Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW

ročník 113
1/2015
s. 1-296


OBSAH / CONTENTS


STUDIE / STUDIES

PÁNEK Jaroslav
Česká historická slavistika v kontextu humanitních věd
(Czech Slavonic History Studies in the Context of the Humanities)
s. 7-26

This article discusses the issues of research of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century and the place of Slavonic history studies in their framework. Once long-term disputes on the conception of Slavonic studies came to an end, their philological or, on the contrary “complex” (social-scientific) justifi cation, or alter-natively an exclusive focus on themes common to all Slavonic nations, Slavonic history studies have discovered their true place. They pragmatically set themeselves up as historical research of that part of Europe where Slavonic nations do, indeed, exist, yet are, by no means, the only ones there. They focus their attention on the history of a defi ned territory and inhabitants living in it and have joined a system of regional studies, on an equal footing with research in other parts of the world. Yet, the diff erence is that Slavonic studies enjoy a  much deeper tradition in the Czech Lands and a stronger institutional background than for example Germanic history studies or American history studies.
On the basis of a comparison with other regional (territorial) research, the author monitors to what extent Slavonic history studies in the Czech Republic prove resistant to the atomisation of research and arrive at synthetic outcomes, which are the only ones that can have an impact also outwith the narrowest circle of specialists; to what degree is the contemporary historical research of Slavonic nations and countries interconnected with other disciplines; and also what impact Czech Slavonic history studies have on the understanding of the researched part of Europe and Asia in the rest of Europe and in the world. Th e author analyses these problems using selected monographs on partial topics; attempted syntheses of the histories of individual Slavonic nations and using articles from reviews and journals. He primarily focuses on the principal periodical of Czech Slavonic history studies (Slovanský přehled – Slavonic Review. Journal for the History of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe) and compares it with a London-based review Central Europe and the central periodical of Czech historiography (Český časopis historický – The Czech Historical Review).
Czech Slavonic history research deals with the history of Slavonic and non-Slavonic nations and countries in Central, South-Eastern and Eastern Europe, which, however, suffers from a  considerable lack of thematic unity and research atomisation; this manifests itself through the fact that in place of former researchers who were fluent in a number of Slavonic languages and interpreted the culture of Slavonic nations in a wider context, there primarily emerged historians of individual countries or smaller territories. Slavonic historical studies detached themselves from philological sciences and undervalued the importance of cultural history to a signifi cant extent. They, in fact, became a sub- discipline of political history, with a strong inclination towards description. They, thus, became more distant from comprehensive historical research, both in the Czech Lands and abroad, especially. Fortunately, this situation has been gradually improving in recent years.
According to the author, Czech experts in Slavonic history studies should be inspired, more deeply, by general historiography; researching closer and subject--matter comparable themes, as well as selecting similar approaches to resolving them, which would prevent Czech researchers and researchers abroad going in disparate directions. This means stepping beyond the current horizon to reach foreign historiography and to display a greater openness towards the other humanities; the acceptance of thematic initiatives not merely from the direction of philological disciplines towards cultural history but also methodical initiatives from other disciplines which have already overcome the stage of uncontrolled overproduction of isolated trivia and have focused upon a purposeful direction towards the preparation of substantive monographs, synthetic works and encyclopaedias. It is also very important to become inspired by historical research of the Slavonic areas of Europe carried out abroad and place an emphasis on the relationships between Slavonic and non -Slavonic ethnic groups. However, this means primarily overcoming the shadow of narrowly defi ned written or even mere diplomatic sources; abandoning worn-out themes of political history and trying to move closer to a civilisation view on the history of Slavonic countries. Th is, however, does not mean the formation of unsustainable constructs on a specific Slavonic civilisation, but the establishment of the place of Central, Southeastern and Eastern Europe in the creation od the Euro-American civilisation and its active participation in the relationships with other networks of civilisations.

