Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW


ISSN 0862-6111
ročník 109/2011
č. 4/2011
s. 649-912 + I-XII

OBSAH / CONTENTS



STUDIE / STUDIES


MADL Claire
Mezinárodní síť knihkupce Wolfganga Gerleho (1770-1790). Příspěvek k analýze šíření informací v českých zemích 
(The International Network of the Bookseller Wolfgang Gerle (1770-1790).
A Contribution to an Analysis of the Dissemination of Information in the Czech Lands)
s. 649-673

An analysis of commercial practices, the network of contacts and the order book of the bookseller Wolfgang Gerle aims to clarify the status of Prague in the European book and information trade and intellectual interchanges between 1770 and 1790. This study draws on preserved book catalogues and Gerle’s correspondence with the Swiss company Société typographique de Neuchâtel. The author establishes the methods by which books were supplied to Prague, positioned as it was in a triangle between the Catholic German countries, near-by Evangelical Leipzig, the heart of the German book trade, and Vienna, the capital city of the Monarchy. The case of the Enlightenment bookseller Gerle shows that the standard of literary knowledge was high; getting supplies from diverse and direct sources was considered necessary: Gerle became involved with German booksellers’ commercial networks (he maintained direct links with Leipzig, Berlin, Regensburg, Dresden, Nurnberg) and also the French ones (Paris, Liege and numerous Swiss towns) and obviously with those within the Monarchy (Vienna, Pressburg). Despite that, his competitive ambitions were curtailed by various restrictions, which permeated a society whose path to modernity was at its very beginning. Gerle’s readership did comprise a rather narrow elite. His marketing strategy of combating the already over strong competition through the quality of his books proved to be financially unsustainable in the end. However, it is an indication of transformations in the economic conditions of those times and an emerging wider public readership, i.e. ultimately a civic society.

Abstrakt:
Autorka ve své studii provedla analýzu obchodní praxe pražského knihkupce Wolfganga Gerleho v letech 1770-1790. Ze studie vyplývá, že ačkoliv byla v rámci evropské knižní distribuce jeho úroveň informovanosti vysoká a zásobování tiskovinami čilé a různorodé, trpěla jeho kompetenční ctižádost různými omezeními, tolik charakteristickými pro společnost, jejíž cesta do modernity stála teprve na počátku.

In her study, the author carried out an analysis of commercial practices of the Prague bookseller Wolfgang Gerle between the years 1770-1790. This study shows that although the standard of literary information and the supply of printed matter on offer was diverse and brisk in terms of European book distribution, his competitive ambitions were curtailed by various restrictions, so typical of a society whose path to modernity was at its very beginning.

Key words: Habsburg monarchy, Prague, book trade, the circulation of information, the Enlightenment, Wolfgang Gerle, Société typographique de Neuchâtel



PÁNEK Jaroslav
Historik mezi „mocí“ a „slušností“ (Na okraj knihy Bohumila Jirouška o Jaroslavu Charvátovi)
(A Historian’s Dilemma „Power“ or „Decent Behaviour“ /The Example of Jaroslav Charvát/)
s. 674-684

