Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.


ročník 112/2014
č. 2/2014
s. 193-372

ISSN 0862-6111



Liang Qichao v roce 1902: Přeměna Číny v silný a moderní stát za pomoci nového myšlení
(Liang Qichao in 1902: The transformation of China into a strong and modern nation with the help of new thought)
s. 197-226

The present article explores the ideas of Liang Qichao (1873–1929), one of the best known figures of modern Chinese political thought. Unlike previous studies on Liang Qichao, which present his ideas as a more or less coherent whole that gradually evolved over the more than three decades he was involved in writing about political reform in China, I concentrate almost exclusively on his articles from 1902 published in the newly launched journal Xinmin congbao.
This was a period when Liang Qichao developed new opinions, largely independent from the theory of his teacher Kang Youwei. In this period, Liang started to become the most influential reform-minded Chinese intellectual, and therefore his ideas deserve to be studied also as an expression of a more general opinion on the transformation of China.
Liang Qichao´s best-known article from 1902 is his long treatise on the “Renovation of the people” (Xin min shuo), serialized on the pages of Xinmin congbao throughout year. After providing a summary of the main points of this work, a kind of political manifesto that has already been much discussed in secondary sources, we turn our attention to Liang´s other simultaneously published articles, namely those dealing with the introduction of “new learning” and “new thought” (xin xueshu) from the West as the key to China´s modernization. By “new thought” Liang Qichao means European thought as it had evolved since the Renaissance, with particular emphasis on breaking with tradition and the evolution of scientific thought as it was understood in the nineteenth century. In these articles, inspired largely by Japanese writings, including translations from English of popular books on the history of science, Liang also devotes considerable space to the introduction of scientific discoveries, which he presents primarily as a powerful factor in transforming society. During 1902, Liang Qichao describes on the pages of Xinmin congbao the steady progress of European sciences and scientific thought, eventually culminating in the evolutionary theories of the nineteenth century. Liang presents different evolutionary theories indiscriminately as one powerful stream of thought, whether they were Darwin´s writings on biology, Spencer´s application of evolutionary theories to society and ethics, or even further elaborations by Benjamin Kidd.
Kidd´s transformation of Spencer´s teachings on the survival of the fittest into a concept of struggle between nations in which the individual has to sacrifice himself for the benefit of his society were of particular interest to Liang, who, in admiration, called Kidd “the revolutionary in the theory of evolution.”
While introducing Western thought as the main source of progress in the West, Liang Qichao also repeatedly emphasizes those aspects he believes were the source of new discoveries: radically breaking with tradition and freedom of thought. Liang Qichao expresses his conviction that in order to achieve progress similar to that of the West, Chinese people had to change their conservatism and passivity.
Reading Xinmin congbao in 1902 reveals an aspect of Liang Qichao´s political theory that has not yet been studied in detail, namely his interest in adopting “scientific methods of thought” and his conviction that the popularization of “new thought,” including Western sciences, would bring the desired transformation of China into a strong and modern nation.
Judging by comments expressed by young readers of Liang´s journal, such as Hu Shi, Liang Qichao´s writing from this period directly influenced the world view which dominated Chinese intellectual circles during the Republic.
This world view based on the ideas of rationality and objective truth achieved through scientific methods, and also the conviction that societies which follow the objective laws discovered by science will progress steadily, is thoughtfully anti-traditionalist and westernized.
In the conclusion of the article, Liang´s view of the relationship between the new thought coming from the West and Chinese tradition is discussed, as it is revealed in his article “General outlines of the history of Chinese thought” (Lun Zhongguo xueshu sixiang bianqian zhi da shi), published in several installments also during 1902 (with a continuation in 1904). Interestingly, while in 1902 Liang Qichao calls for radical intellectual change inspired by the European Renaissance and Enlightenment, here he simultaneously praises Chinese intellectual tradition as comparable and compatible with the new thought coming from the West. Using figurative language, Liang calls for a marriage between the two traditions, in which the groom (China) should cordially welcome the bride coming from the West. As a result, it seems that when Liang started his journal Xinmin congbao, he perceived the radical change of Chinese thought based on the Western model as a natural improvement of Chinese tradition, and not as a threat to its cultural identity.