Abstract:
This article analyses and evaluates the state of Slavonic history studies in the Czech Republic at the beginning of the 21st century. It focuses on selected monographs, attempted syntheses of the history of the individual Slav nations and upon the principal periodical of the discipline, namely Slovanský přehled – Slavonic Review. Journal for the History of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe and compares it with a  London-based review Central Europe and the central periodical of Czech historiography Český časopis historický – The Czech Historical Review. Czech Slavonic history research deals with the history of Slavonic and non-Slavonic nations and countries in Central, South-Eastern and Eastern Europe. It, however, suff ers from a considerable lack of thematic disunity and research atomisation. Slavonic history research has disengaged itself from the philological sciences and has underestimated the importance of cultural history. It has become a  sub-discipline of political history with a  strong inclination towards description. Thereby, it has somewhat distanced itself from complex historical research. The author suggests the solution to the current situation can be found in becoming more deeply inspired by general historiography; in searching for connected and subject-matter comparable themes; in greater openness to other humanities, including the philological sciences; in strengthening the research of cultural history and a purposeful direction towards the preparation of substantive monographs, synthetic works and encyclopaedias. It is possible that one of the main aims could be to ascertain the place of Central, Southeastern and Eastern Europe in the creation of the Euro-American civilisation and its active participation in the relationships with other networks of civilisations.

Key words
: Historiography, Slavonic history studies; Czech Republic; Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe; civilisations


NEKVAPIL JIRÁSKOVÁ Šárka
Protoindustrializace a možnosti studia populačního vývoje v oblasti severovýchodních Čech
(Protoindustrialization and Possibilities for the Study of Population Development in the Region of Northeastern Bohemia)
s. 27-49

This contribution deals with the present research of the phenomenon of protoin-dustrialization, with an emphasis on its development in the Czech Lands. It does not merely reflect the original concepts of American historians from the end of the 1960s and the 1970s and consequent discussions in the 1980s, yet also the current trends in the study of the given topic. In particular, attention is paid to population aspects in protoindustrial regions, which have not yet been suffi  ciently explored despite forty years of research and discussions. Th e study focuses on the specifi cs of the demographic regime in the protoindustrial region of Northeastern Bohemia in the 18th century and in the fi rst half of the 19th century, which are based on an investigative probe into the population conditions in three localities – Stružinec near Lomnice nad Popelkou, Rokytnice nad Jizerou and Jablonec nad Nisou. The fundamental method of this research is the reconstruction of families, which despite being time -consuming and applied to a limited sample of the population, provides the most precise data for the study of marriage rates and female fertility.
The researched areas show a relatively rapid population growth and, with regard to unfavourable agricultural conditions, also the necessity to search for an additional source of income. The basic preconditions of the population part of the theory of protoindustrialization, namely the age of engaged couples, the lengthening of female active fertility and the intentional formation of more numerous families whose members could participate in the provision of fundamental life provisions, however, continue to remain controversial.
For this reason, it is necessary that researchers focus on further research of these specific regions and add to our knowledge of the factors of marriage rates and fertility, through their study of other components of natural change, which would better outline the fundamental mechanism of the rapid population development in protoindustrial regions of the Czech Lands.

Abstract:
This study focuses upon current research of the issue of protoindustrial-ization, especially in the Central European space, with an emphasis on the development in the Czech Lands. It does not merely refl ect the original concepts of American historians from the end of the 1960s and the 1970s and consequent discussions in the 1980s, yet also the current trends in the study of the given topic. In particular, attention is paid to population aspects, which are the most discussed areas of the theory of protoindust-rialization. This contribution deals with the specifi cs of the demographic regime in the region of Northeastern Bohemia in the 18th century and in the first half of the 19th century, alongside the possibilities and opportunities for research into the given topic utilising the method of family reconstructions. Research is centred on the locality of Stružinec near Lomnice nad Popelkou, the results of which are compared with the output of the reconstruction of families relevant for Rokytnice nad Jizerou and Jablonec nad Nisou. The aim of this work is to outline specific markers with reference to marriage rates and female fertility in the given localities; an assessment of current approaches and a proposal for further possible approaches to the research of this topic in our environment.

