim of this contribution is to draw attention to different aspects of godparenthood as a spiritual relationship in the Early Modern Age and in the 19th century, as well as to underline the importance of research into this topic in order to discover the formation and functioning of social links in the past.

Key words: godparenthood, spiritual relationships, historiography

The issue of godparenthood represents a very important subject matter, which becomes ever more the subject of study especially for the French, Italian and Scandinavian historians, yet one which is overlooked in the Czech environment. The aim of this contribution is to present the fundamental works of foreign historiography on the subject matter of godparenthood in the Early Modern Age and in the 19th century and in particular to point out fundamental, yet in their majority until now unanswered research questions linked to this subject matter in terms of the Czech environment.
In general, the social-historical perspective of the study of godparenthood is based on prosopographic or historical-demographic research of a certain group of the population and the identification of persons entered in the parish registers as godparents and parents of baptised children. In case of the study of smaller localities with a closed population, historians, in general, view godparenthood as the key to the study of social networks, both in municipal and rural environments. With regard to the assumed high prestige, which godparenthood bonds bestowed, it is even possible, based on their reconstruction, to define elite social groups. Thus, attention is paid not merely to the linkage of individual groups of the population through godparenthood bonds but also to the intensification of thus achieved links by repeated godparenthood within the framework of one family.
Whereas abroad research intensity related to this subject matter corresponds to its historical importance, Czech historiography has until now devoted scant attention to godparenthood. The historians of social history have especially focused on the period of the 17th century, which offers, amongst others, the question of the influence of newly introduced ecclesiastical measures in terms of godparenthood, in particular the regulations of the Prague Synod held in 1605, which followed the decrees of the Council of Trent. The consequent period until the end of the 19th century is outside the bounds of this research interest. Despite a huge space offered by preserved ethnographic and folklore resources, at present there exists neither systematic ethnological or anthropological research of the subject matter of godparenthood in the Czech environment.

Fyzické násilí, státní autorita a trestní právo v českých zemích 1918–1923 … s. 89-115
(Physical Violence, State Authority and Criminal Law in the Czech Lands 1918–1923)
This article deals with the issues of physical violence and criminal law in Czechoslovakia immediately after World War One. It poses the question of how the state responded to an increase in criminality in terms of the criminal law and of the enforcement of the will of collective participants through violence. Based on the study of contemporary deliberations on a new legislature by lawyers, judges and legislators, this article researches the importance of newly adopted norms of criminal law, as well as proclamations of amnesties and granting pardons in order to strengthen the authority of the state and to consolidate the internal political situation.

Key words: criminal law, violence, war profiteering, amnesty, pardon, Czechoslovakia, 1918

Although the transition from monarchy to republic, from war to peace was relatively non-violent in the Czech Lands, compared to other regions in Central and Eastern Europe, in the immediate post-war years the authority of the state also declined there and there was an increase in collective and individual unruliness. The new state power was weakened firstly by the post-imperial institutional collapse and secondly it was hesitant when demarcating its competences in a democratic system. The war “brutalization” and the shaken legal consciousness of the population stemming from the ideas of revolutionary impunity and the invalidity of the old Austrian laws led to the enforcement of collective interests through violence. Instead of a generally binding legal order, moral concepts on the arrangement of society, which state power was unable to enforce, became the motivating force for undertaking violent resolutions. The collective plunder of businesses, allegedly guilty of war profiteering and whom the state was unable to punish effectively was a typical contemporary delict. In the legislative sphere, the state responded to this situation by adopting new penal law norms, which regulated the most topical areas of criminal law, comprising political crimes as well, alongside profiteering. However, the proclaimed reform of the criminal law which was to establish a new base for defining criminality in a democratic republic, materialised merely in the form of an outline of a criminal code and rules of criminal procedure, which never became part of the legal order. Instead, the state had to settle for minor amendments of the original norms adopted from Austria-Hungary. Thus, amnesties and pardons became very important tools in mitigating the impact of court justice in this transitional period. They relativized judicial punishments not merely before the foundation of Czechoslovakia but also influenced significantly the criminal justice system in the first years of the Republic.

PELC Martin
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk a Helena Železná-Scholzová … s. 116-145
(Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and Helena Železná- Scholzová)

The German speaking, Italy based sculptress Helene Zelezny-Scholz was Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk’s confessor, conversation and correspondence partner between 1932 and 1934. This paper traces the roots of the friendship and the schedule of their meetings. It verifies the memoirs of Masaryk’s personal assistant Antonín Schenk that have been the sole source of information about the relationship.

