Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.


Ročník 113
č. 3/2015
s. 629-930


Studie | Studies

Psal tzv. Kanovník vyšehradský opravdu na Vyšehradě? První Kosmův pokračovatel v kontextu dějepisectví přemyslovského věku
s. 635-668
(Did the so-called Canon of Vyšehrad actually write at Vyšehrad? The First Successor of Cosmas in the Context of Historiography of the Premyslid Era)

The first continuation of The Chronicle of the Czechs by Cosmas, in which a well informed contemporary chronicled the news relating to the years 1126–1141, has been a matter of huge interest for historians primarily for its unclear provenance. Although the opinion that the author of those reports was a Canon of the Vyšehrad Chapter has prevailed for more than one hundred years, all those arguments which seem to point out that the mysterious chronicler was rather a member of the Metropolitan Chapter at St Vitus Cathedral, where the Cosmas Chronicle itself also originated, have not been adequately considered.

Key words: Cosmas, the first successor of Cosmas, Prague Chapter, Vyšehrad Chapter, historiography, the Czech Lands, Premyslid dynasty

The first continuation of The Chronicle of the Czechs by Cosmas, in which a well informed contemporary chronicled the news relating to the years 1126–1141, has been a matter of huge interest for historians primarily for its unclear provenance. While F. Palacký and V. Novotný inclined to the view that the author was a member of the collegiate chapter at Vyšehrad, F. M. Pelcl, J. Dobrovský and A. Bachmann looked for the chronicler amongst the canons of the bishopric church at Prague Castle. Although the extensive and heated discussion between Novotný and Bachmann ended inconclusively, halfway, at the beginning of the 20th century, the view that the work originated at Vyšehrad prevailed in Czech historiography and the designation Canon of Vyšehrad completely prevailed. So far, all arguments ave not been fully considered.
In the first place, it is not possible to present passages about the reconstruction of the church at Vyšehrad during the reign of Soběslav I and in a retrospective glossa about the foundation of a collegiate chapter there by Vratislav II as clear and undisputed evidence about the Vyšehrad origins of the first successor of Cosmas. Indeed, at the time when this work was written the post of Prague Bishop was held by the former Vyšehrad Provost Jan (1134–1139). In those times some Prague and Vyšehrad canons were also closely related. It would, therefore, be nothing out of the ordinary if in the period of close family relations between the canons of both churches and shortly after the death of the Prague Bishop Jan, the former Provost of Vyšehrad, that one of his subordinate canons of St Vitus, devoted some attention to the beginnings and the restoration of the Church of St Peter at Vyšehrad, where Soběslav I, Duke of Bohemia, whom the chronicler favoured, was, in addition, building his main residence at that time.
On the contrary, many indices do prove the conclusion that the first successor of Cosmas was a St.Vitus canon. On one hand, the author merely devotes much space to the patrons of the Church of St. Wenceslas, to St. Vojtěch, also known as St. Adalbert, to St. Gotthard, especially, yet, he entirely overlooks saints connected to Vyšehrad. There is not even a single mention of the patrocinium of the Vyšehrad Collegiate Basilica. Further, the first successor of Cosmas describes funeral ser vices for only two bishops in the Prague Basilica but, on the other hand, he fails to mention three funerals of rulers at Vyšehrad. Primarily, he passes over in silence the death of Queen Svatava, the widow of Vratislav II, Vyšehrad funder and an incredibly generous donor and the placing of her remains in the royal tomb in the Vyšehrad Basilica. These indications, alongside other supporting arguments, testify to the origins of the first continuation of the Chronicle at the St Vitus Chapter. It is, last but not least, also documented by the fact, that Prague bishops are given much more attention, as the author places multiple levels of focus on them than in the very Chronicle of Cosmas, the Dean of the Prague Chapter.

Raně novověká revokační kázání konvertitů k protestantismu
s. 669-713
(Early Modern Age Revocation Sermons of Converts to Protestantism)

This study focuses on the so-called Revocation Sermons (Revocations-Predigte, also referred to as Wiederrufs-Predigte), i.e. the sermons in which their authors, clergymen, publicly renounced their Catholic faith and declared their adherence to a Protestant faith. They are, in fact, a type of primary source which is a component of the contemporary controversy, which was a discourse both theological and ecclesiastical-political in its nature. They highlight the complexity of contemporary religious situations and the issue of conversion (and apostasy), including, to a certain degree, also the problem of confessional violence and the awareness of it.