Key words: protoindustrialization, Northeastern Bohemia, population development, reconstruction of families, Stružinec, 18th century, the fi rst half of the 19th century


GRULICH Josef – SKOŘEPOVÁ Markéta
Rodinná kontinuita a venkovské hospodářství. Držba poddanských usedlostí v 17. až 19. století jako historiografický problém
(Family Continuity and Husbandry in the Countryside. The Possession of Serf Homesteads in the 17th to 19th Centuries as a Historiographical Issue)
s. 50-75

The theme of the possession of serf immoveable properties is a relatively well researched aspect of the history of the Czech countryside. Yet, it cannot be claimed that this theme no longer off ers any new perspectives. When a comparison is made with the course of events in foreign historiography, it becomes rather obvious that there are still many until now unanswered questions. Th e issue of homestead tranfers attracted the attention of historians in the 1970s  when dealing with the archives of individual large estates. Research carried out in the 1990s and at the beginning of the new millenium has brought the largest amount of knowledge. Th e theme of family possession of rural homesteads was at fi rst viewed primarily from a legal-historical point and that of primary resources. Yet, later on the approaches of economic and especially social history have prevailed. Th e latest studies on this theme are principally inspired by the works of German microhistory and they have moved from quantifying approaches to the search for a single person. The issues of inheritance law, the creation of an easement and family continuity in terms of the possession of farms in various regions of Bohemia and Moravia have been relatively well researched. However, contemporary research faces its greatest challenges due to an unequal distribution of research as well as the real absence of studies focusing upon the second half of the 19th century and the fi rst half of the 20th century.

Abstract:
This article deals with the until now research of the possession of serf immoveable properties on the territories of Bohemia and Moravia. Attention is being paid to primary sources and methodological approaches suitable for investigating the transfer of rural homesteads throughout the Early Modern Age and the 19th century. The current study deals with the issues of inheritance law; the transfer of homestead farms within a family itself; the choice of new farmers and the departure of the older generation’s members in exchange for the creation of an easement (in Czech výměnek). The aim of this contribution is to summarize the results of contemporary research; to draw attention to themes as yet not investigated and to outline possible perspectives for further research taking account of topical historiographi-cal trends abroad.

Key words: countryside, possession of serf homesteads, easement, inheritance law, historiography


KOLÁŘOVÁ Ivana – KOLÁŘ Ondřej
Sociální postavení příslušníků československého četnictva 1918–1939
(The Social Status of the Members of the Czechoslo􀀀ak Gendarmerie 1918–1939)

s. 76-96

This study focuses on the issue of the fi nancial and social standing of members of the Czechoslovak Gendarmerie. The pay rates and accommodation for the members of the force depended on local conditions – in general, they were paid better than, for example, excise men, yet less well than regular soldiers. The top echelons of the force repeatedly voiced the issue of neglect shown to the gendarmerie compared to the army. This situation was also challenged by proponents of a reform of the gendarmerie, gathered around a journalist Bohumil Mladý.
In the first years of Czechoslovakia’s  existence, Mladý and his colleagues strove for the “democratisation” of the gendarmerie, the grounds of which were to be the abolition of the military nature of the force and making the status of the gendarmes equal to that of other civil servants. Th is project found favour with some National- Socialist MPs, whereas the right-wing Agrarians and National Democrats wished to preserve the current form of the gendarmerie, which was also confi rmed by the Act on the Gendarmerie from April 1920.
There were widespread negative connotations towards the gendarmerie amongst the population. In addition to keeping the traditional distance from members of the law enforcement apparatus, another factor was the fact that the gendarmerie was commonly seen as a tool of the former Austro-Hungarian repressive regime, which was further emphasised by the high degree of personal continuity in the force aft er 1918. There are only snippets of information on how the gendarmes themselves understood their social role, yet current knowledge seems to demonstrate that the sense of importance and usefulness of the security forces prevailed, though it was also imbued with the feeling that the public displayed a lack of appreciation for the gendarmerie service.