The first attempt to deal with the development of Czech historiography after World War II (Josef Hanzal, Cesty české historiografie 1945-1989, Prague 1999) failed because its author – a member of the old generation – lacked deeper analytical skills and attempted to present the complex problems of historiography, which were subject to the political pressure of the Communist regime, within the framework of bio-bibliography illustrated with his comments and simple ideological interpretation. However, this failure became a challenge for the upcoming generation of historians to take on this topic. They were not scarred – both in the positive and also the less favourable sense of the word – by their personal experience of that time. Bohumil Jiroušek, author of several monographs about Czech historians of the 19th and 20th centuries (Antonín Rezek, Jaroslav Goll, Josef Macek, Josef Klik) has become one of the most diligent researchers amongst them. His new biography is devoted to Jaroslav Charvát (1904-1988).
This archivist and historian, who formerly had social democratic and after World War II communist inclinations, might merely occupy a marginal position as a scholar in Czech historiography, yet he cannot be overlooked in the entire complexity of the discipline’s development. Following the Communist coup d’etat in 1948 he became the Chair of General History at Charles University for many long years and as the holder of high-profile official posts he influenced not merely the development of the discipline itself but the fate of scholars holding different political views from his own.
His strong political position was primarily guaranteed by his earlier membership in a left leaning association Historická skupina (1936-1938) and later his willingness to ruthlessly intervene against scholars professing non-Communist thinking. Jiroušek, on Charvát’s example, attempted to interpret both the relation between a scientific discipline and the power in a totalitarian regime and the relation between power and ethics in science. These are rather complex issues, which a single biography could, at most, answer only partially. Indeed, in any case it would be necessary to take into account wider connections and in addition, to have a deeper knowledge of the actual topic.
The present study emphasises certain problems which deserve attention with regard to the complex relationship between power – science/scientific scholars – ethics, especially in Jaroslav Charvát’s case. They relate to the following problems: 1. The historian’s attitude to research – it shows indolence, the sterility of thought and J. Charvát’s unwillingness to carry out in-depth research of primary sources, which he, in his position, had to cover up by undemanding compilation work; 2. The style of (not many) published works, which was highly indebted to the ruling ideology and which intentionally sought an overexaggerated self-affirmation, based on taking credit for the historical-fiction work of Vladislav Vančura, the outstanding writer and national hero from the period of anti-Nazi resistance; 3. An attempt to join the pantheon of national historiography by exercising pressure on the non-Communist historian František Kutnar, who had to „buy out“ the consent for the publication of his seminal work on the history of Czech historiography (1978) by lavishing praise on Jaroslav Charvát and Václav Husa’s Marxist Historical Group as the zenith of the one thousand year long tradition of Czech historiography; 4. His attitude as a university professor to candidates for academic honours and the abuse of power to humiliate the human dignity of one of Charvát’s ideological opponents, in addition to his documented professional humiliation.
The case of Jaroslav Charvát is a sad example of the role of a hugely ambitious yet academically limited historian in the history of the discipline. It is also a peculiar testimony to the twisting and turning, often tragic, even tragi-comic development of Czech historiography and its discontinuity at times when it was directed by people for whom not merely their own discipline, but also elementary human dignity meant much less than their politically inspired career. A more profound research of this theme unlocks questions on the abuse of power, infringement of the human dignity of other scholars and on elementary ethics in a politically deformed academic environment. When researching the paths of Czech historiography in the 20th century, these questions cannot be side-stepped.

Abstrakt:
Archivář a od roku 1948 univerzitní profesor obecných dějin Jaroslav Charvát (1904-1988) zaujímá v české historiografii jako vědec pouze marginální postavení, především jako člen levicového sdružení Historická skupina (1936-1938). Jako jeden z představitelů komunistické ideologie se však po únoru 1948 uplatnil ve vysokých funkcích a ovlivňoval nejen vývoj oboru, ale také osudy jinak smýšlejících vědců. Životopis tohoto historika, který vydal B. Jiroušek (2011), zdůrazňuje vztah mezi vědou a mocí. Zároveň však se v souvislosti s tímto tématem otvírá otázka zneužívání moci, zásahů proti lidské důstojnosti jiných vědců a elementární etiky ve vědeckém prostředí.

Jaroslav Charvát (1904-1988), an archivist and university professor of General History from 1948, occupies a marginal position as a scholar in Czech historiography, primarily as a member of the left-wing association, called Historická skupina (1936-1938). However, after the events of February 1948, as one of the representatives of Communist ideology, he held high-profile official posts and influenced not merely the development of his discipline but also the fate of scholars holding different political views from his. The biography of this historian, which was published by B. Jiroušek (2011), emphasizes the relation between power and science. However, at the same time, there comes to the fore questions of the abuse of power, infringements of the human dignity of other scholars and elementary ethics in a scientific environment.

Key words: Historiography, Historians, the Historical Group (1936-1938), Czechoslovakia, the 20th Century, Marxist Indoctrination, Ethics in Academic Work


PICKA Ondřej
Politický styl Helmuta Kohla: příklad vnitrostranické diskuse o druhé verzi berlínského programu CDU z roku 1971
(Helmut Kohl’s Political Leadership: using the example of the CDU internal discussion on the Second Version of the 1971 Berlin Programme)
s. 685-715

At the beginning of the 1970s Helmut Kohl was the leading personality in a new generation of CDU politicians born in the early 1930s, which ascended to the Party leadership after the CDU’s defeat and its demotion to opposition in 1969. He was the new Prime Minister of the German Province of Rhineland-Palatinate and Deputy Chairman of the CDU. From the very beginning he anchored his career upon conflict with the Party elites from the CDU founder generation and his criticism of the under developed party structures. At the same time, although still a young man, he showed his talent for building up political alliances and establishing his own power base.
Being the chairman of the party’s Policy Commission was the chance for him as a provincial politician to appeal to a broader membership and thus strengthen his position in his fight for the CDU’s chairmanship. By initiating and formulating a progressive programme he was in a position to greatly assist in the modernization of the CDU, which was, after all, his long-term aim and to present himself as a reformist. Yet, at the same time he was wary of damaging his links with the more conservative elements in the CDU.
His Commission presented a very liberal proposal. However, it is not possible to name Kohl as its author as he had never been deeply interested in policy issues; he always tended to influence political events on a general level. Nevertheless, Kohl facilitated the elaboration of this text by surrounding himself with a number of younger reform-minded politicians and by giving them a space to do so. Yet, when it became clear that such a programme was unacceptable to traditionalists, he distanced himself from the proposal and was willing to accept its dilution. The implementation of concrete policy points was not worth the undermining of his own position of power.