Key words: religious situation in the 17th and 18th centuries, conversion, exile, sermons, theological controversy, Catholic clergy, apostates

The so-called revocation sermons (Revocations-Predigte, also referred to as Wiede rrufs-Predigte), namely the sermons in which their authors publicly renounced their Catholic faith and declared their adherence to a Lutheranism, represent a very interesting primary source for observing conversion to Protestantism from Catholicism in the German, or Evangelical environment. They cover the period from the beginning of the 17th century to the first third of the 18th century, and were primarily heard in Wittenberg and Leipzig, yet in other towns as well. Their authors were often members of different religious orders – the Capuchins, the Franciscans, the Dominicans, the Carmelites, but also others (even the Jesuits and the Cistercians appear amongst their authors). In addition, there were other authors, (mundane) Catholic clergymen, coming from various parts of the Empire, including Vienna and the Czech Lands. This study provides greater knowledge and understanding about the history of sermons and their publication in print; it introduces their authors; it mediates their contents as well as some consequent polemical responses stirred. It is evident that the interest in Catholic converts and support shown to them, were motivated by an endeavour to strengthen the position of the Lutheran Church, primarily in connection with conversions to Catholicism, which were often of major importance and spectacular events, and were taking place from the end of the 16th century onwards. Sermons which can be seen as specific ego-documents, comprise not merely the homiletic aspect but the autobiographical one, also. In addition to their function as theological controversies, their propaganda function cannot be overlooked either. Indeed, distinctive confessionary-polemical rhetoric of revocation sermons was, to some degree, understood to be an inseparable part of them and the vocal demonstration of rejecting the old faith and declaring one’s adherence to the new faith, including a rationale for it in a convincing, often very expressive manner, was seen as the most desirable – although despite the assumed previous frustration and disillusionment of the converts, it cannot have been an easy step to take for any of the individuals involved. Any manifestation of doubt about the correctness of the chosen path was, in fact, unthinkable and it would have represented a considerable risk, also from the point of the converts’ further work and fortunes, as in such a case, a weight of despair and remorse would have pressed on their state of mind. It is also important to consider not merely the individual differences of each and every convert (and their different degrees of embracing the new faith and especially detaching themselves from the original confession), yet also their arduous personal circumstances, leading to rash reactions or directly resorting to a form of “survival strategy”. All these moments may then logically lead to deliberations about the use of confessional violence. In any case, this type of sermon represents a less well-known type of primary source, which forms an integral part of the contemporay controversy, which was a discourse both theological and ecclesiastical-political in its nature, and highlighted both the complexity of the contemporary religious situation and the issue of conversion (and apostasy), as well as, at least to a degree, the problem of confessional violence and the awareness of it.

BAKEŠ Martin
Diplomatická mise jako nejistá investice. Antonín Jan z Nostic u stockholmského královského dvora (1685–1690)
s. 714-747
(The Diplomatic Mission as a Non-guaranteed Investment. Antonín Jan of Nostitz at the Stockholm Royal Court, 1685–1690)

This article analyses diplomatic activities of one of the foremost Hapsburg noblemen, the Count Antonín Jan of Nostitz in Sweden between the years 1685–1690. This mission differed in many aspects from other diplomatic legations in the second half of the 17th century and it largely influenced the consequent career development of the young ambassador. A large range of problems and varied issues, which had greater or lesser impacts, which Count Nostitz had to address in his post, indicate the incredible dynamics of international relationships in the period following the Thirty Years’ War.

Key words: the history of diplomacy, diplomatic missions, 17th century, Antonín Jan of Nostitz, Sweden, conflict

