Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.


ISSN 0862-6111
ročník 109/2011
č. 3/2011
s. 397-648



SMÍŠEK Rostislav
Střední Evropa a Španělsko v polovině 17. století. Markéta Tereza Španělská a její španělský hofštát očima soudobých pozorovatelů
(Central Europe and Spain in the Mid-17th Century. Margaret Theresa of Spain and her Spanish Court in the Eyes of Contemporary Observers)
s. 397-431

This study attempts to reconstruct the image of the Spanish Court of Margaret Theresa, the first wife of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, through the eyes of contemporary observers. Preserved primary sources show that their authors did not consider this narrowly defined circle of people as a colourful group of individual personalities but viewed them as stereotypical representatives of the Spanish Kingdom. For this reason, in written testimonies of contemporary observers, including Leopold I himself, there appear several partial images of Margaret Theresa’s Spanish Royal Court and figuratively that of the Spaniard, which are based on the characteristic features of persons of Iberian Peninsular origin. On the one hand, the image comes to the foreground of an individual who had at his disposal not inconsiderable financial means, which manifested itself in ostentatious conduct. These means armed him with a requisite self-awareness of his power. In addition to coming from a well heeled background, the true Spaniard had exquisite taste and dressed with restraint and dignity. Another partial image reflects the persons of Hispanic origin who were famous for their intolerance and agression towards those around them. Their intolerance was closely linked to the non-adaptability and disdain of the Spaniards towards the Central European environment and the lifestyle of the Viennese Court. This was expressed in the use of their native language, customary diet, efforts to change the everyday routine of the Imperial family, as well as regulations concerning court ceremonial and the fact that Margaret Theresa surrounded herself completely by Spanish courtiers. As far as Leopold I. was concerned, the chronic untrustyworthiness of individuals from the Iberian Peninsula who had allegedly not hesitated to break their word, played an important role. The spontaneous dislike and distrust of the Emperor towards Spain was further strengthened by the protracted negotiations with the Madrid Court for Margaret Theresa’s hand in marriage and the subsequent delays connected to naming the exact date of departure of the second born daughter of Philip IV of Spain to Vienna.

Přítomná studie se zabývá konstrukcí obrazu španělského dvora první manželky císaře Leopolda I. Markéty Terezy očima soudobých pozorovatelů. Vychází především ze subjektivních osobních svědectví nejvyšších dvorských úředníků, kteří dlouhodobě působili v bezprostřední blízkosti panovnice a každodenně se setkávali se služebníky hispánského původu. Stranou pozornosti však nenechává ani postřehy jedinců, jež se účastnili okázalého příjezdu španělské infantky a jejího doprovodu do střední Evropy a následných svatebních slavností v metropoli podunajské monarchie. Na stránkách svých zpráv zachytili vlastní prvotní dojmy z nově příchozích.

The current study deals with the construction of the image of the Spanish Court of Margaret Theresa, the first wife of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, through the eyes of contemporary observers. It is principally based on the subjective testimonies of top Court officials who regularly moved in the Empress’s circle and met her attendants of Hispanic origin every day. However, it does not ignore the impressions of the individuals who participated in the magnificent arrival of the Spanish Infanta and her courtiers to Central Europe and the subsequent marriage festivities in the capital city of the Danube Monarchy. They captured their individualised initial impressions of the new arrivals on the pages of their journals.

Key words: Early Modern Age, the Imperial Court, the image of the others, the image of the Spaniard, collective identities, Leopold I., Margaret Theresa of Spain

Kariéra prvních krajských lékařů a chirurgů v Čechách po josefínských reformách
(cca 1785-1825)
(Careers of the First Regional Physicians and Surgeons in the Czech Lands after Joseph II’s Reforms /c. 1785-1825/)
s. 432-487