Abstrakt:
Článek se zabývá politickým vůdcovstvím Helmuta Kohla v rané fázi jeho kariéry. Za příklad si bere diskusi v CDU o druhé verzi berlínského programu v letech 1969 až 1971, ve které hrál Kohl jako předseda programové komise zásadní roli a která byla jedním z jeho prvních velkých vystoupení v německé politice na spolkové úrovni. Mladého Kohla charakterizuje jako výrazného reformního politika v CDU hledající svou novou roli po ztrátě vládní moci v roce 1969 a zároveň talentovaného mocenského stratéga, který nespouští z očí svůj prvořadý cíl vystoupat do čela strany a jednou snad i vlády a je vždy ochoten reformní záměry v dílčích otázkách pro tento cíl obětovat.

This article deals with Helmut Kohl’s political leadership in the early stage of his career. It uses the example of the discussion about the second version of the Berlin Programme in the years 1969-1971, in which Kohl as Chairman of the Policy Commission played a crucial role. This was one of his first major appearances at the federal level of German politics. The young Kohl is characterized as a major reform politician in the CDU searching for its new role after the loss of political power in 1969 and at the same time a talented seeker of power, always keeping an eye on his primary target, namely his ambition to climb the leadership ladder and become head of the party and perhaps, in time, the head of Government. He was always willing to sacrifice his reformist intentions with regard to certain policy issues to achieve his goal.

Key words: Germany, Helmut Kohl, CDU, Berlin programme, political leadership, political party, party programme, party reform, opposition



MATERIÁLY / ARTICLES


RYCHLÍK Jan
Situace v Protektorátu Čechy a Morava v roce 1939 a na počátku roku 1940 ve zprávách Generálního konzulátu Slovenské republiky v Praze
(The Situation in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in 1939 and early 1940 Contained in the Reports of the Prague General Consulate of the First Slovak Republic)
s. 716-738

Although the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was not an independent international entity and could not, therefore, form diplomatic relations with other states, Protectorate governments strove to maintain proper links with Slovakia. The Slovak side was also keen to reciprocate. Whereas Protectorate governments maintained relations with Slovak authorities through the intermediary of the State Office for Emigration headed by Špacír, the Slovak Republic established a Consulate General in Prague in May 1939. Karol Jozef Bujnák, a former Czechoslovak career diplomat, who had good knowledge and links with the Czech environment, was appointed as Consul General. Bujnák worked in Prague until the autumn of 1940. Preserved reports refer to conditions in the Protectorate after the outbreak of the war; the demonstrations on 28th October 1918 and persecutions of students on 17th November 1939.

Abstrakt:
Materiálová studie obsahuje zprávy slovenského konzula Karola Jozefa Bujnáka v Praze. Bujnák v Praze působil v letech 1939-1940. Zprávy se týkají demonstrací 28. října 1939, perzekuce studentů a uzavření českých vysokých škol 17. listopadu 1939 a odvolaných oslav prvního výročí slovenské samostatnosti 14. března 1940, které Bujnák v Praze považoval za nevhodné.

This substantive study comprises the reports prepared in Prague by the Slovak Consul General Karol Jozef Bujnák. Bujnák acted in Prague between 1939-1940. The reports refer to the demonstrations on 28th October 1939; persecutions of students and the closure of Czech institutions of higher learning on 17th November 1939 and the cancelled Prague celebrations of the first anniversary of Slovak independence on 14th March 1940, which Bujnák considered to be inappropriate.

