Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW


ISSN 0862-6111
ročník 108/2010
č. 4/2010
s. 593-768 + I-XI

OBSAH / CONTENTS

STUDIE / STUDIES


BOUBÍN Jaroslav
Obraz převráceného světa. K úvahám Petra Chelčického o společnosti
(An Image of the World Turned Upside Down. Peter Chelčický’s Reflections on Society)
s. 593-614

An image of the world turned upside down, falsehood which governs it, and on the other hand the humiliated truth which is being expelled from everywhere, yet, turns out to be victorious at the end, represents if not a cliché then at least one of the most widely spread ideas which exercise the human mind. This notion was also rather common in Hussite Bohemia; after all, Chelčický’s work deliberately responds to these impulses. Indeed, the writings of this Southern Bohemian thinker present the remarkable culmination of this concept in medieval Bohemia, which is elaborated in Peter’s tractates to an incredible length. The article presented here attempts to substantiate the above mentioned fact by using both introductory examples selected from the area of social thinking and the consequent lexical analysis, which might be perhaps even more persuasive (e.g. an analysis of the concepts expressing the falsehoods and fallacies of the world, which can be found not merely in the writings of Peter Chelčický but also in the works of Tomáš Štítný, John Huss and Jan Rokycana). On the other hand, countless parallels of this particular concept from the period of the Middle Ages, which offered themselves, were overlooked. Indeed, the belief about the nature of an upside down turned world was mandatory in contemporary deliberations at that time. In this regard Peter’s interpretations can nearly serve as pars pro toto, although, perhaps, only to a limited degree. Chelčický’s interpretation of the world was extreme to a large degree, despite all its points of contact with common contemporary belief. However, it is evident that some of Peter’s most important social concepts, which 20th century historians came to view, in the end, as the first modern sociology of feudalism, could only be expanded from these extreme positions.

Abstrakt:
Článek je věnován společenským koncepcím významného husitského myslitele Petra Chelčického (okolo 1380 – před 1460). Hlavní pozornost se soustřeďuje na jeho obraz převráceného světa, v němž lež přemáhá pravdu a téměř vše je pravým opakem svého zdání. Základní rysy tohoto pojetí byly sice běžně přítomny ve středověkém myšlení, u Chelčického jsou však rozvinuty do pozoruhodné šíře a staly se východiskem jeho převratných sociologických koncepcí i drtivé kritiky společnosti. Studie se zaměřuje též na otázku, jak představa převráceného světa ovlivnila jazyk a slovní zásobu spisů Chelčického.

The article is devoted to social concepts of the Hussite thinker Peter Chelčický (b. around 1380 – d. before 1460). The main attention is focused on his image of a world turned upside down, in which falsehood dominates the truth and nearly everything is the reverse of what it seems to be. Although the fundamental features of this concept were commonly present in medieval thinking, Chelčický did expand them greatly and they became the starting point of his revolutionary sociological thoughts and his devastating critique of society. This study also deals with the issue of how his notion of a world turned upside down influenced the language and vocabulary of Chelčický’s writings.

Key words: Medieval society, Hussite movement, Petr Chelčický, John Huss, falsehood, truth, history of ideas, Political thought, semantic



FEJTOVÁ Olga
Formování správy raně novověkých měst pražských jako „demokratizační“ proces?
(The Formation of Administration in Early Modern Age Boroughs of Prague as a „democratization“ process?)
 s. 615-636

The specific position of the Prague conurbation, which on the one hand belonged to Czech Royal towns, yet, thanks to the religious-political development of the Bohemian Lands in the 15th – 17th centuries, simultaneously acquired a relatively independent status, which enabled it to form a policy for the entire third estate, made it also possible to create specific conditions for the formation of an administrative-political system. From the Middle Ages onwards, it was determined in the individual independent boroughs of Prague by three fundamental constituents: a municipal community – town elders – a council. Hussitism escalated the process of defining the status and competences of individual administrative links of administration, which, however, remained variable throughout the entire period of the 15th to 17th centuries. Their development depended on the actual strength of sovereign power and they contained within themselves a number of components linked to certain „democratization“ tendencies. In addition, from the beginning of the 16th century this process was linked to the dynamic growth of the lower strata of municipal administration. Through their intermediary, an ever growing, or changeable circle of burghers, who enjoyed full rights, could participate in the administration. At the same time there was a tendency to prevent administrative committees of town elders and the municipal council from becoming only open to a limited group of burgher elites.
This work deals with the question as to what degree the above mentioned „democratic“ elements of the administrative systems of the two towns of Prague (The Old Town and The New Town) were preserved and in which direction they developed as they significantly influenced their function from the period of the Hussite Revolution onwards. The issue under research is examined in the period between the Hussite Revolution and the defeat of the Estates’ Rebellion in 1620, with an emphasis being placed on the position of the municipal councils, against the backdrop of several important socio-political conflicts. They became involved in attempts to resolve them, or respectively, the majority of burgher society felt their consequences as these struggles ended in open conflict. These conflicts became the catalyst for the formation of a municipal administrative system.
The boroughs of Prague and their administrations passed through three important conflict periods from the Hussite era until the end of the 16th century, which significantly influenced the development and formation of their self-government. It started with the power struggle against religious elements within municipal self-government; the conflict with the aristocratic estates to have the independent status of towns as a recognized estate; up to direct conflict with the sovereign, who had a latent presence in all the above mentioned struggles. The decisive role in these clashes was played by the bourgeois economic and intellectual elites, which penetrated the committees of elders as executive organs of municipal self-government on the one hand, but also by the middle classes of bourgeois society, which dominated municipal communities, the proper parliaments of towns, on the other hand. Standing beside these clashes were the classes of burgher population, which did not enjoy full rights, yet, they became a power which was manipulated by the above mentioned groups of burghers in conflicts, which took place inside the borough. The mentioned clashes resulted in the gradual elimination of the formerly high degree of autonomy of the two boroughs of Prague and their self-government, which was based on a number of „democratic“ elements since the Hussite period.
It is necessary to view the above mentioned conflicts not merely as a Czech phenomenon but as a component of Early Modern European urban history. It represented the position, which did not yet question the medieval basis of a municipal constitution, which among others relied on the legal entitlement of a community to participate in town administration and simultaneously strove to maintain the balance between the oligarchic and democratic principles in the political system of towns.