Several legations led by prominent aristocrats of the Hapsburg Monarchy headed to the Scandinavian Peninsula in the second half of the 17th century. The Kingdom of Sweden rose to prominence as an empire and the foremost European hegemon of this period. It attracted the attention and interest of other monarchs. Although the Swedish ruler was a recognized and powerfull ally in recurring multiple wars, due to the outcomes of the Peace of Westphalia, diplomatic service in Stockholm did not carry such a degree of responsibility as at the other royal courts of Europe. For this reason the Swedish Royal Court was an ideal place where a young, embryonic, inexperienced ambassador might find one’s feet and gain the initial skills in the diplomatic apparatus. Indeed, one of such debutant diplomats was Count Antonín Jan of Nostitz. This gentleman represented the creme de la creme of the Hapsburg Monarchy’s aristocratic society and as the son of a powerful father was predestined to hold high office. One’s acceptance of a diplomatic post was a convenient methods of developing a career. Antonín Jan of Nostitz made use of this opportunity and spent five years (1685–1690) at the court of King Charles XI of Sweden in Stockholm. The negative character traits and huge debts of Count Nostitzt, combined with his inexperience in the questions of foreign policy led to displeasure at the Viennese Court and they partially blocked the Count’s future deployment in the Court hierarchy. In addition, the diplomatic mission of Antonín Jan of Nostitz is characterised by a large range of lesser or greater conflicts, which the Count had to address during his five-year long posting. The pages of his official reports mention, for example, a break-in at the Embassy, the death of a high-ranking Hofstaat official, his wife and the incident when a Swedish soldier verbally attacked Count Nostitz. This series of conflicts even culminates in the Ambassador himself being physically assaulted by a member of the Royal Guard, which respresents a really unique case in the history of Baroque diplomacy. This present study depicts the course and consequences of the diplomatic mission of Antonín Jan of Nostitz and contributes to the expanding knowledge of Baroque diplomacy.

Inflace titulů? Rakouské nobilitace ve druhé polovině 19. století
s. 748-781
(Aristocratic Title Infl ation? Austrian Nobilitations in the Second Half of the 19th Century)

A deep transformation of Austrian society, and consequently that of the aristocratic community occurred during the reign of Franz Joseph I. They lost their role as mediator between the Monarch and his subjects, i.e. their nobility rights, serfdom was also abolished. The aristocratic title as such was, however, preserved and the granting of it continued to be an important means of creating a group of inhabitants loyal to the sovereign and the state. This study interprets in detail the reasons for the change of Austrian aristocratic society after 1848 and the consequences of this situation for both the aristocratic community and the monarchy as a whole.

Key words: aristocracy, Austria, nobilitation, the 19th century

The aim of this study is to outline the causes of a deep transformation of the Austrian aristocratic community and the steps which led to it. It focuses upon the background of the situation just described, which one should not seek in the socio-political changes of the second half of the 19th century but in the very Enlightenment reforms of Maria Theresa and in the creation of a meticulously executed hierarchy of state awards, i.e. the honours system. It, in its consequences, represented one of the most important factors of the so-called title inflation in the era of Franz Joseph I.
The loss of prestige experienced by the nobility as a hereditary privileged group, which was connected to the end of the era during which it was the intermediary between the monarch and his subjects, represented an important factor, also. During the upheaval years of 1848–1849, this group, which continued to enjoy considerable privileges at the administrative and political levels even after the Enlightenment reforms, became „ordinary citizens.“ They lost most of their privileges and thus the status, undisputed for generations, of the social and political elite.
The project of the Kroměříž Constitution of 1849 even originally proposed the abolition of aristocratic titles. Although the Constitutional Committee then deleted this article from the definitive draft of the Constitution, the very parliamentary discussions speak out loudly about the prevalent atmosphere in contemporary society – and especially amongst the middle classes.
A significant role in the negative attitude of the majority population against the newly elevated nobility was also undoubtedly played by antisemitism as after 1848 the Jews came to appear amongst newly ennobled aristocrats on a large scale. Their social rise was not accepted without reservations by the majority of society, nor was the position of the Jewish ethnic group improved by their relatively frequent conversions to Christianity.
In contrast, the significant disruption of the traditional balance between the economic and social capital, i.e. the aristocracy’s property and title, proved to be a more serious issue. Whereas society was able to tolerate relatively poor members of the lower nobility, to a certain degree, the increasing number of non-affluent barons was, indeed, a real problem. Prior to 1848 persons ennobled to the rank of the recognized nobility (Freiherr in German) usually had sizeable capital at their disposal, which allowed them to lead a life considered appropriate to their status. The majority of society was willing to accept the bourgeois mentality and the style of life pertaining to it only in the case of the lower nobility, which was traditionally not too affluent in the hereditary Lands. Its members traditionally entered the civil service, the church or secured employment in rich aristocratic households. After 1848 the number of non-affluent barons rapidly increased.
Within the framework of constant political struggle for the preservation of the Monarchy, nobilitations also became the way and means of power, providing the government with both direct supporters and essential finances. The selling of titles for cash did not represent a new approach. Merits, for which the ruler came to award aristocratic titles could be, in fact, of various kinds – and naturally, the provision of funding for public use, was one of them. However, the problem was that this policy continued even at a time when public opinion increasingly placed the actions of the rulers and governments under examination and critical scrutiny. While the majority of society was still willing to tolerate nobilitations in recognition of service for the public good, i.e. giving money for humanitarian purposes, direct financial support for government interests did cross the limits of acceptability.
However, as time went by, it became evident that the awarding of aristocratic titles would not lead to the desired aim, namely the creation of a broad pro-Austrian minded social majority whose elite would be rewarded for its loyalty through nobilitations. The failure of this effort, as well as the decline of the prestige and political respect for the hereditary aristocracy were the main reasons for the deep crisis of the institution of nobility, which utterly collapsed soon after the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.