The article presents the ideas of Liang Qichao2 (1873–1929) published in the first volume of his new journal Xinmin congbao (1902). After summarizing his wellknown concept of the “renovation of the people,” it focuses on his simultaneously published presentation of “new thought” (xin xueshu). Liang Qichao’s notion that new thought was indispensable for the transformation of China into a strong and modern nation was derived from a simplified image of the history of European scientific progress as it was presented in the West during the nineteenth century. Liang´s knowledge about Western progress was largely derived from Japanese sources including translations from English of popular books on the topic. Liang was particularly fond of the theory of evolution, understood as a universal law applicable to society, including the struggle between nations. In this understanding, he particularly admired the British sociologist Benjamin Kidd. In the conclusion of the article, Liang Qichao´s ideas about the symbiosis of traditional Chinese culture with new thought imported from the West is briefly discussed, as well as some general issues of the nature of intercultural contacts between China and the West in the early twentieth century.
Key words: Liang Qichao, Xinmin congbao, late Qing intellectual transition, social Darwinism in China, national imperialism, scientism

Cesta Gustáva Husáka ke komunistickému hnutí
(Gustáv Husák’s Path to the Communist Movement)
s. 227-260

Gustáv Husák was continuously top of his class. Yet, on the other side, his extraordinary aptitude for study was accompanied by a strong self-confidence, ambition and an inferiority complex.
Very probably, these psychological factors were closely linked to Husák’s disadvantaged socio-economic background. He came from a poor family and had to earn extra money to support himself in his studies, contrary to most of his classmates. Husák found the answer in Marxism-Leninism: “Because of opposition, protest and being a plebeian, because of indignation over the secular injustices. Driven by the desire for a better world,” he clarifies his motives. Last but not least this was the young man’s rejection of the social system and the older generation as he found them. Another important factor in the development of Husák’s personality was his more acute immersion in the city environment. From autumn 1929 onwards, when he left his home village, Husák started to live in the student dormitory accommodation in Bratislava. There, he came to meet older left-wing students, who introduced the ideas of Marxism-Leninism to him during Komsomol meetings. He embraced this inculcated ideology as his world view.
Gustáv Husák came to the conclusion that society could be radically changed, but something had to be done to achieve that aim. Husák became a communist agitator, he was particularly involved in the student movement. He was active in the Association of Slovak Students, in the Association of Socialist Academics and its journal Šíp, that he helped to establish in the spring of 1934 (Husák had previously published his contributions in the student journal Svojeť). He wrote several articles on culture, yet, it was noticeable that he preferred to voice his views on society-wide questions. He was especially focused on the social problems of low-income students and the unemployment rate amongst the intelligentsia. He perceived the main causes of these problems to be the ongoing crisis of society and the unjust world economic order. For these reasons Husák called for a more intense political involvement of the public.
Gustáv Husák is often described as power-hungry and ambitious, yet, these personal characteristics do not apply to the period under research. The political regime of the First Czechoslovak Republic was, indeed, liberal in comparison with its neighbouring countries, nevertheless the Communists were subject to repressive measures. For example, there was an unwritten rule that members of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia were denied the opportunity to take up some careers in the civil service; the awarding of some scholarships and other student benefits were based on party-affiliated criteria. It can, therefore, be said that Husák’s rise in society would have been facilitated, had he decided to get involved with a proregime political movement, the doors of which would have undoubtedly been wide open for a person of Husák’s qualities. Hence, it was not careerism, but his critical thinking linked to his youthful defiance and idealism that characterized Gustáv Husák’s early years.

This paper attempts to capture those factors that shaped Gustáv Husák in his youth and led him to join the communist movement. It further focuses on Husák’s student activism during his grammar school and university studies until 1938 when he acted as an influential functionary in the Association of the Slovak Students.
Key words: Gustáv Husák, Magda Husáková–Lokvencová, Slovakia, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Slovak communism, student movement, the Association of Slovak Students, the Association of Socialist Academics, DAV (an association of left-wing Slovak writers and politicians), Šíp

Proměny kulturní diplomacie Spolkové republiky Německo v epoše Willyho Brandta
(Changes of the Cultural Diplomacy of the Federal Republic of Germany during the Willy Brandt Era)
s. 261-286

The cultural diplomacy of the Federal Republic of Germany underwent a period of fundamental changes during the 1960s and 1970s. Since then the cultural diplomacy has been considered „the third pillar of foreign policy“ and an extensive definition of the term „culture“ has been used. Further, the cultural diplomacy has been understood as a cultural exchange rather than as a cultural export and has not focused only on elites any more.
This article answers the question who the initiators of these changes were – both institutional and individual. The research uses the methods of political history. Its vital part is a detailed analysis of archival sources and edited documents. The key institutional players were the Federal Foreign Office (primarily its Directorate-General for Culture and its Parliamentary State Secretaries) and the German Bundestag (but only a few of its members and one special commission). Other ministries of the Federal Government and also the Federal Chancellery showed only a little interest in fundamental questions of the cultural diplomacy. The significant initiative role of the Federal President Theodor Heuss was not continued by his successors. The emphasis on players is also supported by a short group biography of respective politicians and public servants.
This analysis shows that the most influential players were usually more interested in culture and education rather than in foreign policy. That raises doubts about the metaphor of the cultural diplomacy as “the third pillar of foreign policy”. What is even more, this study also revises the prevailing periodization of the history of German cultural diplomacy. It stresses the continuity between the 1960s and 1970s and opposes the interpretation of the year 1969 as a gap in the development of the West German cultural diplomacy.