Key words: Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, Czechoslovakia, President of the Republic, Helena Železná-Scholzová, figurative art, sculpture, Rome

The scupltress Helene Zelezny-Scholz (Helena Železná-Scholzová) played an important role in the life of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. Between 1932 and 1934, she was his confessor, conversation and correspondence partner. We are informed about the friendship between the artist and the president of the Czechoslovak Republic by a sole source mostly – the memoirs of Masaryk’s personal secretary Antonín Schenk. This paper subjects the memoirs to verification by confronting them with current state of knowledge about Helene Zelezny-Scholz’ life. She was born 1882 in Chropyně (Moravia) into a wealthy family of the writer and poetess Maria Stona and the well-known entrepreneur Albert Scholz. She spent her youth in the family castle in Třebovice (Austrian Silesia), she had received her training in sculpture in Vienna, Berlin and Brussels, before she settled down in Italy, first in Florence and later in Rome, where she died 1974. Prior to 1918, she created portraits of prominent personalities of the Austro-Hungarian Empire: the Empress Zita with the Crown Prince Otto and a number of military leaders including the chief of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf. This paper attempts at tracing the roots of her friendship with the head of the Czechoslovak state. It reveals the fact that she created a tomb stone for Masaryk’s disciple, Bedřich Odstrčil. Her role of an unofficial Czechoslovak cultural attaché to the United States of America and her relations to diplomatic circles in Italy are sketched, too. The text describes the schedule of her appointments with the president after his interest in another artist, the writer Oldra Sedlmayerová, started to fade out and Helene Zelezny-Scholz took her place. The sculptress visited Masaryk in his summer seat Topoľčianky repeatedly, she met him in Prague and Lány, spent hours with him while creating his portraits, during their meals, on trips, in cafés and restaurants (Mánes, Esplanade, Barrandov) or at cultural events. The possible meaning of the friendship for Masaryk and the subjects of their conversation are reconstructed on the base of fragmentary sources. The termination of the relationship and Helene Zelezny-Scholz’ life after the World War II are portrayed eventually.

Diskuse | Discussion

Je zbytečné psát o sexu doby temna? (Na okraj recenze Josefa Grulicha) … s. 146-158
(Is it Irrelevant to Write about Sex in the Period of Darkness?)

In 2015 I published a book “Sex in the Period of Darkness”, which was reviewed by Josef Grulich (The Czech Historical Review 113, 2015, pp. 827–834). I consider his review to have been written without both the knowledge of the topic and the wealth of documentation available. This text is an objective reply to his non-objective review and points out a number of Grulich’s blatant mistakes, insinuations and (deliberate?) misrepresentations. Key words: Southern Bohemia, countryside, sexuality, 17th and 18th centuries, methodology.


NODL Martin
Středověk v nás 
(František Šmahel) … s. 159

Jan Hus. Život a smrt kazatele
(Petr Čornej) … s. 160

DEIMANN Wiebke – JUSTE David (edd.)
Astrologers and Their Clients in Medieval and Early Modern Europe
(Zdeněk Žalud) … s. 165

ČUBARJAN Alexandr Oganovič (ed.)
Vsemirnaja istorija. Tom 4: Mir v XVIII veke
(Jaroslav Pánek) … s. 167

Vrchnostenské město v raném novověku. Vztahy k vrchnosti a venkovskému zázemí na příkladu Svitav v 17. století
(Jan Lhoták) … s. 169

KOLDA Jindřich – HRDINA Ignác Antonín
Historická knihovna Hospitalu Kuks a její romanisticko-kanonistický fond. Historicko-právní studie
(Pavel Krafl) … s. 172

Die gelehrte Korrespondenz der Brüder Pez.
Text, Regesten, Kommentare (Bd. 1, 2/1, 2/2)
(Ivan Hlaváček) … s. 175

ŠEDIVÝ Miroslav
Metternich, the Great Powers and the Eastern Question
(William D. Godsey) … s. 179

DROBESCH Werner (Hrsg.)
Kärnten am Übergang von der Agrar- zur Industriegesellschaft. Fallstudien zur Lage und Leistung der Landwirtschaft auf der Datengrundlage des Franziszeischen Katasters (1823–1844)
(Zdeňka Stoklásková) … s. 183

KUBŮ Eduard – ŠOUŠA Jiří
T. G. Masaryk a jeho c. k. protivníci. Československá zahraniční akce ženevského období v zápase s rakousko-uherskou diplomacií, zpravodajskými službami a propagandou (1915–1916)
(Ondřej Kolář) … s. 186

Ambasadorowie wzajemnego zrozumienia. Niedocenieni twórcy pomostów między polską i czeską kulturą (XIX–XXI wiek)
(Jaroslav Pánek) … s. 187

GUDEHUS Christian – CHRIST Michaela (Hrsg.)
Gewalt. Ein interdisziplinäres Handbuch
(Milan Hlavačka) … s. 193

BÖHLER Jochen – BORODZIEJ Wlodzimierz – PUTTKAMER Joachim von (Hrsg.)
Legacies of Violence. Eastern Europe’s First World War
(Bedřich Loewenstein) … s. 198

The Fiction of America. Performance and the Cultural Imaginery in Literature and Film
(Svatava Raková) … s. 203

A History of Czechoslovak Involvement in Africa. Studies from the Colonial Through the Soviet Eras
(Jan Klíma) … s. 209

Zprávy o literatuře … s. 214

Z vědeckého života | Chronicle

Činnost Česko-německé komise historiků v roce 2014 … s. 244


Markus Cerman (27. července 1967 – 3. října 2015) … s. 248
(Josef Grulich)

František Hejl (16. března 1920 – 12. ledna 2016) … s. 252
(Ivan Dorovský)

Jerzy Tomaszewski (8. října 1930 – 4. listopadu 2014) … s. 254
(Roman Baron)

Josef Harna (5. července 1939 – 27. června 2015) … s. 260
(Petr Prokš)

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků … s. 263