Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW


ISSN 0862-6111
ročník 109/2011
č. 1/2011
s. 1-192

OBSAH / CONTENTS


PÁNEK Jaroslav – PEŠEK Jiří
Historický časopis s národní tradicí a mezinárodní otevřeností. (Úvodem k 109. ročníku Českého časopisu historického)
(A Historical Review with National Tradition and International Outlook (In Introduction to the 109th Volume of the Czech Historical Review))
s. 1-4


STUDIE / STUDIES

AUDOIN-ROUZEAU Stéphane
První světová válka a její zpřítomnění ve francouzské společnosti (1989-2008)
(World War I and French Society: A Return to the Present (1989-2008))
s. 5-14

At the beginning of the 1980s, Word War I was of interest merely to experts. Although many veterans of the battles from 1914-1918 were still alive, it seemed that the first world conflict vanished from the collective historical memory. Nevertheless, decades on, World War I began to exert a new influence on the public and continued to do so even between 1990 and 2000, although its last veterans were then being laid to their final rest. This contribution investigates the ways in which the „1914-18 event“ came to be once again a topical place of memory. At first it attempts to unveil several symptoms of this return of World War I into the public arena in France and to compile a chronology for it. It, then, suggests several interpretative paths. In general, in France such a type of anamnesis, which is related to World War I, represents a typical twenty-year old instance of „presentism“ (François Hartog) in the sense of „a revival of the past in the present“, because this past has become once again significant for the present itself. As far as the re-discovery of the military past of the years 1914-18 is concerned, in the French case selective forgetfulness, a derealization and eupheminisation, seem to be a price too high. Thus is formed „a place of memory for the years 1914-18“, which is understandable and simultaneously acceptable to our contemporaries.

Abstrakt:
Na počátku osmdesátých let 20. století byla ve Francii první světová válka jen pouhým námětem pro odborníky. Ačkoliv mnozí z veteránů bojů let 1914-1918 byli ještě naživu, zdálo se, že první světový konflikt opustil kolektivní historickou paměť. Přesto se však o desítku let později začínal projevovat nový vliv první světové války ve veřejném prostoru a nepřestal působit ani v průběhu let 1990 až 2000, i když tehdy umírali její poslední veteráni. Tento příspěvek pátrá po způsobech, jakými se „událost let 1914-18“ opět stala živým místem paměti. Nejdříve se pokouší odhalit několik symptomů tohoto návratu první světové války do veřejného prostoru ve Francii a sestavit jeho jakousi chronologii. Následně navrhuje několik interpretačních stezek. Obecně vzato takový typ anamnézy, která se týká první světové války, tvoří ve Francii již dvacet let typický případ „prezentismu“ (François Hartog) ve smyslu „oživení minulosti v přítomnosti“, protože tato minulost se opět stala signifikantní pro přítomnost samotnou. Pokud jde o znovuobjevení válečné minulosti let 1914-18, selektivní zapomínání, derealizaci a eufemizaci, je ve francouzském případě tato cena vysoká. Tak se ale utváří „místo paměti let 1914-18“ pochopitelné a zároveň přijatelné pro naše současníky.

World War I began to exert a new influence on the public and continued to do so even between 1990 and 2000, although its last veterans were then being laid to their final rest. This contribution investigates the ways in which the „1914-18 event“ came to be once again a topical place of memory. At first it attempts to unveil several symptoms of this return of World War I into the public arena in France and to compile a chronology for it. As far as the re-discovery of the military past of the years 1914-18 is concerned, in the French case selective forgetfulness, a derealization and eupheminisation, seem to be a price too high. Thus is formed „a place of memory for the years 1914-18“, which is understandable and simultaneously acceptable to our contemporaries.