During the second half of the 18th century demands as to the competence and expertise of regional medical staff, both physicians and surgeons increased. A broad range of activities alongside a high degree of responsibility, which they shouldered, came hand in hand with growing demands for their professional development. In the second half of the 18th century, similar to other medical personnel, a standardised curriculum for study and expertise was established for regional health officers,also. Thus, increasing and clearly defined requirements in terms of knowledge and ability had transformed the profile of a suitable medical candidate. These changes are, understandably, evident in the different patterns of expertise shown down through several generations, which can be wholly and comprehensively documented.
The idea of „a modern profession“ is further demonstrated by the fact that as early as the beginning of the 19th century salaries became standardised and from the 1780s regional medical personnel were entitled to similarly „standardised“ pensions, whose levels corresponded to the number of years of service. Even though their salaries undoubtedly lagged behind the salaries of other higher officials of the regional government for a long time to come, these posts were, without doubt, highly sought and prestigious, which is also shown in the ever increasing numbers of candidates for posts on regional public health boards.
Particular attention was especially paid to public competition for posts of regional medical personnel. The Faculty’s expert recommendation for someone as suitable for a post was matched against the view of the Land Committee, which paid for medical personnel; in addition, the opinion of the Land protomedicus was also important (and it seems that the opinion of the Governor’s Office was not ignored either, yet its role cannot be, at present, fully understood on the basis of original documents researched). Although, it was possible to grant some exceptions in terms of required competences at the beginning (for example, allowing the required certification to be gained later), after 1800, when the numbers of competent candidates for these civil service posts increased, these exceptions became rarer. However, the link to the region continued to play a significant role.
The posts of regional physicians from Joseph II’s era were occupied by men who were relatively young, aged 30-40, thus on average 5-10 years after their graduation (in some exceptional cases, positions were even given to candidates who were junior in terms of service, about three years after the completion of their studies). Unless they failed in their duties, they usually remained in office until their retirement, or – as with the majority of them – until their death. Although the post of a regional physician/surgeon represented the peak of a career in its own right, some regional medical personnel considered it more beneficial and prestigious to be transferred to the municipal health board in the capital city of Prague. However, there were only a few who succeeded in culminating their career in a goal higher than that – namely, acquiring a professorial position at the university, or even becoming head of the Czech medical administration – a protomedicus.
In any case, we might perhaps claim that in the last decades of the 18th century and at the threshold of the 19th century regional physicians and surgeons did confirm their status as a real „new elite“ amongst medical personnel: being equipped with new authority, competences and obligations, they carried on their shoulders a growing responsibility for the medical and sanitary situation in their entire region. In additon, they gradually became integrated in the state administration, indeed, civil servants in a regional office.

Tato převážně materiálová studie prosopografického charakteru by měla přiblížit roli a fungování krajských zdravotníků v osvícenském systému zdravotnictví, především mezi lety 1785-1825. Studie se zaměřuje na první generace krajských zdravotníků – lékařů i chirurgů – této poreformní doby a táže se, jaké byly životní podmínky mužů, kteří s takovým sebevědomím prezentovali důležitost svého úřadu i nezbytné sebeobětování, jaká byla jejich náplň práce, jakým způsobem se takové místo obsazovalo, jak se standardizovaly platy a odměny, jak dlouho tito úřední lékaři sloužili, jak místa opouštěli, proč a kam odcházeli. V neposlední řadě jde i o to přiřadit k úřadu konkrétní jména a konkrétní osudy a kariéry. Studie by současně chtěla přispět i k otázce profesionalizace zdravotnické péče a zdravotnického personálu a k pochopení procesu etatizace a byrokratizace (nejen) zdravotnických profesí v českých zemích.
Materiálový základ tvoří (kromě dobových normativních předpisů) především 1) tištěné Schematismy Království českého z let 1789-1830, 2) matriky a děkanské protokoly pražské Lékařské fakulty z Archivu Univerzity Karlovy, 3) rukopisné materiály z fondu Českého gubernia-Publicum (I. oddělení Národního archivu v Praze) obsahující personálie krajských zdravotníků.

This study, a principally material study and prosopographic in nature, aims to throw light on the role and functioning of regional medical officers in the Enlightenment system of public health, especially between 1785-1825. The study focuses on the first generations of regional medical officers – physicians and surgeons – of this post-reform era. It poses the question on the living conditions of these men, who carried the importance of their office with the highest self-confidence in themselves and a necessary self-sacrifice, also; the contents of their work; the manner of their appointment; the way of calculating their salaries and remuneration; the length of their service; how they left their posts, why and where they moved. The least but not the last issue relates to the placing of specific names to posts and their actual fortunes and careers. Simultaneously, this study would hope to contribute to the question of professionalisation of health care and health personnel and to an understanding of the process of etatisation and bureaucratisation of (not merely) health care professions in the Czech Lands.
The research material comprises (in addition to contemporary normative regulations) primarily 1) printed Schematisms of the Kingdom of Bohemia from the years 1789-1830, 2) registers and Deans’protocols of the Prague Medical Faculty from the Archives of Charles University, 3) hand written sources from the Fund of the Office of the Imperial Governor - Publicum (I. Section of the National Archive in Prague) containing the personal data of regional medical officers.