Instituce rabinátu v emancipačních židovských komunitách na Moravě a ve Slezsku v letech 1860–1918
s. 782-813
(The Institution of the Rabbinate in Emancipatory Jewish Communities  in Moravia and Silesia between 1860–1918)

“Emancipatory” Jewish communities, able to emerge in Moravia and Austrian Silesia in the second half of the 19th century thanks to the emancipation of the Jews, had to address the issue of the traditional institution of the rabbinate when they were creating their own institutions. The author of this study researches the reasons which led to changes in the status of the rabbinate, from its unquestioning acceptance in the 1860s up to the complete rejection of this institution by Jewish religious municipalities; the efforts of the authorities to force religious municipalities to appoint rabbis. He further focuses upon the modernisation of the theological and also secular education and the diversification of the rabbis and the consequent question what type of rabbis emancipatory Jewish religious municipalities preferred to appoint and vice versa what type of rabbis were drawn to serve emancipated religious communities.

Key words: rabbis, history of the Jews, Jewish communities, Moravia, Silesia, 19th century

When establishing their own institutions, new (“emancipatory”) Jewish communities, which emerged in the second half of the 19th century as a result of the emancipation of the Jews in Moravia and Austrian Silesia, were not burdened by traditional rules as much as the old (“pre-emancipatory”) Jewish communities. Thus, they were able to define their own relationship to the rabbi more or less according to their own requirements. The status of the rabbi as an employee of a religious municipality did not change as compared with the past, however, the very selection of rabbis changed radically. Emancipatory Jewish communities refused to accept the traditional model of the rabbi’s authority derived from the formal status of the rabbinical scholar or hereditary rabbinical tradition and chose those rabbis who earned esteem through their university education and preaching skills, or by their abilities to define the meaning of Judaism in terms of the modern age.
Rabbis appointed to emancipatory religious municipalities in the 1860s repre sented, in fact, a second generation of the reformist rabbis, who considered a university education to be an integral part of their curriculum and they usually came from Moravia, or possibly from Hungary and Prussia. The possiblity of creating more than ten new religious municipalities at the beginning of the 1890s, led to the diversification of the structure of rabbis in emancipatory communities: in addition to reformist rabbis, neo-orthodox rabbis also emerged; in addition to rabbis born in Central Europe there were also rabbis from the more remote regions (Eastern Galicia and Russia, namely present-day Belarus and Lithuania) and there was a number of new rabbis who held both a university degree and had also graduated from Jewish rabbinical seminaries.
However, the transformation of rabbis from talmudic scholars to university scholars proved to be double-edged. The rabbis of a modern type satisfied the demand of emancipatory Jewish communities, yet they soon discovered that provincial communities, in particular, did not provide space for their further intellectual development, and they therefore often left for larger religious municipalities or even academic positions. Thus, rabbis without any further academic ambitions and content with their role as community rabbis remained in smaller Moravian and Silesian religious communities. However, this new role in which the rabbi became increasingly like a Christian clergyman, and was seen as a preacher and an intermediary between God and the laity, resulted in negative responses amongst emancipated laymen. While in the 1860s the opposition to the monopolisation of spiritual matters by rabbis occurred only rarely, in the 1890s the representatives of religious municipalities rejected the importance of the rabbinate quite routinely. However, the principal oppositon to the rabbinate was seen as an extreme position even in the 1890s and for this reason the unwilligness to appoint a rabbi by a “rebellious” religious municipality was usually cammouflaged by an allegedly bad financial situation.
State authorities also aimed to keep aversion of communities against the rabbinate under control and forced Jewish religious municipalities to employ a rabbi, although it was the authorities themselves, headed by the Ministry of Cult and Education which partially caused it through their own policy. The Ministry granted the right to establish the rabbinate merely to Jewish religious municipalities, and it banned the Jewish religious communities with the status of a simple association from appointing a rabbi. As a consequence of this ministerial policy, these communities in general never became accustomed to rabbinical authority and when they acquired the status of a Jewish religious municipality at the beginning of the 1860s they were naturally unwilling to accustom themselves to the imposition of this authority.
Nevertheless, the high fluctuation of rabbis decreased by the end of the 1890s and the resistance of new religious municipalities against the institution of the rabbinate also diminished. By 1910 or about then, the situation stabilised: the “rebellious” Jewish religious municipalities became reconciled with the obligation to employ a rabbi and each managed to find a rabbi suitable for itself and for whom the given community also suited – albeit even after several attempts. The state authorities did no longer insist on each religious municipality having their own rabbi and consented to a joint rabbi for those religious municipalities for which the ability to pay for their own rabbi would have represented an incommensurate financial burden. The achieved status of balance was thus so stable in the majority of religious municipalities that the rabbis acting in Moravian and Silesian emancipatory Jewish religious municipalities around 1910 remained in them in most cases until their deaths or until Nazi occupation.