Key words: consular reports, the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, the Consulate General of Slovakia


OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEW ARTICLES AND REVIEWS

Přehledy bádání a historiografických studií


FEJTOVÁ Olga
Německá diskuse ke konfesionalizaci v evropském kontextu 
(German discussion on confessionalisation in a European context)
s. 739-785

Příspěvek přináší přehled jednotlivých etap uplatnění paradigmatu konfesionalizace v německé historiografii věnované období raného novověku, a to v kontextu evropského, zvláště středoevropského historického bádání od osmdesátých let minulého století až do současnosti. Pozornost je věnována metodickým studiím, spojujícím uplatnění konceptu konfesionalizace s dalšími paradigmaty sociálních a nových kulturních dějin, stejně jako řadě případových studií, soustředěných na aplikaci konceptu na jednotlivé oblasti říše, a jejich konfrontaci s výzkumy dalších evropských území různého konfesijního profilu. V rámci tematizované vazby konceptu konfesionalizace na nové kulturní dějiny je zdůrazněn význam výzkumu problematiky lidové zbožnosti. Hlavní linie přehledu sleduje především diskusi o možnostech a limitech konfesionalizačního konceptu, tak jak se objevila při jeho uplatnění v historickém bádání, na něž reagovala v rovině makro i mikrohistorické.

This contribution provides a survey of the individual stages in the application of the confessionalisation paradigm in German historiography devoted to the period of the Early Modern Age, in the context of European, and in particular Central European, historical research from the 1980s until the present time. Attention is paid to methodical studies linking the application of the concept of confessionalisation with other paradigms of social and modern cultural history. It also focuses on a number of case studies concerning the application of this concept on the individual regions of the empire and their confrontation with research devoted to other European territories with different confessional profiles. Within the framework of the thematic link of the concept of confessionalisation with modern cultural history, the importance of research devoted to folk religiosity is emphasized. The main thrust of the survey primarily follows the discussion on the possibilities and limits of the concept of confessionalisation, as evident during its application in historical research, to which it responds both at the macro and micro-historical levels.

Key words: Early Modern Age, Central-Eastern Europe, German historiography, the confessionalisation paradigm, modern cultural history


SVOBODNÝ Petr
Příspěvky k dějinám Masarykovy univerzity
(Contributions to the History of Masaryk University)
s. 786-793

Abstrakt:
Dvě velice kvalitní monografie o dějinách Masarykovy univerzity v Brně a její filozofické fakulty jsou představeny jednak v kontextu české univerzitní historiografie, jednak v kontextu kultury vzpomínání jubilujících evropských univerzit.

These two high quality monographs on the history of Masaryk University in Brno and its Philosophical Faculty are presented here in both the context of Czech university historiography and also in the context of the culture of remembrance of European universities’ jubilees.

Key words: Masaryk University in Brno, Philosophical Faculty, university historiography, the Universities’ jubilees – culture of remembrance


CHODĚJOVSKÁ Eva
Geografické informační systémy v práci historika
(Historians and Geographical Information Systems)
s. 794-806

Abstrakt:
Článek definuje GIS, shrnuje jeho genezi a historii užívání, popisuje jeho uplatnění především v humanitních vědách s důrazem na historické obory. Jsou uvedeny příklady zásadních HIS-GISů vytvořených v zahraničí a zmíněny vědecké platformy, kde jsou tyto výstupy prezentovány. Podrobněji je představen nový český mapový portál Historického atlasu měst ČR vytvořený v roce 2010 na principu GIS. V souvislosti s problematikou GIS autorka upozorňuje na řadu mapových serverů a internetových mapových portálů využitelných pro práci historika. Součástí těchto portálů jsou často staré mapy. Se starými mapami v prostředí internetu úzce souvisí proces digitalizace, který autorka shrnuje, a popisuje různé stupně následného zpracování digitalizovaných map.

This article defines GIS applications; it summarises their genesis and the history of their use; it describes their application especially in the humanities with an emphasis on historical disciplines. Examples of seminal HIS-GIS systems created abroad are given and scientific platforms where these outputs are presented are mentioned. It introduces in more detail the new Czech web map portal of the Historical Town Atlas of the Czech Republic created on the GIS principle in 2010. In connection with GIS issues, the author draws attention to a number of web map servers and web map portals available to the historian to utilise in his work. Old maps are often part of these portals. The process of digitalisation is closely linked with old maps in an internet environment and the author summarises this and describes various stages of the subsequent processes dealing with digitalised maps.
 