Key words: World War I, French Society, sadness, presentism


IRMANOVÁ Eva
Horthy a jeho doba – proměny hodnocení
(Horthy and His Time – Changes of Assessment)
s. 15-43

Miklós Horthy was one of the personalities of Hungarian history between the two world wars who had significantly influenced all the important issues of Hungarian policy, both domestic and foreign, between the autumn of 1919 until the autumn of 1944. Yet, ever since he entered politics, an assessment of his personality and his activities was not merely the subject of dispute but it also constituted primarily conflicting standpoints. From the 1920s the image of the Regent as the nation’s saviour and the builder of the state was emphasised and cultivated in Hungarian society, but this positive image was not embraced by Hungarian society as a whole. The negative image of Horthy was presented by Hungarian Left on one side, and on the other side by the elite loyal to the Hapsburgs. The cult of Horthy reached its zenith between the years 1938-1941, after the annexation of some parts of former Hungarian territories to Hungary.
Political propaganda in Hungary after 1945, as well as Hungarian Communist historiography, presented Horthy as a fascist dictator. At the same time "Horthy‘s" Hungary was portrayed as a fascist dictatorship and the blackest period of Hungarian history. From the end of the 1960s, as Kádár’s regime in Hungary became more liberal, Hungarian historiography progressed to free itself from propaganda and as more documentary facts emerged, it began to present a more realistic picture of Horthy and his regime. The turning point in the assessment of the inter-war Hungarian regime came during a discussion of historians in autumn 1969. For the first time, a view was voiced that Horthy’s regime could not be regarded as fascist. In the second half of the 1980s Hungarian historians, in general, adopted the view that it was impossible to link Horthy’s regime and fascism in any way.
With the regime change in Hungary between 1989-1990 the former ideological canon lost its validity. Yet, when assessing Horthy’s regime and Horthy as a personality another extreme began to emerge. Once again the simplistic and myth-forming images of the Regent were revived, however, this time not as an expression of official propaganda but as an expression of individual political inclinations. Yet, these efforts to revive the cult of Horthy have not met with a wider response. The authors of recent serious historical works, which appeared in the first decade after the regime change, came to agree that the Horthy regime was neither a fascist nor a fascist-leaning dictatorship and that it could be described as a transition between democratic parliamentary regimes and anti-parliamentarian totalitarian systems. There is talk of a limited parliamentarism, of the blending of parliamentarian and authoritarian elements. In addition, there is a consensus in a contemporary assessment of the Hungarian inter-war regime that it cannot be referred to as a dictatorship of the executive power, i.e. that of the Government and the Regent. It was constrained by a number of factors characteristic for parliamentary states – a free press, a multi-party system, as well as a separation of the legislature, the executive and the judicial powers.
Discussions on the character of Horthy’s regime also continue at the present time.

Abstrakt:
Osobnost regenta Miklóse Horthyho stejně jako režim meziválečného Maďarska byly maďarskou historiografií od roku 1945 hodnoceny podstatně odlišně - od označení Horthyho jako fašistického diktátora po realistické zhodnocení od 70. let.

The personality of the Regent Miklós Horthy, as well as the regime of the inter-war Hungary were assessed rather differently by Hungarian historiography from 1945 – from labelling Horthy as a fascist dictator to a more realistic re-assessment of him from the 1970s onwards.

Key words: inter-war Hungary, Regent Miklós Horthy, Hungarian historiography


MATERIÁLY / ARTICLES

POKORNÁ Magdaléna
„Držím já na císaře ... a držím se svým králem“. Výklad světa po revoluci 1848
(„I side with the Emperor ... and I side with my King“. An interpretation of the world after the 1848 Revolution)
 s. 44-80

