Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW



ISSN 0862-6111
ročník 110/2012
č. 1/2012
s. 1 -188


OBSAH / CONTENTS

 

STUDIE / STUDIES
 

ZBÍRAL David
Současné bádání o středověké inkvizici. Stav, směřování, perspektivy
(Contemporary Research on the Medieval Inquisition. State, Directions, Perspectives)
s. 1-19
 

Research on the Inquisition has undergone significant changes currently. It has become more critical; it appreciates the legacy of earlier historiography and defines itself against its preconceptions. It follows wider theoretical discussions in the historical and social sciences. It pays increased attention to the publication of sources and a critical evaluation of sources of the inquisitional records. More than ever before it is interested in the inquisitors’ world and strives to understand their motivation. It seems that the most important change in the overall image of the Inquisition is that the researchers no longer consider the medieval Inquisition as an organisation or system of special court tribunals but tend to comprehend it as a type of legal procedure which was in no way merely limited to proceedings in relation to heresy. However, despite that, it is possible to discern certain regularities in Inquisition activities. They deter us from conceiving the Inquisition activities as completely random and from studying them merely on the level of individual judicial courts, or even individual inquisitors. Whether researchers interpret these regularities using the concept of discourse or not, they agree that they had a vital impact on the image of the world of the deponents. However, historians no longer consider the relationship between the inquisitor and the deponent – though principally unequal – as a unilateral exercise of the inquisitor’s power over the helpless and passive individual giving evidence. They are beginning to view it more as a relationship based upon negotiation in which the deponent had a certain amount of space for agency and expression and some opportunities to voice their resistance or otherwise influence the dialogue to which they had been summoned.
In future years it will be necessary to pay increased attention to the preparation of critical editions of numerous as yet unpublished sources, as well as to new editions of sources whose publications are considered unsatisfactory.
It can be expected that the source criticism of Inquisition records will develop further, yet accompanied by an ever growing opposition against radical scepticism in terms of them being able to mediate the world views of those who were questioned. It is essential that further comprehensive studies on the functioning of individual local tribunals, alongside inductive studies on religious dissent movements, emerge which would be rather founded on a differentiated, everyday picture in Inquisition records than on a problematic concept of precise institutional and doctrinal outlines of individual “medieval heresies”. Finally, there is much work to be done in the theory and methodology of the study of the inquisitional records. Much can be achieved using contemporary methods and tools of social sciences, including specialised computer assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS).
 

Abstrakt:
This paper focuses on the state of research in the medieval inquisition. After a brief sketch of the history of research, it highlights and summarizes seven main areas of development in the contemporary study of the medieval inquisition: (1) new editions of sources, (2) new developments in source criticism of inquisitional records, (3) interest in the worlds and motivations of the inquisitors, (4) a significant revision of the traditional concept of “the Inquisition” as an organization or network of tribunals, (5) putting of medieval inquisitio heretice pravitatis into the context of development of trial procedures in the 12th-13th centuries, (6) the conception of inquisition as discourse, inspired by theories of discourse, and (7) a re-description of power relations between the inquisitor and the deponent not in terms of unidirectional exercise of power but rather in terms of dialogue, even if unbalanced, and of negotiation about the space for agency. In the end, the author summarizes some of the perspectives and tasks in the research in medieval inquisitional records.
 

Key words: medieval inquisition, inquisitio heretice pravitatis, historiography, church history, law history, state of research, perspectives, trial records, source criticism, theories of discourse, distribution of power
 

 

NEŠPOR Zdeněk R.
Modernizace českého evangelického prostředí: případ svobodných církví
(The Modernisation of the Czech Protestant Milieu: Case of Free Churches)
s. 20-51
 

Protestant churches permitted under the Patent of Toleration issued by Joseph II (i.e. the Lutherans and the Calvinists) remained on the outskirts of Czech society with the exception of the Aš (German: Asch) region and the Těšín Silesia (German: Teschener Schlesien). Only after the Protestants achieved equal rights (the Protestant Provisorium 1849, the Protestant Patent 1861), their churches began to expand numerically and had a social and cultural impact. Indeed, their activities from the end of the 19th century until World War II considerably exceeded their relatively small numbers. Simultaneously, alternative „free“ evangelical churches emerged in the second half of the 19th century (the reconstituted Unity of the Brethren, the Free Reformed Church, the Baptists, the Adventists and others), or even Old Catholics. Small churches represented an alternative for Protestants dissatisfied with the functioning of „people‘s“ churches and their deeper religiosity, which often had sectarian features, also appealed, to a degree, to converts from the Roman Catholic environment. The growth in numbers and importance of Protestants in the Czech Lands was linked with nationalist movements and nationalist-confessional links which emerged in the German speaking environment as early as the 1860s and in the Czech and Polish environments in the period around World War I and in its wake. These processes can be understood as manifestations of modernisation in Protestant communities, partially coming from abroad, which led to theological liberalism (in the case of Czech speaking Protestants, but with an „inter-phase“ of confessionalism). Contrary to that, small Evangelical churches took the path of Enlightenment criticism of theological liberalism, which, however, was based on no less – although different – modernist principles.
 