Abstract:
The introductory part of this study gives an insight into the pay rates and accommodation available for Czechoslovak Gendarmerie. Attention is also devoted to the attitudes of the main political parties to the issues of the gendarmerie and to the question of a proposed reform and the “democratisation” of the force. This is followed by an outline of attitudes held by the public and the media towards the gendarmerie and an attempt to answer the question of how the members of the force viewed their own role in society.

Key words: Czechoslovakia, gendarmerie, security services, social conditions


ORSÁG Petr
Mezi realitou, propagandou a mýty. Vydavatelské aktivity československých exulantů na Západě v letech 1968–1989
(Between the Reality, Propaganda and Myths. Publishing Activities of Members of the Czechoslovak Exile Community in the West between the Years 1968–1989)
s. 97-144

The media involvement and publishing activities of Czechoslovak exiles, who left  their homeland for the West after the invasion of the Warsaw Treaty armies into Czechoslovakia in August 1968, signifi cantly contributed to the enrichment of the exile movement whose foundations were laid by the generation of exiles who left  the country following the Communist coup d’etat in February 1948. It was their active public involvement in the sphere of publicity, having one’s work published and publishing as such, which became one of the marks determining the entire profile of the generation of the post-August refugees.
The title of the submitted study “Between the Reality, Propaganda and Myths” summarises in essence the possibilities and limitations of exile media involve ment. Communist propaganda in the offi  cial regime mass media constantly presented an image of the exile media as imperialist ideological-diversional centres financed by Western intelligence agencies headed by the American CIA. Yet, the reality was in the vast majority of cases very far from the image of generously sponsored enterprises. In the 1970 s, the American Administration did finance directly and officially only Radio Free Europe. The position of this broadcasting station was, however, completely unique in terms of the exile public involvement - in the way it was financed; in its institutional background; the extent of its competence and its unambiguous targeting of the recipients beyond the Iron Curtain.
The exiles who did not work for Radio Free Europe, which amongst other things provided existential security, had to fi nd civilian employment in the West and they could carry their publishing, journalistic or other activities directed against the communist regime only in their own spare time. The conditions for publishing periodicals in the West were different from those existing in Czechoslovakia in practically all aspects. Thanks to the absence of censorship and the wealth of information sources, the exile media could pursue an authentic public debate, which was interrupted in Czechoslovakia after the defeat of the Prague Spring. However, publishing was accompanied by significant problems resulting from inadequate personnel, financial and technical backgrounds. In fact, this put the periodicity of publishing to constant tests, oft en transforming into an existential battle to keep publishing going. The initial capital for publishing was usually minimal and the editorial boards had to rely on income from subscriptions, minor advertising and irregular financial donations. Only a few exile publishers, often those with contacts to the political and economic elites in the West, succeeded in accessing grants from Western foundations and other sources. Pavel Tigrid, the publisher of the most infl uential exile periodical Svědectví managed to secure fi nance for the publishing and subsequent distribution into Czechoslovakia, among others, through accessing the resources of the American Administration. Via the International Advisory Council and later the International Literary Center, which were cover organizations fi nanced from the resources of the CIA, Czech exiles also participated in the so-called “mailing project” - in its extent an extremely exceptional long-term project of illegal distribution of Western and exile printed matters into the countries of Communist Eastern Europe. Th e fi nancial resources of Jiří Pelikán, the publisher of the second most important exile periodical Listy, were diff erent. His activities were supported long-term by the Italian Socialist Party and also, for example, by Scandinavian socialists, partially by Austrian and German socialists, too. Th anks to his political contacts, Pelikán was able to obtain fi nance, for example, even from Chinese communists - yet, this cooperation was especially discreet and secretive.
However, the majority of other publishers had to rely on subscribers as the backbone of their continuing fi nancial safeguard. A number of periodicals continually faced the challenge of very bad payment discipline of subscriber-exiles. Th e development of publishing acctivities in the years following August 1968 thus repeatedly hit the limits of their possibilities - there were too many exile publishers, the exile market was limited, scattered, non-cohesive and the consequent bankruptcies of publishing houses as a result of insu ffi cient demand, bad payment discipline of subscribers and other operating diffi  culties were unavoidable.
It may be said that no exile magazine of a political nature could survive long-term without continuous support of foreign sponsors who promoted the Czechoslovak foreign action.

