Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW
ISSN 0862-6111
ročník 108/2010
č. 1/2010
s. 1-184


OBSAH / CONTENTS


STUDIE / STUDIES


KALHOUS David
Slovanské písemnictví a liturgie 10. a 11. věku
(Slavonic Liturature and Liturgy in the 10th and 11th Centuries)
s. 1-33

The author sets himself the task of clarifying the attribution of several Old Slavonic literary documents, which are linked to 10th century Bohemia in an effort to resolve the issue of continuity or discontinuity of Old Slavonic literature. In addition he devotes his attention to the problem of the relationship between „Old Church Slavonic“ liturgy and literature at that time. Finally, he clarifies the importance of the phenomenon of special liturgy in the Early Middle Ages.
Based on a number of partial analyses, used by him to test primarily the hypothesis of the existence of earlier literature, he confirms that in the 10th century the First Old Church Slavonic Legend about St Wenceslas (První staroslověnská legenda o sv. Václavu) was written down in the territory of Bohemia and Moravia, perhaps alongside a song Hospodyně, pomiluj ny and the legend of St Vitus. However, references to earlier Great Moravian literature in the first named legend and in Legenda Christiani (Legenda Kristiánova) allow us to ponder on the continuity of Old Church Slavonic. The importance of this proposition is, however, weakened by the low „occurrence“ of these literary documents and also, if we take into consideration the texts from the 11th century, their primarily translated nature.
The author further focuses on the problems related to liturgy in Old Church Slavonic. He demonstrates that efforts to separate strictly liturgy and literature, postulated both by Graus and Večerka is not appropriate for the Early Middle Ages. He also documents the importance of liturgy for the identity of the clergy in a particular diocese and its ability to withstand unification efforts of the Papacy in Rome. He further draws attention to the paucity of literary evidence in Old Church Slavonic combined with a failure to achieve its potential legalisation. On this basis, he comes to the conclusion that even though Methodius’ „Old Church Slavonic“ liturgy became a political reality from time to time, it was evidently not a part of some defined programme but rather formed an ad hoc argument. One can only surmise as to its importance in the practical life of the Czech and Moravian Churches.

Abstrakt:
Na základě rozboru argumentace ve prospěch místa a doby vzniku staroslověnských památek spolu s využitím zjištění o znalosti velkomoravských textů v českém prostředí 10. století autor dokládá kontinuitu staroslověnského písemnictví v Čechách a na Moravě v 10. století. Rovněž ukazuje na slabost negativních důkazů proti možnosti kontinuity liturgie ve staroslověnštině, stejně jako na velmi slabou pramennou evidenci, jež by svědčila pro ni. Kromě toho navrhuje spíše rozlišovat mezi doklady praktického využití této liturgie a mezi snahami ji „politicky“ využít, než oddělovat písemnictví a liturgii.

Based on an analysis of arguments submitted for the benefit of ascertaining the place and date of the origins of Old Church Slavonic literature together with using the findings that there was awareness of Great Moravian texts in the 10th century Czech environment, the author documents the continuity of Old Church Slavonic literature in 10th century Bohemia and Moravia. He also points out the weakness of evidence negating the possibility of the continuity of liturgy in Old Church Slavonic, as well as the paucity of literay evidence to prove the above. In addition he proposes that rather than separating literary documents and liturgy, the evidence of the practical use of this liturgy should be differentiated from any attempts to use it for „political“ purposes.

Key words: The Middle Ages, Old Church Slavonic, Bohemia and Moravia, Church History


ANTONÍN Robert
Karel IV. a odkaz „polské“ politiky posledních Přemyslovců
(Charles IV and the Legacy of the Last Przemyslids‘ „Polish“ Policies)

s. 34-69

The hypotheses and conclusions of the study presented here confirm that Charles IV actively deployed Przemyslid traditions to strenghten and to support ideologically his own political moves. The author reveals this historicism not merely in the formal sameness of documents originating from the Przemyslid and Luxembourg Chanceries but primarily in the tradition contained in the collective memory of the political and intellectual elites surrounding the Sovereign. This tradition is captured in both diplomatic sources and chronicles, whose texts became the basis for the official interpretation of the past. The roles of tradition and continuity led to an analysis of sources, from which they both arise. The author thus attempts, using a retrospective view of the 14th century, to clarify whether „succession“ agreements were concluded between Przemysl Ottokar II or Wenceslas II and Henry IV Probus, the Duke of Wrocław. This study succeeds in completing gaps in the existing hypotheses by adding further knowledge and combines it with a fresh interpretation of the situation after the Przemyslid’s death when the spontaneous presence of Henry IV in Bohemia, most likely accompanied by other Polish Princes, sufficiently backs up the existence of an earlier agreement between this Duke and the King of Bohemia. This agreement, it seems, provided a framework for relations between Henry and Przemyslid’s successor. The King of Bohemia and the Duke of Wrocław came to an understanding towards the end of the 1280s, and Wenceslas, according to Henry’s testament, became the Defender of his Lands. This interpretation then also explains the issue and contents of Rudolph I’s Charters from 1290 for Wenceslas, showing at the same time that the awareness of the treaty between Wenceslas and Henry was brought to the court of the Roman Emperor by the Bohemian King himself in the autumn of that year. This study points out that the policy of the last Przemyslids towards Wrocław territory, and the approach of John of Luxembourg and consequently that of Charles IV, also, is primarily linked by the role of the Kłodzko Province. It served as both a real and a hypothetical forfeit, by which the Bohemian kings acquired dominance over the territory of Lower Silesia. The strength of this tradition manifested itself among others in its appearance in the text of „The Silesian Privilege“ of Charles IV in which Charles and his scribes manifested a considerable degree of ability to model the historical development by minute shifts of meaning in such a manner as to make it comply with his official concept of the integrity of the Bohemian Crown Lands. This Privilege merges both traditions: the subordination of Wrocław territory, and thus also Silesia, to the Bohemian King – on the one hand the tradition of personal succession agreements between the Piasts and the Przemyslids and simultaneously on the other the tradition of granting the aforementioned Duchy to the Bohemian Kings as an imperial fiefdom. On the basis of this reflection it is evident that the Luxembourgs sitting on the Bohemian throne definitely continued the Silesian policy of the last Przemyslids at a level of intentionally seeking and discovering continuity also in a place where it might have never existed.

