Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.


Ročník 113
č. 4/2015
s. 931-1252 
+ obsah čísel 1-4/2015 … s. I.-XX.


Studie | Studies

Šlechtická knihovna jako intelektuální zrcadlo? K reflexi dobové mentality na příkladu knižní sbírky Hieronyma Becka z Leopoldsdorfu (1525–1596)
s. 941-964
(A Nobleman’s Library as His Intellectual Mirror? On a Refl ection of Contemporary Social Mentality using the Example of Hieronymus Beck von Leopoldsdorf ’s Book Collection, 1525–1596)

This study presents the until now unknown Lower Austrian book collection from the end of the 16th century, which is, indeed, unique in many aspects. It was carried off to Sweden as part of literary war booty from Bohemia and Moravia towards the end of the Thirty Years’ War. The aim of this study is to fill in one of the gaps in our knowledge of Central European aristocratic libraries in the Early Modern Age. After all, Beck’s Library was one of the little known aristocratic libraries of a progressive, intellectual archetype. The Library, in its irreplaceably poignant personal character, reflected some elements of Hironymus Beck’s life and his world outlook, difficult to ascertain otherwise and uncaptured from other primary sources. Therefore, the author strives to decipher until now unknown intellectual horizons of its creator and to classify the Beck book collection within the context of other contemporary aristocratic libraries in the Austrian Lands.

Key words: Hieronymus Beck von Leopoldsdorf, aristocracy, Austria, history of libraries, war booty, Sweden

This study is dedicated to the personality of the Lower Austrian aristocrat Hieronymus Beck von Leopoldsdorf (1525–1596) and the possibilities to reflect on his intellectual horizons through his family library, which he compiled at his Ebreichsdorf Castle in the second half of the 16th century. The detailed reconstruction of this book collection, which contained between 2.000 to 2.500 volumes, showed that it belonged amongst the little known progressive aristocratic libraries of an intellectual archetype, whose owners were not bound either by a family tradition or an intention to create collectors’ libraries of a universal nature.
Contrary to the until now known extensive book collections (Ferdinand II of Tyrol and Peter Vok of Rosenberg) Hieronymus Beck did configure carefully the contents of his book collection. His active reception of contemporary literature is documented not merely by his reader’s notes but also by the original divisions of his library, where he created a number of new and until then unorthodox sections: for example, for books in which a visual art prevailed (graphic albums, maps); for books on ancient life and institutions; or basic school texts. Yet, he also introduced sections, which were narrowly defined, such as mathematics, military art and architecture. Beck’s outlook and principal interests were also reflected in a totally different language composition of the Ebreichsdorf Library, which also focused on the Italian and French language regions, rather more than other Central European libraries. Both Romance languages, of which Beck had an active knowledge, were the means to facilitate access to literary and educational works, otherwise unavailable from other sources.
In his collecting activity Hieronymus Beck overlooked or even excluded altogether genres and themes which were of no interest to him or which he rejected for ideological reasons. In his Library, for example, there are not to be found manifestations of fashionable Renaissance Neo-Platonism or alchemist treatises. Despite his strong inner religiosity and commitment to the Roman Catholic Church, Hieronymus Beck exercised his independent mind, even in the spiritual sphere. It seems that he was the only aristocrat in the Hapsburg Lands who methodically excluded Protestant theological literature from his acquisitions and its meagre torso was allocated a place of dishonour at the very end of the Library. On the other hand, he owned large numbers of prohibited books of a nonreligious nature (especially belles lettres and treatises on natural science). He even exerted significant efforts to acquire them as also documented in his dispute with the Viennese Bishop J. C. Neubeck in 1586. Beck was also greatly interested in mathematics (primarily numerical geometry), in the Gregorian Calendar Reform, chivalric romances and Renaissance novels, historical treatises, ancient history, ancient life and institutions, as well as Turkish studies. In the framework of Central European libraries, Hieronymus Beck also owned the largest collection of topographical and geographical literature, in which the works on Roman monuments in Italy prevailed. His collection of architectonical literature from direct Italian sources was also highly representative.
The Ebreichsdorf Library is also a unique proof of interaction between the Viennese learned and aristocratic environments of the second half of the 16th century. Hieronymus Beck acquired (or was gifted) a considerable number of manuscripts whose authors were active at the University of Vienna or at the Court of Maxmilian II. These manuscripts, albeit they (similar to the majority of books from the Beck Library) have not been preserved until the present, help in reconstructing the literary and intellectual relationships of Hieronymus Beck and simultaneously reflect the profound changes which the Viennese intellectual environment underwent in the second half of the 16th century.