Abstract:
This study focuses on selected aspects of media involvement and the publishing activities of Czechoslovak exiles in the West in the years 1968–1989. Based on archival research, this text refutes some traditional misconceptions and in terms of facts and interpretation it makes the state of current research, relating to economic and operating-technical issues of the exile media operation in particular, more precise.

Key words: Czechoslovak exiles aft er August 1968, Exile publishers, Exile public sphere, Illegal distribution of information, History of journalism, Radio Free Europe



DISKUSE / DISCUSSION

VOLNÁ Katka
Podvod jako vážný problém světové vědy i aktuální české historiografie - poznámka k článku Jiřího Peška z ČČH 112, 2014, č. 3, s. 497–511
(Fraud as a Serious Challenge in World Science including Contemporary Czech Historiography – the Reaction to the Paper of Jiří Pešek fr om ČČH 112, 2014, pp. 497–511)
s. 145-146

The reaction to the paper of Jiří Pešek denies author’s assessment of the publication “JAREŠ, SPURNÝ, VOLNÁ:  Náměstí Krasnoarmějců 2: Teachers and students of the Faculty of Arts of the Charles University in the period of normalization (1969-1989), Praha 2012” as methodologically in-correct and spinning the oral testimonies herein cited. His relegation of the publication among the cases of evident scientifi c frauds by three sentences in a footnote only and without any detailed arguments appears to be unfair and malevolent.

Key words
: Charles University, scientific fraud, contemporary historiography, oral history

PEŠEK Jiří
Prameny, pramenná kritika a soudobé dějiny (Odpověď Kateřině Volné)
(Primary Sources, Source Critique and Contemporary History – Response to Kateřina Volná)
s. 147-161

This discussion contribution highlights the issues of the importance of a critique of archival primary sources and the necessity to uphold established rules of oral research for the period of contemporary post-war history. The author responds here to a book on professors and students of the Faculty of Arts of the Charles University in Prague in the years of the so-called “normalisation”, i.e. the period of personnel purges following the Soviet military occupation of Czechoslovakia until the Velvet Revolution of 1989. The author points out that the archival materials originating from the activities of either the organs of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia or Communist state security services cannot be used as a reliable illustration of events at that time unless a strict critique and contextual placement are applied. In addition, oral historical research has to work with eye-witness accounts bearing in mind their complexity and not to adopt merely a selective methodology.  

Key words: contemporary history, archival sources, oral history, Charles University, purges and persecution, 1970 to 1989, Czechoslovakia


OBZORY LITERATURY | REVIEW ARTICLES AND REVIEWS

Recenze

LE GOFF Jacques
O hranicích dějinných období. Na příkladu středověku a renesance
(František Šmahel) s. 162-164

ESCH Arnold
Die Lebenswelt des europäischen Spätmittelalters. Kleine Schicksale selbst erzählt in Schreiben an den Papst
(František Šmahel) s. 165-169

DVOŘÁČKOVÁ-MALÁ Dana – ZELENKA Jan a kol.
Přemyslovský dvůr. Život knížat, králů a rytířů ve středověku
(Zdeněk Beran) s. 169-172

HUNČAGA, Gabriel P., OP
Dominikáni na ceste k intelektuálnym elitám vrcholného stredoveku
(Jakub Zouhar) s. 172-174

JINDRA Petr – OTTOVÁ Michaela (edd.)
Obrazy krásy a spásy. Gotika v jihozápadních Čechách
(Jaroslav Čechura) s. 174-176

BAUER Oswald
Zeitungen vor der Zeitung. Die Fuggerzeitungen (1568–1605) und das fr ühmoderne Nachrichtensystem
(Kateřina Pražáková) s. 176-179

ČERNUŠÁK Tomáš (ed.)
Epistulae et acta Antonii Caetani 1607–1611. Pars IV. September 1608 – Junius 1609
(Tomáš Parma) s. 179-181