Abstrakt:
Příspěvek sleduje na pozadí několika společensko-politických krizí v Praze (respektive na Starém a Novém Městě pražském) v období mezi husitskou revolucí a porážkou stavovského povstání roku 1620 proměny účasti jednotlivých vrstev měšťanské společnosti na správě města a tvorbě jeho samostatné politiky vůči panovníkovi i ostatním skupinám stavovské společnosti, a to nejen v období uvedených krizí, ale především následně v dobách relativní stabilizace společenských poměrů. Hledá odpověď na otázku, do jaké míry se uchovaly a jakým směrem se vyvíjely jisté „demokratické“ prvky systému fungování správy obou měst pražských, které ovlivňovaly fungování systému městské správy významným způsobem od období husitské revoluce. Vytváření a fungování raně novověké správy měst pražských je nahlíženo v kontextu středoevropského vývoje (respektive vývoje říše a říšských měst) jako proces komunikace všech tří základních složek městské správy, tj. obce, obecních starších a rady, a to jak v rovině správní, tak i na úrovni politické, náboženské, i ekonomické.

This contribution observes changes in the participation of the individual classes of bourgeois society in town administration and the formation of its independent policy towards the sovereign and other groups of Estates’ society in the period between the Hussite Revolution and the defeat of the Estates’ Rebellion in 1620, against the backdrop of several socio-political crises in Prague (namely in The Old Town and The New Town of Prague). It does not study merely the periods of these crises but it primarily pays attention to the consequent periods of relative stabilization of social conditions. It searches for answers to the question to what degree certain „democratic“ features of the system of functioning of the administration in both towns of Prague were maintained and in which direction they developed. Indeed, they significantly influenced the functioning of the system of municipal administration from the period of the Hussite Revolution onwards. The formation and functioning of the early modern administration of the Boroughs of Prague is viewed in the context of Central European development (respectively, the development of the Holy Roman Empire and Imperial towns) as a process of communication between the three fundamental components of municipal administration, i.e. a municipal community, town elders and a council, at the level of administration, as well as at political, religious and economic levels.

Key words: Late Middle Ages, Early Modern Age, Prague, history of administration, socio-political crises



KOZMANOVÁ Irena
Fridrich Vilém Braniborský a jeho místodržitelé. Panovník v kontextu vícenásobné vlády 17. století
(Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg, and his Stadholders. The Ruler within the Framework of 17th Century Composite State)

s. 637-663

Early Modern Age statehood differed significantly from 19th and 20th century statehood. One of the approaches which attempts to define this is the concept of a composite state (Mehrfachherrschaft). It shows that in the Early Modern Age was very often fairly common for a geographically unconnected conglomerate of countries to be under the governance of one ruler, yet with the individual parts maintaining their own legal, political or economic systems. This state of affairs was widely accepted by both rulers and individual parts of the state and it was not viewed as a negative feature.
A typical example of a composite state is Brandenburg-Prussia in the period of the reign of the “Great Elector” Frederick William of Brandenburg (1640-1688). In addition to Brandenburg itself, he also governed other territories in the Holy Roman Empire (Cleves-Mark, Farther Pomerania, Minden, Ravensberg, Halberstadt, Magdeburg) and the Duchy of Prussia which was not part of the Empire. One of the methods which Frederick William, as the ruler, used for coping with the structural characteristics of a composite state was the institute of Stadholders.
To these posts, Frederick William nominated high-born men or those worthy of elevation, who could apply their authority to uphold the authority of their office. The Stadholder was the direct representative and the embodiment of the ruler in that place and his main role was to make the government as such visible. His personal relationship with the ruler, often supported by, for example, kinship, was of key importance.
In time the importance of the role of Stadholders significantly changed in connection with the development of statehood and the integration of individual countries within a unified state. Whereas the Stadholders were an important tool of government during the reign of Frederick William in the period after the Thirty Years’ War, they were later replaced by the bureaucratic apparatus as central government grew stronger and the function merely became that of a representative office.