Španělská strana na císařském dvoře? K problematice jednoho pojmu z politických dějin
s. 965-968
(The Spanish Faction at the Imperial Court? On the Issues relating to One Concept fr om Political History)

The study submitted here has to be understood as a contribution to the ongoing discussion devoted to the role of court parties in the Early Modern Age. Its centre of focus is a power grouping which the historians usually refer to as the Spanish Party/Faction at the Imperial Court. The author deals with the frequency of these terms (including their various language mutations) in contemporary sources and in current historical literature. Applying an analysis of informal links which tied Central European noblemen to the institution of the Spanish Embassy at the Imperial Court in the 16th century and in the first half of the 17th century, he then attempts to answer questions such as what the so-called Spanish Party/Faction was; whether there was a disparity in the understanding of the terms Party and Faction and to what degree these terms correspond to the designation of the relationship network.

Key words: the Spanish Party/Faction, informal power groupings, networks, political communication, the Imperial Court, the Spanish Embassy, the Hispanic Monarchy, 16th–17th centuries, diplomacy

This study explores the issues of the political impact of the Hispanic Monarchy on Central European space. By applying historical semantics and emphasizing the use of a comprehensive analysis of primary sources deposited in Czech and foreign archives, also, the author has attempted to clarify the nature of the links connecting the Central European clients of the Spanish King with their patron. He is primarily interested in whether and under what circumstances these persons could be referred to in terms so favoured by historiography, i.e. „the Spanish Party“, „the Spanish Faction“ at the Imperial Court. Although these terms appear as early as the works of 19th century positivist historians, none of these historians have imbued them with any convincing content, yet. The majority of them were, indeed, content to merely assert that the Spanish Party/Faction was a not too numerous, yet important and powerful grouping of zealous Catholics in the circle of and supporting the Spanish envoy at the Imperial Court. Despite the fact that in additon to the Czech terms, they also used its Spanish equivalents facción espanola and partido espanol, none of them have paid attention to the question whether these terms were reflected in contemporary docoments and to what degree could both of these terms be understood as synonymous.
The very meaning and the use of the terms facción espanola and partido espanol in Early Modern Age communications represent one of the principal issues addressed in this current study. Based upon comprehensive archival research it has been established that the application of both above mentioned terms differed significantly in line with the language, time period and also a concrete court environment. The actual occurrence of the terms Party and Faction at the Imperial Court of the 16th and the early 17th centuries was rather rare. These phrases – Spanish Party/ Faction – only appeared in simplified descriptions of the Court, which originated from the environment of the envoys of the Italian states. The Czech environment used instead the terms „Španiehelé“ and „Hišpáni“, to denote those noblemen who implemented, whether in Vienna or in Prague, the unified Habsburg policy and remained staunch supporters of the Catholic Church. To describe these persons, the Spanish envoys themselves then used terms common for denoting patron-client relationships – servidor aficionado, servidor confidente.
It seems unlikely that it would be possible to place an equals sign between the terms the Spanish Party/Faction and the Spanish client network. In the case of the Spanish client network there can be no discussion at all about a compact and internally unified group at the Court, whose members would have had links to one another, communicated with one another and conceived a common strategy. The Spanish client network was in reality composed of a number of power groupings, whose members were bound to each other through blood ties, friendships or had similar regional origins. These power groupings often acted as rivals to each other and the only fact that connected them were favours granted to them by the Catholic King, and their service to the House of Habsburg.
If, despite all these reservations, we acknowledge as fact the existence of a power grouping which was in the communicative practice of the courtiers and especially in the simplified descriptions of Court reality, originating from the circle of foreign envoys, sometimes called the Spanish Party or Faction, we have to bear in mind, that this grouping did not represent by far the level of a relationship network in Central Europe. It is necessary rather to seek under this description men and women who implemented Spanish interests at the Imperial court based on their conviction for the need to preserve the unity of Habsburg policy. It cannot have been a mere chance that there was also a power grouping at the Madrid Royal Court, which implemented the very same values, to which historians refer as the Imperial Party. Although the political influence of this group was not so dominant in the Hispanic Monarchy as at the Imperial Court, it seems beyond doubt that the Spanish Party in Vienna or in Prague and the Imperial Party in Madrid represented the two sides of the same coin, one single group, creating a connecting line between the two branches of the Habsburg dynasty.