HAUSENBLASOVÁ Jaroslava - MIKULEC Jiří – THOMSEN Martina (Hrsg.)
Religion und Politik im frühneuzeitlichen Böhmen. Der Majestätsbrief Kaiser Rudolfs II. von 1609
(Josef Hrdlička) s. 181-186

LIPOVSKI Radek
Lidé poddanských měst Frýdku a Místku na sklonku tradiční společnosti (1700–1850)
(Josef Grulich) s. 187-190

MALIVÁNKOVÁ WASKOVÁ Marie - DOUŠA Jaroslav (vedoucí autorského kolektivu)
Dějiny města Plzně, sv. 1. Do roku 1788
(Jan Lhoták) s. 190-193

HLAVAČKA Milan – CIBULKA Pavel et alii
Chudinství a chudoba jako sociálně historický fenomén.
Ambivalence dobových perspektiv, individuální a kolektivní strategie chudých a instrumentária řešení
(Jakub Raška) s. 193-196

TUČKOVÁ Kateřina a kol.
Fabrika. Příběh textilních baronů z moravského Manchesteru
(Sixtus Bolom-Kotari) s. 196-199

VOJÁČEK Milan (ed.)
Na velkostatku F. L. Riegra, vůdce národa. Edice Pamětní knihy Malče
(Milena Lenderová) s. 199-201

KOUKALOVÁ Šárka (ed.)
Letní rezidence Pražanů. Dobřichovice a vilová architektura 19. a 20. století
(Josef Harna) s. 202-203

ŠEBEK Jaroslav
Papežové moderního věku. Vatikán od Pia IX. po Františka a jeho vztah k českým zemím
(Jaroslav Pánek) s. 203-208

KIPP Michaela
„Großreinemachen im Osten“. Feindbilder in deutschen  Feldpostbriefen im Zweiten Weltkrieg
(Daniel Putík) s. 208-211

KAŠKA Václav
Neukáznění a neangažovaní. Disciplinace členů Komunistické strany Československa v letech 1948–1952
(Vladimír Březina) s. 212-214

PÁNEK Jaroslav
Historici mezi domovem a světem. Studie – články – glosy – rozhovory
(Bohumil Jiroušek) s. 214-218


Zprávy o literatuře
s. 219-243



Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA | CHRONICLE

PÁNEK Jaroslav
Český historický ústav v Římě v letech 2008–2014
(The Czech Historical Institute in Rome between 2008–2014)

s. 244-276

Abstract:
The Czech Historical Institute in Rome, which is a part of the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, was established in December 1993 and has been functioning since 1st January 1994. It is the only research outpost of the Academy abroad in the area of the humanities and social sciences. It continues the traditions of the Czech Archival Expedition in Rome, which functioned between 1887–1914, and the Czechoslovak Historical Institute in Rome, which functioned between 1921/1923–1939 and 1945–1948. This paper deals with the activities and transformations of the Czech Historical Institute in Rome in the years 2008–2014, and the following topics in particular: an economic crisis in the Rome Institute caused by fi nancial factors and its successful overcoming of it (2007–2009); the locus of the Institute and its facilities; presentation and lecture activities of the Institute; conferences, the Institute’s periodical publication Bollettino dell’Istituto Storico Ceco di Roma and new publication series (Biblioteca dell’Istituto Storico Ceco di Roma; Acta Romana Bohemica); editions of primary sources (Monumenta Vaticana res gestas Bohemicas illustrantia; Epistulae et acta nuntiorum apostolicorum apud imperatorem); an inventory of manuscripts related to the Czech Lands be it through their author, topic or place of origin, and which are deposited in the Vatican and other Italian libraries; investigations of the history of Czech historical research in the Vatican, Rome and Italy; further research topics undertaken by the Czech Historical Institute in Rome. Th e annex to this publication includes a list of scholarship recipients in the Czech Historical Institute in Rome for the years 2008–2014, also stating their home institutions and research topics.

Key words: History, international relations; Czech Lands, Italy, Rome, Vatican; Czech Historical Institute in Rome


Knihy a časopisy došlé redakci
s. 277

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
s. 277-291