Abstrakt:
Studie se zabývá problematikou složeného státu na příkladu braniborského kurfiřta Fridricha Viléma (1640-1688) a jeho místodržitelů jako jednoho z nejdůležitějších prostředků, které kurfiřt při překonávání strukturálních problémů vyplývajících ze složeného státu volil.  Analyzuje způsob výběru místodržitelů a jejich funkci v chápání panovníka a dobové společnosti. Období první poloviny vlády Fridricha Viléma charakterizuje jako klíčové pro možnosti uplatnění této funkce jako efektivního nástroje vládnutí vzhledem k charakteru státnosti a oslabení panovnické moci po třicetileté válce.

This study deals with the issues of a composite state (Mehrfachherrschaft), using the example of the Elector of Brandenburg Frederick William I (1640-1688) and his Stadholders. They represented one of the most important means which the Elector chose to overcome the structural problems stemming from a composite state. The study analyses the manner of selecting Stadholders and their function as it was understood by the ruler and contemporary society. It characterizes the first half of the reign of Frederick William as the key period for the possibility of implementing this function as an efficient tool of government with regard to the character of statehood and the weakening of sovereign power after the Thirty Years’ War.

Key words: Frederick William of Brandenburg, Brandenburg-Prussia, Stadholders, composite state, development of statehood


OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEW ARTICLES AND REVIEWS



Přehledy bádání a historiografických studií

DEJMEK Jindřich
Moderní dějiny československého státu v revizionistickém pohledu 
(Modern History of the Czechoslovak State from a Revisionist Point of View)
s. 664-677

Abstrakt:
Recenzní článek podrobně rozebírá dějiny Československa z pera britské historičky Mary Heimannové. V textu jsou kriticky přehlížena některé teze autorky, týkající se např. politické praxe meziválečného Československa, jeho minoritní politiky a také problémů odboje za obnovu československého státu v letech druhé světové války. Autor pozoruje, že výklad knihy často potlačuje mezinárodní kontext některých událostí. Současně si všímá selektivního způsobu jejich výběru a také značných mezer ve využití anglických a amerických prací k tématu, jež přispěly k poměrně četným faktografickým omylům autorčina výkladu.  

This review article scrutinizes a history of Czechoslovakia from the pen of the British based, American born historian Mary Heimann. This review critically assesses some of the author’s propositions, which relate to, for example, the politics of inter-war Czechoslovakia and its minority policy. She also investigates issues of the resistance movement, which fought for the restoration of the Czechoslovak state in the years following World War II. Dejmek observes that the book under review often overlooks the international context of certain events. At the same time he also comments upon the selective manner in which they are chosen as well as considerable gaps in the use of English and American works on this topic, which contributes to rather numerous factual mistakes in this historian’s interpretation.

Key words: Czechoslovakia – history, minorities in Central Europe, history of the Communist bloc


Recenze

SPÁČIL Vladimír - SPÁČILOVÁ Libuše, Míšeňská právní kniha. Historický kontext, jazykový rozbor, edice
(Hana Pátková) s. 678-679

RYANTOVÁ Marie, Památníky aneb štambuchy, to jest alba amicorum. Kulturně historický fenomén raného novověku
(Jiří Pešek) s. 679-683

Úděl žen. Žena v českých zemích od středověku do 20. století. LENDEROVÁ Milena - KOPIČKOVÁ Božena - BUREŠOVÁ Jana - MAUR Eduard (eds.)
(Magdaléna Pokorná) s. 683-687

ŠTAIF Jiří, Obezřetná elita. Česká společnost mezi tradicí a revolucí 1830–1851; ŠTAIF Jiří, František Palacký. Život, dílo, mýtus
(Jiří Kořalka) s. 687-691

Pohled odjinud: nesnadná dilemata evropské levice. STEPHAN Jean-Pierre, Thomas Harlan: das Gesicht deines Feindes. Ein deutsches Leben
(Svatava Raková) s. 691-696

Nové poznatky k druhé berlínské krizi. WETTIG Gerhard, Chrustschows Berlin-Krise 1958 bis 1963. Drohpolitik und Mauerbau; UHL Matthias, Krieg um Berlin. Die sowjetische Militär und Sicherheitspolitik in der zweiten Berlin-Krise 1958 bis 1962; LUŇÁK Petr (ed.), Plánování nemyslitelného. Československé vojenské plány 1950–1990
(Tomáš Nigrin) s. 696-702

RUSCONI Gian Enrico - WOLLER Hans (ed.), Parallele Geschichte? Italien und Deutschland 1945–2000
(Soňa Mikulová) s. 702-705

Monumentální dílo v oboru historické retrospektivní bibliografie. KUBÍČEK Jaromír a kolektiv, Česká retrospektivní bibliografie
(Jaroslav Pánek) s. 706-710

Zprávy
s. 711-749


Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA / CHRONICLE



Nekrology

Gerard Labuda (28. 12. 1916 - 1. 10. 2010)
(Marceli Kosman)
s. 750-752


Knihy došlé redakci
s. 753

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
s. 753-767