This study sums up the outlets for publication in the period of changes to publishing legislation between 1849-1852.
It presents the outlets for publication at that time and their limits. In particular, this study focuses on an analysis of the periodical Truth will out (Jen s pravdou ven). Its author was Václav Frost (1814-1865), a priest, a teacher for the deaf and dumb and also a politician during the 1848-1849 Revolution. His periodical Truth will out was written in the traditional form of discourse with individual characters (a farmer, a village/parish council chairman, a former estate official and a farmhand) and it was primarily designed for rural readers. His analysis expands the current understanding of readership strategies at the beginnings of Neo-absolutism.
Václav Frost in his title offered how to comprehend the „new“ world and how to explain the era which was shaken to its foundations during the Revolution and which severed the contemporary links and cast doubts at the until-then valid certainties, yet simultaneously offered new possibilities of making one’s mark in life. In his eight-volume work the author paid principal attention both to religious matters (among others a polemic on Eugène Sue’s The Wandering Jew), and current social and political issues (a discussion about Karel Havlíček’s opinions in his journal Slovan). The publication Truth will out also reflects many other matters, such as certain stereotypes in the populace’s opinions, the importance of theatre in Czech society in the middle of the 19th century but also the „popular“ reflection of the works by František Palacký.

Abstrakt:
Studie shrnuje publikační možnosti v době změn tiskového zákonodárství v letech 1849-1852.
Konkrétně analyzuje titul Václava Frosta Jen s pravdou ven, určeného především pro vesnické čtenáře a tak prohlubuje dosavadní poznání čtenářských strategií v počátcích neoabsolutismu. Stěžejní pozornost věnuje jak náboženským (mj. polemika s prací Eugené Suea Věčný žid), tak společensko-politickým záležitostem (mj. diskuse o názorech Karla Havlíčka v jeho Slovanu). Publikace reflektuje také mnoho dalších záležitostí, např. určité stereotypy v názorech obyvatelstva, význam divadla v české společnosti v polovině 19. století, ale také „lidovou“ reflexi vědeckých prací (mj. děl Františka Palackého).

This study summarizes the outlets for publication in the period of changes to publishing legislation between 1849-1852. In particular, this study analyses Václav Frost‘s title Truth will out (Jen s pravdou ven) designed especially for the rural readers and it thus deepens contemporary understanding of readership strategies at the beginnings of Neo-absolutism. The principal attention is devoted both to religious issues (among others a polemic on Eugène Sue’s The Wandering Jew), and social and political matters (such as a discussion on Karel Havlíček’s views in his journal Slovan). This publication also reflects many other matters, for example certain stereotypes in the populace’s views, the importance of theatre in Czech society in the middle of the 19th century, but also a „popular“ reflection of academic works (such as the works by František Palacký).

Key words: Czech Lands, the 1848-1849 Revolution, Neo-absolutismus, journalism, outlets for publication, Eugène Sue (The Wandering Jew), Karel Havlíček (Slovan)


KVAČEK Robert – TOMEŠ Josef – VAŠEK Richard
Zasutá svědectví o Mnichovu. Události roku 1938 v nepublikovaných memoárech českých autorů
(Mislaid Testimonies about Munich. The Events of 1938 in Unpublished Memoirs from Czech Authors)
s. 81-112

This paper, which surveys relevant materials, meritoriously focuses on as yet unpublished memoirs of Czech provenance, often also unknown to researchers, which are linked in one way or another to the history of the 1938 Czechoslovak crisis and the Munich phenomenon. At first it summarises, in broad outline, the memoir production on this theme published so far at home and abroad. Then, it introduces, in turn, selected Czech recollection texts of different contents, scope and testimonial value, whose manuscripts are deposited in archives or private collections. It lingers in more detail over the extensive works from the pens of the Czech politicians Vlastimil Klíma and František Ježek, which monographically focus on the subject of the events of 1938 in Czechoslovakia and provide unique testimonies to them in various aspects. This paper draws attention to the „Munich“ memoir essays of the diplomat Jaromír Smutný, who was one of the closest colleagues of President Beneš, and to the publicist K. B. Palkovský. It also ascertains how the issue and narrative of Munich is represented in the manuscript memoirs of contemporary high profile personalities from political, military, diplomatic and academic circles. Futher, it outlines a wealth of recollections of contemporaries from the so-called „wider or broad“ classes, from different professional environments and regions (for example from the ranks of conscripted soldiers or Czech inhabitants of the border territories). This paper also highlights a rich collection of commemorative works, which were initiated by resistance organizations and which are now deposited in the National Archives. The authors wish to draw attention to the manuscripts which, in their opinion, should be published in the near future. At the same time, using this research investigation, they would like to demonstrate pars pro toto the general state of this memoir genre relating to our contemporary roots.