Abstrakt:
Studie pojednává o zrodu a následném vývoji tzv. svobodných evangelických církví, především obnovené Jednoty bratrské, svobodné reformované církve, adventistické a baptistické církve, v českých zemích na konci 19. a počátkem 20. století. Autor rovněž analyzuje právní poměry institucionalizace těchto církví a jejich sociální a kulturní význam ve vztahu k etablovaným evangelickým církvím i majoritnímu římskokatolickému prostředí, a to i v kontextu etnického složení českých zemí.
 

This study deals with the birth and the consequent development of the so-called Free Evangelical churches, primarily of the re-established Unity of the Brethren, the Free Reformed Church, the Adventist and Baptist churches in the Czech Lands at the end of the 19th century and in the early 20th century. The author also analyses the legal circumstances of the institutionalisation of these churches and their social and cultural importance in relation to the already established Protestant churches and the majority Roman Catholic environment in the context of the ethnic structure of the Czech Lands.
 

Key words: the Czech Lands – 19th century, religion, church history, Protestantism, Free Evangelical Churches, modernisation
 

 

VOJTĚCHOVSKÝ Ondřej
Jugoslávská antititovská emigrace v Praze v letech 1954-1968. Od ukončení činnosti směrem k novým nadějím
(Yugoslav anti-Tito Emigration to Prague between 1954-1968. From Ending Activities to New Hope Reborn)
s. 52-98
 

During the period of the Soviet-Yugoslav split in the years 1948-1954 one of the groups of Yugoslav anti-Tito emigration was active in Czechoslovakia. This study deals with the responses of its members to the process of Normalisation which gradually gathered pace after Stalin’s death in the spring of 1953. Even then emigrants had lived in isolation for a longer period of time; their activity was formalised completely and most of them had become disillusioned and lost their political and life focus. In September 1954, alongside the ending of the anti-Tito campaign, Moscow issued a directive on the dissolution of emigrant organisations in the USSR and the countries of the Eastern bloc. Many emigrants thus lost their jobs; they found themselves in uncertain positions and feared for their futures. They responded to the new Soviet policy in a contradictory and confused manner. Two main tendencies, however, manifested themselves: to return to the homeland or to settle abroad permanently? The attitude of the Yugoslav authorities towards the members of the „Inform Bureau“ prevented a large-scale repatriation. Several of the first returnees, despite being given earlier assurances, were handed out long-term prison sentences. The events in Hungary in 1956 and the consequent deterioration of Soviet-Yugoslav relations further strengthened the original attitudes of the remaining emigrants. From the late 1950s some of them began to consider the resumption of their activities and did undertake several initiatives in this direction from the early 1960s. The leading role in this was played both by emigrants in the Soviet Union – primarily the former leading personality of the Prague Group Slobodan Lale Ivanović – and new emigrants, led by Vlado Dapčević, who fled from Yugoslavia to Albania and from there to the Soviet Union in 1958. However, in Czechoslovakia these activities met with little response. The majority of the emigrants refused to become involved in politics and to have their lives complicated by activities which did not enjoy the support of the Czechoslovak regime. Within the resurrected movement Josip Milunić represented the moderate stream, whereas primarily Pero Dragila and his wife Dušanka voiced the views of the radical stream which was even prepared to criticise the USSR and voiced its support for China. The new rapproachement between Moscow and Belgrade, which started in 1963, launched a new wave of repatriation. One section of progressive minded emigrant activists linked it with the opportunity to participate in the process of re-integrating Yugoslavia amongst the Soviet Bloc countries. However, this vision soon proved to be an illusion. For this reason only several individuals returned from Czechoslovakia to Yugoslavia. Josip Milunić, the informal group leader, rejected this possibility straightaway. Any contacts with „Tito‘s men“ continued to be unimaginable for the radical group around the Dragilas - husband and wife. Both streams of the „Inform Bureau“ emigration awaited a new opportunity for their return to the political stage in the second half of the 1960s.
 

Abstrakt:
Článek se na základě archivních pramenů zabývá činností, názory a životními podmínkami jugoslávských protititovských emigrantů v Československu v období od ukončení sovětsko-jugoslávské roztržky do druhé poloviny 60. let.
 

This article, based on archival primary sources, deals with the activities, views and opinions and lives of Yugoslav anti-Tito emigrants in Czechoslovakia in the period from the healing of the Soviet-Yugoslav split until the second half of the 1960s.
 