Key words: Geographical Information System (GIS), history, geography, historical cartography, digitalisation, old maps, web map portals, web map servers


PEŠEK Jiří – LOHMANN Nina
Stav německého dějepisectví poválečné doby očima západní Evropy
(The State of German Historiography of the Postwar Era Through the Eyes
of Western Europe)
s. 807-820

Review article shrnuje diskusi o stavu německého dějepisectví poválečné doby, která roku 2010 proběhla na platformě Nadace DGIA za účasti předních německých a západoevropských historiků. Debata se soustředila na čtyři oblasti: "chronologie a césury“, „generace a jejich paměť“, „primát politiky versus primát společnosti“ a „evropský kontext německých poválečných dějin". Tematizován byl zejména přechod od německo-evropských historických mezníků k celosvětovým césurám, otázka role německé "uhranutosti nacismem" i vlivu "generace 68" na koncept poválečné historie, rozpor mezi velkým mezinárodním zájmem o dějiny DDR a lhostejností vůči výsledkům výzkumu BRD, neochota německých historiků recipovat výsledky zahraničních výzkumů německých poválečných dějin jako součásti dějin celoevropských.

This review article summarizes a discussion on the state of German historiography in the post-war period, which took place in 2010 on the platform for the Foundation of German Humanities Institutes Abroad (DGIA) with the participation of eminent German and Western European historians. The discussion focused upon the following areas: „chronology and ceasuras„, „generations and their memory“, „the primacy of politics versus the primacy of society“, and European context of German post-war history. It primarily thematizes the transition from German-European historical milestones to world-wide ceasuras; the question of the role of the German „obsession with Nazism“ and the influence of the 1968 generation upon the concept of post-war history; the contradiction between a huge international interest in the history of the GDR and indifference to the results of research dealing with the FRG; the unwillingness of German historians to accept the results of foreign researches of German post-war history as part of European history as a whole.

Key words: German contemporary history, history after WWII, historiography, history and society, European history, German Historical Institutes


LOHMANN Nina
Evropská tradice britského dějepisectví
(The European Tradition of British Historiography)
s. 821-833

Based on two recent publications by the Regius Professors of Modern History in Oxford and Cambridge, Robert and Richard Evans, this review article discusses the long-standing professional relationship of British historians with the European Continent. For several reasons, the early made distinction between British and European history persists to this day, and the latter forms the second, albeit smaller and in the history of historiography often neglected, core of the British historiographical tradition. What is more, both Evanses argue that British scholarship on the history of Continental Europe has been remarkably influential, at home as well as abroad. The reasons for this “success story” are manifold and provide us, among others, with an insight into the diversity of the national “history markets”. It becomes obvious that European historians should engage in a debate on the degree of openness of their communities to insights from outside, because: despite all the claims of internationalisation and globalisation, historians do not always practise what they preach – neither in Britain nor on the Continent.

Key words: British historiography, education policy, history of Continental Europe, internationalisation, world wars


Recenze

Dějiny východních Čech v pravěku a středověku (do roku 1526), FELCMAN Ondřej (ed.) - MUSIL František
(Jaroslav Boubín) s. 834-837

HOLÝ Martin, Zrození renesančního kavalíra. Výchova a vzdělávání šlechty z českých zemí na prahu novověku (1500-1620)
(Václav Bůžek – Miroslav Žitný) s. 837-839

HUBKOVÁ Jana, Fridrich Falcký v zrcadle letákové publicistiky. Letáky jako pramen k vývoji a vnímání české otázky v letech 1619-1632
(Kateřina Pražáková) s. 840-842

HRBEK Jiří, České barokní korunovace
(Štěpán Vácha) s. 843-846

STOLÁROVÁ Lenka (ed.), Karel Škréta a malířství 17. století v Čechách a v Evropě. Sborník příspěvků z odborného kolokvia pořádaného Národní galerií v Praze v klášteře sv. Anežky České ve dnech 23.-24. března 2010; STOLÁROVÁ Lenka - VLNAS Vít (eds.), Karel Škréta 1610-1674: Doba a dílo
(Nikolaj Savický) s. 847-853

MATLAS Pavel, Shovívavá vrchnost a neukáznění poddaní? Hranice trestní disciplinace poddaného obyvatelstva na panství Hluboká nad Vltavou v 17. a 18. století; PUMPR Pavel, Beneficia, záduší a patronát v barokních Čechách. Na příkladu třeboňského panství na přelomu 17. a 18. století
(Eduard Maur) s. 854-859

CHVOJKA Michal, Josef Graf Sedlnitzky als Präsident der Polizei- und Zensurhofstelle in Wien (1817-1848). Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Staatspolizei in der Habsburgermonarchie (Petr Píša) s. 859-862


Zprávy
s. 863-888


Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA / CHRONICLE

Nekrolog
Václav Kural (* 25. 6. 1928 - † 25. 6. 2011)
(Jan Křen) s. 889-894


Knihy došlé redakci
s. 895

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
s. 895

Zasláno
s. 910