Abstrakt:
Článek podává stručný přehled dosud vydané memoárové literatury k historii mnichovské krize 1938 a informuje o zatím nevydaných relevantních memoárech, vztahujících se k tomuto tématu.

This article briefly surveys the until now published memoir literature on the history of the Munich Crisis of 1938. It also presents information on the until now unpublished, yet relevant, memoirs, relating to this theme.

Key words: contemporary Czech history, the Munich Crisis of 1938, Czech political memoir genre, unpublished memoirs


DISKUSE / DISCUSSION

MAREŠ Petr
Několik poznámek ke zprávě Tomáše Sternecka
s. 113-115


OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEW ARTICLES AND REVIEWS

Přehledy bádání a historiografických studií

PEŠEK Jiří
Vržené i vlastní stíny členství v NSDAP
(Shadows and Echoes of the Membership of the NSDAP)
s. 116-125

Abstrakt:
Studie analyzuje na základě prací současné německé historiografie, ve sborníku editovaném Nicolasem Bergem, systém přijímání členů do NSDAP, včetně přechodu do NSDAP z mládežnických organizací, a konkrétní praxi i její limity zejména během posledního období druhé světové války. Především pak autor připomíná problém, jak posuzovat informaci o členství v NSDAP v těch případech, kdy se o něm nedochovaly všechny doklady.

This study, which draws on works from current German historiograpy and is included in a collection edited by Nicolas Berge, analyses the system of accepting members to the NSDAP. This includes the transfer from youth organisations into the NSDAP and current practices and their limits especially during the final stages of World War II. In particular, its draws attention to the issue of assessing information on the NSDAP membership in those cases where not all relevant documents have been preserved.

Key words: German historiography debates, NSDAP, Nazism


Recenze

OSTERHAMMEL Jürgen, Die Verwandlung der Welt. Eine Geschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts
(Milan Hlavačka) s. 126-127

VELKOVÁ Alice, Krutá vrchnost, ubozí poddaní? Proměny venkovské společnosti v 18. a první polovině 19. století na příkladu západočeského panství Šťáhlavy
(Josef Grulich) s. 128-133

FASORA Lukáš – HANUŠ Jiří – MALÍŘ Jiří (Hg.), Sozial-reformatorisches Denken in den böhmischen Ländern 1848-1914
(Jiří Pokorný) s. 133-135

BOURKEOVÁ Joanna, Znásilnění. Dějiny od roku 1860 do současnosti
(Milena Lenderová) s. 135-138

Mezi občanem a národem – inspirující pohled na středoevropské dějiny. ZEMKO Milan, Občan, společnost, národ v pohybe slovenských dejín
(Michal Stehlík) s. 138-141

WEISS-WENDT Anton, Murder without Hatred. Estonians and the Holocaust
(Daniel Putík) s. 141-144


Zprávy
s. 145-165

Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA / CHRONICLE

Nekrology

Anežka Vidmanová (22. 10. 1929 - 25. 7. 2010)
(Božena Kopičková)
s. 166-170

Mojmír Horyna (23. 3. 1945 - 26. 1. 2011)
(Martin Krummholz)
s. 171-173

Stanley Bisguier Winters (5. 6. 1924 – 28. 1. 2011)
(Jaroslav Pánek)
s. 174-176


Knihy došlé redakci
s. 177

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
s. 177