The cultural diplomacy of the Federal Republic of Germany underwent a period of fundamental changes during the 1960s and 1970s. This article analyzes who the initiators of these changes were – both institutional and individual. The emphasis on players is supported by a short group biography of respective politicians and public servants. The research uses the methods of political history and political biography. Its vital part is a detailed analysis of archival sources and edited documents. What is even more, this study also revises the prevailing periodization of the history of German cultural diplomacy.
Key words: cultural diplomacy, the Federal Republic of Germany, Willy Brandt, 1960s and 1970s


Přehledy bádání

Dějiny a kultura slezských dominikánů v nové historiografii
(The History and Culture of the Silesian Dominicans in Modern Historiography)
s. 287-294

This contribution offers a perspective on the works relating to the history and culture of the Dominican Order in Silesia, which were written after World War II.
They involve the works written by Polish, yet also Czech and Slovak historians.
Key words: the Dominican Order, Poland, Silesia, the Czech Republic, ecclesiastical historiography

Soupisy Židů v Čechách a na Moravě v raném novověku a jejich edice jako historický pramen: Přehled edicí a literatury
(Lists of the Jews in Bohemia and Moravia in the Early Modern Age and their editions as a primary historical source: Survey of editions and literature)
s. 295-311

The lists of the Jewish population are an important source for the study of the socio-economic status of the Jews in the past, their geographic spread, professional specifications and mobility, yet also for Jewish genealogy, especially in cases when we do not have Jewish birth, marriage and death registers at our disposal. The most important lists are those collected by central authorities for the entire country. This article presents a survey of list-type primary sources in Bohemia and Moravia from the 16th century until the beginning of the 19th century; the state of their academic elaboration (editions); and analyses based on the lists, also including relevant responses by the academic community (reviews in expert publications). The earliest Early Modern Age lists of the Jews come from Prague (1540, 1546), yet their publications obviously appeared at a later date. We have important primary sources for the 17th century, which also record the Jews alongside the Christian population (population lists according to religious belief commissioned in Bohemia in 1651; the first cadasters: the 1655–1656 Berní rula (Tax Register) in Bohemia; Lahn registers from 1669–1679 in Moravia and a poll tax census of 1667, with their modern editions available for our use. Further lists are namely the urbaria (Land Registration Records), with the high-quality catalogue available for Moravia, although Bohemia itself has only been partially catalogued. The article primarily focuses upon the collection The Lists of the Jews 1724–1811 in the National Archives, Prague, which comprises the lists of the Jews in Bohemia and in Prague. Modern editions of the census lists of Jewish familiants from 1783 and the lists both of Jewish families in Bohemia, 1793, and in Prague 1792 and 1794 from this collection have been published in the past decade. They are complemented by the Fassionen (or sworn declarations) of Prague Jewish families from 1748–1749 (1751) from the Archive of the Jewish Museum in Prague. There are no land/provincial lists for 18th century Moravia, we merely know the summary numbers of the Jewish population there.
Key words: Jews, Bohemia, Moravia, primary sources, census lists of the population, cadasters, urbaria (land registration records), historical demography


KÜBLER Thomas – OBERSTE Jörg (Hg.), Die Stadtbücher Dresdens (1404–1535) und Altendresdens (1412–1528). Kritische Edition und Kommentar. Ausgabe in vier Bänden
(Ivana Ebelová) s. 312

VOIT Petr, Český knihtisk mezi pozdní gotikou a renesancí I: severinsko-kosořská dynastie 1488–1557
(Ivan Hlaváček) s. 317

RŮŽIČKA Jeroným, Dějepis kláštera břevnovského a broumovského
(Jakub Zouhar) s. 320

VOREL Petr, From the Silver Czech Tolar to a Worldwide Dollar. The Birth of the Dollar and its Journey of Monetary Circulation in Europe and the World from the 16th to the 20th Century
(Tomáš Sterneck) s. 321

MIKULEC Jiří, Náboženský život a barokní zbožnost v českých zemích
(Ivana Čornejová) s. 324

ŠUSTEK Vojtěch, Atentát na Reinharda Heydricha a druhé stanné právo na území tzv. protektorátu Čechy a Morava.
Edice historických dokumentů, svazek 1
(Jiří Pešek) s. 326

MUND Gerald (Hg.), Deutschland und das Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren. Aus den deutschen diplomatischen Akten von 1939 bis 1945
(Jiří Pešek) s. 328

Zprávy o literatuře
s. 333



Bernard Michel (8. 1. 1935 – 26. 7. 2013)
(Eduard Maur) s. 347

Jacek Staszewski (3. 9. 1933 – 26. 8. 2013)
(Miloš Řezník) s. 350

Knihy došlé redakci
s. 356

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
s. 356