Key words: health service, regional physicians and surgeons, Joseph II’s reforms, Bohemia, the pre-March period

Německá a východní politika CDU/CSU za Erhardovy vlády
(German and Eastern European Policies of the CDU/CSU during the Erhard Government)
s. 488-517

Although both the international situation and the domestic course of events in the Federal Republic of Germany in the mid-1960s significantly changed as compared to the preceding decade, the CDU/CSU policies towards the countries of the Eastern bloc (including the GDR) had not undergone major changes. The main principles, already formulated under Konrad Adenauer in the mid-1950s, remained unchanged under the Erhard Government (1963–1966). However, as this study documents, CDU/CSU politicians were well aware of the fact that their policies no longer corresponded to the prevailing circumstances. They gradually adopted the view that it was no longer sufficient to be committed to the passive defence of the 1950’s principles and to rely on their Western allies. For example, they considered negotiations with East Germany’s politicians or civil servants on the possibility of the continued presence of Soviet troops on GDR territory even after the unification; on establishing diplomatic links with Eastern European states or the recognition of the border on the Oder and Nisa Rivers, at least until unification occurred.
The main obstacle was that although many politicians would have been able to negotiate on at least one principle and offer minor concessions during their discussions with their Eastern partners, no sooner than a motion was raised then a majority of the party members would immediately organize themselves to protest vociferously against any such motion. Consequently, the CDU/CSU had not come to an agreement what should be done until the end of the Erhard Government. Pressure of public opinion was not strong enough and for this reason the CDU/CSU as a whole would not entertain any talk on the reforms of their German and Eastern policies. However, this does not mean that changes were not suggested by some individuals competent in foreign policy matters. On the contrary, many policy makers – convinced that changes to German and Eastern European policies were inevitable – submitted factual suggestions and called for widespread internal party discussion to take place at once.
Using the example of the German and Eastern European policies of the CDU/CSU in the first half of the 1960s, this study demonstrates how important it is not to confuse the inability to act with „ideological sterility“ in the process of recapitulating and generalizing assessment. Even in places where a group might have stubbornly defended principles which did not correspond to the actual situation, one would usually find numbers of individuals calling for a change of direction. Yet, at the same time it is impossible to assess the political parties’ shifts of attitude in terms of how far individuals proceded – it is necessary to start with how far a party as a whole or at least its leadership has travelled. For this reason, although this study concludes that no significant changes in German and Eastern European policies of the CDU/CSU occurred in the period under research, it would like to draw the readers’ attention to the contemporary internal discussion which was quite compelling. In addition, a knowledge of internal party discussions contributes significantly to a proper understanding of the party’s external behaviour.

V první polovině šedesátých let 20. století se oproti předcházejícímu desetiletí výrazně proměnila jak mezinárodní situace, tak i vnitropolitické dění ve Spolkové republice Německo. Článek se zabývá politikou CDU/CSU vůči zemím východního bloku a především Německé demokratické republice za vlády spolkového kancléře Ludwiga Erharda, tedy v letech 1963–1966. Klade si otázku, jak tato v dané době nejsilnější západoněmecká strana, která určovala zahraniční politiku státu, přizpůsobila (nebo nepřizpůsobila) svou německou a východní politiku měnícím se mezinárodním a vnitropolitickým okolnostem. Pozornost je věnována nejen provedeným změnám politiky CDU/CSU, ale i vnitrostranickým diskusím a nerealizovaným konceptům.

In the first half of the 1960s the international situation, as well as the domestic course of events in the Federal Republic of Germany changed significantly as compared to the preceding decade. This article deals with the CDU/CSU policies under the leadership of Ludwig Erhard, West Germany’s Chancellor, i.e. between 1963–1966, towards the countries of the Eastern bloc and primarily that of the German Democratic Republic. It poses the question of how the strongest West German party, which determined the foreign policy of the state at that time, adapted (or did not adapt) its German and Eastern European policies to the changing international and domestic circumstances. Attention is devoted not merely to the changes of policy, which were carried out but also to discussions within the party and concepts that were not realized.
Key words: Germany, CDU/CSU, Eastern European policy, the German question, 1963–1966

Zeměpisné názvosloví českých zemí jako odraz krajinotvorných a dějinných procesů
(Geographical Terminology of the Czech Lands as a Reflection of Landscape Forming and Historical Processes)
s. 518-550