SPÁČILOVÁ Libuše – SPÁČIL Vladimír – BOK Václav
Glosář starší němčiny k českým pramenům / Glossar des älteren Deutsch
zu böhmischen Quellen
(František Šmahel)
s. 814

Martiniana. Studie o latinském humanismu v českých zemích
(Lenka Blechová)
s. 816

Odkaz „Učitele národů“. Ohlédnutí za třemi svazky edice
 Dílo Jana Amose Komenského
 Opera omnia, 15/IV. Eruditionis scholasticae
 Opera omnia, 9/II
 Opera omnia, 19/I. De rerum humanarum emendatione consultatio catholica
(Jan Kumpera)
s. 818

SWEET Rosemary
Cities and the Grand Tour. The British in Italy, c.1690–1820
(Eva Chodějovská)
s. 822

ČECHURA Jaroslav
Sex v době temna. Sexuální život na českém jihu
v prvním století Schwarzenberků (1660–1770)
(Josef Grulich)
s. 826

Dcera národa? Tři životy Zdeňky Havlíčkové
(Magdaléna Pokorná)
s. 834

Franz Ferdinand. Die Biografie
(Martin Klečacký)
s. 836

THER Philipp
Die dunkle Seite der Nationalstaaten.
„Ethnische Säuberungen“ im modernen Europa
(Jiří Pešek)
s. 839

NORWOOD Stephen H.
Antisemitism and the American Far Left

NORWOOD Stephen H.
The Third Reich in the Ivory Tower. Complicity and Conflict
on American Campuses
(Jiří Pešek)
s. 848

FISCH Stefan
Geschichte der europäischen Universität. Von Bologna nach Bologna
(Jiří Pešek)
s. 854

Sto let slovenistiky na Univerzitě Karlově v Praze.
Pedagogové a vědci ve stínu dějin
(Jaroslav Pánek)
s. 858

Karel Stloukal. Profesor obecných dějin
(Jaroslav Pánek)
s. 863

S domovem v srdci
(Jaroslav Pánek)
s. 870

PÁNEK Jaroslav a kolektiv
Ad fontes. Český historický ústav v Římě (1994–2014)
v kontextu českého bádání v Itálii a Vatikánu v 19.–21. století
(Jiří Pešek)
s. 872

ŠIMŮNEK Robert a kolektiv
Historický atlas měst České republiky, svazek č. 26, Most
(Petr Rak)
s. 875

Zprávy o literatuře
s. 880


Jiří Kejř (28. srpna 1921 – 27. dubna 2015)
(František Šmahel)
s. 897

Ivan Martinovský (6. ledna 1937 – 11. března 2015)
(Jiří Pešek – Václav Ledvinka)
s. 902

Klaus Schaller (3. červenec 1925 – 17. květen 2015)    
(Jaroslav Pánek)
s. 906

Alice Teichová (19. září 1920 – 12. března 2015)     
(Eduard Kubů – Jiří Šouša)
s. 910

Věra Olivová (13. listopadu 1926 – 7. března 2015)  
(Robert Kvaček)
s. 915

Knihy a časopisy došlé redakci       
s. 917

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
(Václava Horčáková a Kristina Rexová)    
s. 917