Národ jako jediné hodnotící kritérium? České země v Předlitavsku a (stále) etnicistní česká historiografie
s. 989-1008
(The Nation as the only evaluation criterion?  the Bohemian Lands in Cisleithania and the /persisting/ ethnicist approach in Czech historiography)

This study presents an argument developing from the thesis that Czech syntheses of the long 19th century suffer from excessive ethnocentrism, i.e. the belief in one’s nation as the focal point of everything, somewhat automatically, so that an interpretation of the so-called national move- ment and nationalist conflicts in the Bohemian Lands rather descends into clichés and dogmas. This study points out the pitfalls in using the terms “nation” or “national identity” in analytical concept formation. It also notes that foreign historiography appears to appreciate more the contribution of the Cisleithanian system for the development of the Bo- hemian Lands than Czech historiography itself.

Key words: 19th century, Cisleithania, the Czech Lands, philosophy of history, the national question, nationalism

In syntheses of the history of the Bohemian Lands during the long 19th century, the main focus is on research of the Czech national movement, i.e. basically of the driving forces behind the movement in society. The author of the study opines that Czech historiography is too ethnocentrist, to its own detriment. It, uncritically, regards the nation as the principal focus of everything – it automatically presupposes the central role of the national idea, instead of analysing it, and it replaces the ethnic rhetoric of some social conflicts for their ethnic content. The interpretation of Czech history is consequently narrowed down to the interpretation of one central national idea. Yet, the examples of works by foreign historians on the history of Cisleithania and the Bohemian Lands (Pieter M. Judson, Gary B. Cohen, Tara Zahra, Jeremy King and others) document that interpretation can be more balanced.
Syntheses are too little of the history of Bohemia (not even mentioning Moravia and Austrian Silesia) and, in fact, of the history of the Czech ethnic group also, and too much of a history of nationally conscious members of the Czech nation (thus, especially, of national activists) and of their world outlook. The interpretation of the so-called national movement and national conflicts in the Bohemian Lands rather descends to cliches and dogmas. These are automatically accepted and unthinkingly repeated as something that is considered little, let alone doubted or progressing to a more precise evaluation.
However, the usage of the concept “modern nation”, i.e. a more or less homogeneous large social group, which comprises politically conscious members, would be more questionable, if syntheses devoted more well-deserved space to the phenomenon of regional differentiation and variability.

Diskuse | Discussion

K československo-poľskému sporu o Oravu a Spiš
s. 1009-1016
(On the Czechoslovak-Polish Dispute over Orava and Spiš)

This article discusses a recent Palgrave Macmillan monograph on an internationally little-known Czechoslovak-Polish dispute over former Upper Hungarian provinces of Orava (Árva) and Spiš (Szépes, Zips), partitioned in 1920. The bone of contention between Prague and Warsaw for almost three decades to come, closely related to the problem of Teschen (Těšín, Cieszyn), amassed problems for local population and administration and regularly became an issue of national and international politics. The study by Marcel Jesenský is a daring attempt to present the topic in its complexity and full time-span for international audience. Albeit it offers multiarchival research and some interesting, rarely articulated viewpoints, the book seems to be something of an overstrech. Heuristics displays severe lacunae, reference to up-to-date research is unsatisfying, even terminological problems arise. This state of affairs results, in the present reviewers´ opinion, in a surprisingly long row of various errors and inaccuracies.