Geograhical terminology is an integral part of historical and contemporary landscape in the Czech Lands. Many roots of contemporary geographical names are of pre-Slavonic origin, for example Celtic or Germanic. The origins, development and transformations of geographical terminology reflect the relationship of man (society) towards landscape on the level of spatial knowledge, orientation in space and the mastery of it. Geographical terminology thus reflects not merely the landscape character and unique characteristics of many different landscapes but also the spiritual and ideological dimension of the individual developmental stages of human society. In particular, written resources and maps preserve the inheritance and transfer of geographical names, in addition to generational human memory, albeit merely for a limited period. Geographical names are monitored and researched by specialists from many scientific disciplines, especially linguists, geographers, geodetists, historians and historical geographers, sociologists and lawyers. Geographical terminology makes its mark in applied research and practice. Geographical names have been and continue to be integral parts of everyday reality in the broad sphere of human performance, deliberations and decision-making. Geographical terminology is a living entity which undergoes continuous development and transformations. It is a reflection of landscape-forming and historical processes, a remnant of mutual relationship between two phenomena, landscape and society. This reflection forms a mental map of landscape in the human mind, which is influenced by a geographical and cultural-historical awareness of their inhabitants. Although geographical names have been transcribed and continue to be transcribed, in conjunction with the strata of new countries and ruling human societies, with some definitely disappearing in some regions or with completely new ones emerging elsewhere, their traces are transferred from generation to generation through the intermediary of historical primary sources. Geographical terminology with its emotional and ideological value and contents remains part of landscape’s memory, whether in landscape itself, in human memory or historical sources. In the Czech Lands the tradition of collecting, documentation and research of historical geographical names dates back to the mid-19th century. The observance of important changes in terminology in the past, alongside the research of their causes leads to a better understanding of the genesis of the wealth of terminology and their preservation as part of the cultural heritage of the Czech Lands.

Zeměpisné názvosloví, nedílná součást historické i současné krajiny Česka, je živým celkem, který se stále vyvíjí a mění. Je odrazem krajinotvorných a dějinných procesů, pozůstatkem vzájemného vztahu dvou fenoménů, krajiny a společnosti. Sběr, dokumentace a studium historických zeměpisných jmen se v českých zemích datuje od poloviny 19. století.

Geographical terminology, an integral part of historical and contemporary landscape in the Czech Lands, is a live entity, which undergoes continuous development and transformations. It is a reflection of landscape-forming and historical processes, a remnant of the mutual relationship between two phenomena, landscape and society. In the Czech Lands the tradition of collecting, documentation and research of historical geographical names dates back to the mid-19th century.

Key words: geography, historiography, terminology, landscape, Czech Lands


Odpověď na „Několik poznámek“ Petra Mareše (Ke knize o obsazování předbělohorských krajských hejtmanství)
s. 551-556


MYŠKA Milan, Problémy a metody hospodářských dějin. Metodické problémy studia dějin sekundárního sektoru
(Josef Válka) s. 557-560

STŘEDOVÁ Veronika, František Kutnar a strukturalismus v interpretaci sociálních a hospodářských dějin
(Roman Pazderský) s. 560-564

LOUTHAN Howard, Converting Bohemia. Force and Persuasion in the Catholic Reformation (Pavel Kůrka) s. 564-567

BAHLCKE Joachim – LAMBRECHT Karen – MANER Hans-Christian (Hg.), Konfessionelle Pluralität als Herausforderung. Koexistenz und Konflikt in Spätmittelalter und Früher Neuzeit. Winfried Eberhard zum 65. Geburtstag
(Josef Hrdlička) s. 567-571

Mnohonárodnostní říše v zrcadle času. Comparing Empires: Encounters and Transfers in the Long Nineteenth Century. Edited by LEONHARD Jörn and HIRSCHHAUSEN Ulrike von
(Jan Bečka) s. 571-574

STERNECK Tomáš, Historica Třeboň 1524-1547, I
(Josef Válka) s. 574-577

Der Briefwechsel zwischen Bohuslav Balbín und Christian Weise 1678-1688, ed. RICHTER Ludwig
(Kateřina Valentová) s. 577-578

SPURNÝ Matěj, Bijeme na poplach! Německá publicistika proti nacistickému nebezpečí 1930-1933
(Jiří Pešek) s. 579-582

TEJCHMAN Miroslav, Balkán ve válce a v revoluci 1939-1945
(Jan Zumr) s. 583-584

LEHNSTAEDT Stephan, Okkupation im Osten. Besatzeralltag in Warschau und Minsk 1939-1944
(Nina Lohmann) s. 584-589

s. 590-606


Činnost Česko-německé komise historiků v roce 2010
s. 607-612

Třetí evropský kongres světových a globálních dějin
s. 613-616


Jindřich Tomas (23. 5. 1927 – 22. 9. 2010)
(Jan Klápště – Oldřich Kotyza)
s. 617-621

Knihy došlé redakci
s. 622

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
s. 623