Key words: the Soviet-Yugoslav split, the Inform Bureau, Yugoslav anti-Tito emigration, Czechoslovakia, Prague, Yugoslavia, Communismus, the International Communist Movement, Czechoslovak-Yugoslav relations, Yugoslav Revisionism
 


MATERIÁLY / ARTICLES
 

KOKEŠOVÁ Helena
Vztahy Gustava Eima a Tomáše G. Masaryka
(The Relationship between Gustav Eim and Tomáš G. Masaryk)
s. 99-130
 

The study presented here deals with the links between Gustav Eim and Tomáš G. Masaryk. It pays particular attention to the course of negotiations between the Realists and the representatives of the two largest bourgeois parties in the years 1890–1891; it traces the role of both men during these discussions which led to their entry into practical politics. It is based on an analysis of their mutual correspondence and also takes into consideration Masaryk’s handwritten notes. This study heralds the publication of an edition of mutual correspondence between these two men, which is intended to become part of a proposed publication Correspondence: T.G. Masaryk – the Young Czechs.
The author first introduces the personality of G. Eim, a Young Czech politician and journalist, and then deals with the point at which Aim and Masaryk came to be acquainted. The direct contact was initiated by Masaryk, who was inspired by Eim’s articles About Us For Us (O nás pro nás) from autumn 1885. Both of them, however, had known each other’s names from print. The first letter to Eim from October 1885 documents Masaryk’s considerable ambitions in the political arena and his great self-confidence. They only met in person during Masaryk’s stay in Vienna in March 1889, when Karel Kramář introduced both men. From January 1890 Masaryk exchanged correspondence with Eim rather frequently; they did not merely write about topical issues but on those related to earlier events, also, up to 1882, when Masaryk arrived to Prague. The correspondence with its focus on 1890–1891, depicts efforts on the part of the Realists group to enter Czech politics, which was impossible without the co-operation of one of the established Czech political parties. At first, the Realists preferred the ruling National Party (i.e the Old Czechs), but in the end they reached an agreement with the representatives of the National Liberal Party (i.e. the Young Czech Party) in December 1890. The study comprehensively depicts these efforts which culminated in the entry of the Realists Group into the Young Czech Party and the nominations of T. G. Masaryk, Josef Kaizl and K. Kramář for legislative election to the Imperial Council in the spring of 1891. G. Eim also became a Council member. However, he soon had differences of opinion with his new colleagues and the original friendship gave way to distrust and suspicions, especially with regard to Masaryk. In July 1892 their correspondence came to a halt as this is also shown in Masaryk’s notes; their relationship continued to deteriorate until it finally ended.
The study further examines the hypotheses why Masaryk and Eim parted company in bad blood and why Eim continued to attack him venomously in correspondence and in the press. Despite that, Eim’s comprehensive obituary was printed in the magazine Čas in which T. G. Masaryk acknowledged his contribution. Masaryk returned to Eim’s name in June 1914 in the same magazine in connection with the defence of Karel Šviha. This article led to a polemic with the newspaper Národní listy, and unwittingly initiated a dispute about the interpretation of Eim’s legacy, which was also defended by K. Kramář. T. G. Masaryk entered it with a firm opinion, which he had no need to return to later on. The relationship between G. Eim and T. G. Masaryk and also their subsequent lives are still open to our interpretations.
 

Abstrakt:
Předkládaná studie pojednává o stycích mladočeského novináře a politika Gustava Eima a Tomáše G. Masaryka. Vychází z rozboru jejich vzájemné korespondence a přihlíží k Masarykovým rukopisným záznamům. Soustřeďuje se na průběh jednání realistů s představiteli dvou nejsilnějších českých měšťanských stran v letech 1890–1891, sleduje úlohu obou mužů během těchto jednání, která vyústila v jejich vstup do praktické politiky.
 

The study presented here deals with the relationship between Gustav Eim, a Young Czech politician and journalist, and Tomáš G. Masaryk. It is based on an analysis of their mutual correspondence and and takes into consideration Masaryk’s handwritten notes. It focuses on the course of negotiations between the Realists and the representatives of the two largest Czech bourgeois parties in the years 1890–1891; it follows the roles of these two men during these negotiations, which resulted in their entry into practical politics.
 

Key words: the Czech Lands, Czech history, political parties, Tomáš G. Masaryk, Gustav Eim
 

 

OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEW ARTICLES AND REVIEWS
 

Recenze
Horníčková Kateřina – Šroněk Michal (edd.), Umění české reformace (1380-1620)
(Josef Hrdlička) s. 131-135
 

HEJNIC Josef - MARTÍNEK Jan, Rukověť humanistického básnictví v Čechách a na Moravě 6. Dodatky A-Ž / Enchiridion renatae poesis in Bohemia et Moravia cultae 6. Supplementa A-Ž
(František Šmahel) s. 135-137
 

VONDRA Roman, České země v letech 1705-1792. Věk absolutismu, osvícenství, paruk a třírohých klobouků
(Jiří Mikulec) s. 137-143
 

ŠTĚPÁNEK Václav, Jugoslávie – Srbsko – Kosovo. Kosovská otázka ve 20. století
(Jan Pelikán) s. 143-146
 

 

Zprávy
s. 147-164
 

 

Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA / CHRONICLE
 

Nekrology
Rudolf Vierhaus (29. 10. 1922 - 13. 11. 2011)
(Jan Křen – Jiří Pešek – Miloš Řezník) s. 165-167
 

Jaroslav Marek (27. 11. 1926 – 18. 12. 2011)
(Milan Řepa) s. 168-172
 

 

Knihy došlé redakci
s. 173
 

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
s. 173