Key words: Czechoslovakia, Poland, Slovakia, Czechoslovak-Polish relations, Europe – border disputes, 20th Century



Die Luxemburger in der Mark. Brandenburg unter Kaiser Karl IV. und Sigismund von Luxemburg (1373–1415)
(Tomáš Velička) … s. 1017

KARNER Herbert (Hg.)
Die Wiener Hofburg 1521–1705. Baugeschichte, Funktion und Etablierung als Kaiserresidenz
(Václav Bůžek) … s. 1021

Hodoeporicon Ambrogia Traversariho
(Ondřej Koupil) … s. 1025

MAROCCHI Massimo – ROSSI Piervittorio (edd.)
Atraverso l´Italia del Rinascimento. Lettere di Alessandro Gonzaga ai marchesi Ludovico e Barbara (1458–1466)
(Pavel Marek) … s. 1029

Pražští kupci na cestách. Předbělohorská Praha a středoevropské trhy
(Jiří Pešek) … s. 1030

Šlechtický archiv c. k. ministerstva vnitra. Erbovní listiny Národního archivu, Státního oblastního archivu v Praze, Archivu hlavního města Prahy (dodatky), Archivu Národního muzea (dodatky)
(Martina Hrdinová) … s. 1034

Die Habsburgermonarchie 1848–1918.
Bd. IX/1, Soziale Strukturen. Von der Feudal-Agrarischen zur Bürgerlich-industriellen Gesellschaft
Bd IX/2, Soziale Strukturen. Die Gesellschaft der Habsburgermonarchie im Kartenbild. Verwaltuns-, Sozial- und Infr astrukturen. Nach dem Zensus von 1910
(Milan Hlavačka) … s. 1037

KASPER Tomáš – PÁNKOVÁ Markéta a kol.
Učitel ve střední a jihovýchodní Evropě. Profesionalizace učitelského vzdělávání: historické a systematické aspekty
(Růžena Váňová) … s. 1041

ŘEZNÍKOVÁ Lenka a kol.
Figurace paměti. J. A. Komenský v kulturách vzpomínání 19. a 20. století
(Blanka Altová) … s. 1043

PÁNKOVÁ Markéta – KASPEROVÁ Dana – KASPER Tomáš a kol.
Meziválečná školská reforma v Československu
(Růžena Váňová) … s. 1049

Nové publikace k dějinám protektorátu Čechy a Morava
(Nina Lohmann) … s. 1052

KOLL Johannes
Arthur Seyss-Inquart und die deutsche Besatzungspolitik in den Niederlanden (1940–1945)
(Daniel Putík) … s. 1060

Praporu věren i ve ztraceném boji. Vladimír Šmilauer – život a dílo filologa (1895–1983)
(Vít Boček) … s. 1063

Filozofové dělají revoluci. Filozofická fakulta během komunistického
experimentu (1948–1968–1989)
(Svatava Raková) … s. 1067

MRÁZEK Jaroslav
Svět očima Samuela P. Huntingtona. Pohled z historickosociologické perspektivy
(Jaroslav Pánek) … s. 1072

SYMONS Caroline
The Gay Games. A History
(Martin Klement) … s. 1075

Zprávy o literatuře … s. 1080

Z vědeckého života | Chronicle

XVII. světový kongres hospodářských dějin … s. 1101

Historie a historikové v roce ovce. Světový kongres hospodářských historiků v japonském Kjótu a Světový kongres historických věd v čínském Jinanu v srpnu 2015 … s. 1106


František Hoffmann (23. února 1920 – 1. října 2015) … s. 1112
(František Šmahel)

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
… s. 1117

Světový kongres historiků | World Congress of Historians

PÁNEK Jaroslav a kol.
XXII. mezinárodní kongres historických věd v Ťi-nanu/Jinanu … s. 1133-1187

Kongres světový a kongres čínský
(Jaroslav Pánek) … s. 1134

Ideová východiska pořadatelů kongresu
(Jaroslav Pánek) … s. 1137

Historický kongres v jubilejním dějinném kontextu
(Petr Vorel) … s. 1142
Čínské inspirace
(Antonie Doležalová) … s. 1143

Český národní komitét historiků a jeho podíl na přípravách světového kongresu
(Jiří Kocian) … s. 1147

Pohled předsedy Českého národního komitétu historiků
(Petr Vorel) … s. 1150

„Česká“ zasedání v Jinanu
(Jaroslav Pánek) … s. 1157

Velké téma z malé země
(Zlatica Zudová-Lešková) … s. 1161

Večerní zasedání o orální historii
(Miroslav Vaněk) … s. 1167

Postavení starších dějin
(Eva Semotanová) … s. 1168

Christianizace v novodobých dějinách
(Eva Doležalová) … s. 1169

Revoluce ve světové historii: srovnání a souvislosti
(Eva Doležalová) … s. 1169

Environmentální dějiny a ekologické dějiny
(Eva Semotanová) … s. 1171

Historická demografie
(Alice Velková) … s. 1172

Populární fenomény minulosti a přítomnosti: fotbal, cestování a cestovní ruch
(Pavel Mücke) … s. 1173

Čínský socialismus, deevropeizace pohledu na dějiny a reinterpretace dějin
(Jan Rychlík) … s. 1175

„Nej-“ kongres v čínském Ťi-nanu
(Radmila Švaříčková Slabáková) … s. 1179

„Dress code“ aneb slovo o důstojnosti
(Petr Vorel) … s. 1184

Evropská historiografi e a nástup ostatních kontinentů
(Jaroslav Pánek) … s. 1185

World Congress of Historians | Světový kongres historiků

PÁNEK Jaroslav et alii
The 22nd International Congress of Historical Sciences in Jinan … s. 1188

The World Congress and the Chinese Congress
(Jaroslav Pánek) … s. 1189

The Congress organizers’ ideological standpoints
(Jaroslav Pánek) … s. 1193

The Historical Congress in a jubilee historical context
(Petr Vorel) … s. 1198

Chinese inspirations
(Antonie Doležalová) … s. 1199

The Czech National Committee of Historians, and its contribution to the preparations
for the World Congress
(Jiří Kocian) … s. 1203

The view of the Chairman of the Czech National Committee of Historians
(Petr Vorel) … s. 1207

“Czech” meetings in Jinan
(Jaroslav Pánek) … s. 1214

A big theme from a small country
(Zlatica Zudová-Lešková) … s. 1220

Evening oral history session
(Miroslav Vaněk) … s. 1226

The role of older history
(Eva Semotanová) … s. 1227

Christianization in modern history
(Eva Doležalová) … s. 1228

Revolutions in world history: comparisons and connections
(Eva Doležalová) … s. 1229

Environmental history and ecological history
(Eva Semotanová) … s. 1230

Historical demography
(Alice Velková) … s. 1231

Popular phenomena of the past and present: football, travel and tourism
(Pavel Mücke) … s. 1233

Chinese socialism, the de-Europeanization of the view of history, and the
re-interpretation of history
(Jan Rychlík) … s. 1235

The “Most-” Congress in Jinan
(Radmila Švaříčková Slabáková) … s. 1239

Dress code, or a word about dignity
(Petr Vorel) … s. 1245

European historiography and the emergence of other continents
(Jaroslav Pánek) … s. 1246

Obsah 113, 2015 | Contents 113, 2015

Studie a materiály … s. III

Diskuse … s. V

Obzory literatury … s. VI
Recenze … s. VI
Zprávy o literatuře … s. XII

Z vědeckého života … s. XIII
Nekrology … s. XIII
Knihy a časopisy došlé redakci … s. XIV
Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků … s. XIV

Rejstřík autorů a editorů recenzovaných titulů … s. XV

Rejstřík nakladatelů a vydavatelů recenzovaných knih … s. XVIII