Abstrakt:
Studie se zabývá otázkou politického historismu Karla IV. a jeho využitím při začleňování Slezska do svazku zemí Koruny české. Součástí argumentace je i nové vyhodnocení vztahů posledních Přemyslovců k vratislavským knížatům, neboť právě tyto vztahy tvořily jeden ze základních pilířů lucemburských nároků na slezskou oblast. Výklad se opírá o interpretaci pramenů různého typu: listin, formulářových sbírek, kronik či nekrologií a o komparaci pramenných výpovědí se závěry a hypotézami dosavadní historické produkce k tématu.

This study deals with the issue of political historicism on the part of Charles IV and its use when incorporating Silesia within the union of the Bohemian Crown Lands. One part of this reasoning also employs a fresh evaluation of the last Przemyslids‘ relationships towards the Dukes of Wrocław, since these very relationships formed one of the fundamental pillars of the Luxembourgs‘ claims to Silesian territory. The interpretation is based on a variety of sources: charters, collections of forms, chronicles or necrologues and upon a comparison of resource evidence with the conclusions and hypotheses of contemporary historical reesearch on this theme.

Key words: The Middle Ages, 13th–14th centuries, the Bohemian Crown Lands, Poland, Silesia, Charles IV., Wenceslas II., Przemysl Ottokar II., historical sources


MATERIÁLY / ARTICLES


DEJMEK Jindřich
Československá diplomacie v únoru a březnu 1948. Příspěvek k mezinárodním aspektům komunistického převratu a k destrukci česko-slovenských demokratických elit stalinistickým režimem
(Czechoslovak Diplomacy in February and March of 1948. A Contribution on International Aspects of the Communist Coup d’État & the Destruction of Czech and Slovak Democratic Elites by the Stalinist Regime)
s. 70-113

Prior to the Communist coup d’état, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs continued to be that part of the state apparatus, which was relatively lightly affected by an infiltration of civil servants affiliated to the Czechoslovak Communist Party – at the time of the putsch with less than 12% of senior civil servants claiming allegiance to the Party. Yet, the Communists managed to enforce some personnel changes towards the end of 1947, which together with their excellent intelligence on the activities of democratic diplomants contributed to the fact that the non-Communist elements in practice failed to use this one trump card they held in the power struggle. In addition, thanks to the relative passivity of Jan Masaryk, the Foreign Minister himself, who was among other things probably influenced by the threat of Soviet intervention, which was heralded also by the arrival of the Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Zorin to Prague, the Communist minority succeeded in taking over the Ministry as early as the weekend of 21st - 22nd February. It was then followed, even there, by the establishment of an Action Committee, controlled by the Communists, which initiated the so-called purging of staff. The new powers found developments in some of the Republic‘s diplomatic missions in several Western countries more complex. Some Ambassadors and lower ranking administrators, too, stood against the regime. The Czechoslovak ambassadors in the USA and Canada were the first ones to do so, followed by those in the Netherlands and Norway. A further, rather significat section of office bearers declared their opposition to the new government after the unexplained death of the Foreign Minister Jan Masaryk. The most important step in this anti-Communist resistance was, however, the request of the permanent delegate of the CSR at the UN. The Ambassador Ján Papánek managed to keep the international aspects of the coup, primarily interference by the Soviets in Czechoslovak internal affairs, on the agenda of the Security Council of the UN for three months. Even when he was denounced by the new power, the whole event served to raise an awareness of the putsch in Prague amongst the Western public.

Abstrakt:
Studie se zabývá strukturou a změnami v československé diplomacii v momentu komunistického převratu a krátce po něm. KSČ, k níž se před únorem 1948 hlásila jen nevelká minorita úřednictva, se podařilo již na počátku převratu, celkem bez obtíží ministerstvo ovládnout. Proti nové moci se ovšem postavila část československých velvyslanců v západních zemích, mj. v USA, Francii, Kanadě a zemích Latinské Ameriky. Nejvýznamnější akcí byl pokus stálého delegáta u OSN J. Papánka dosáhnout toho, aby se mezinárodními aspekty převratu zabývala Rada bezpečnosti OSN. I když byl novou komunistickou vládou ihned desavuován, přispěl k poznání skutečných okolností převratu západní veřejností.

This study deals with the structure and changes in Czechoslovak diplomacy at the time of the Communist coup d’état and shortly thereafter. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia to which only a small minority of civil servants declared their allegiance prior to February 1948, succeeded in gaining control of the Ministry without any difficulties as early as the very beginning of the putsch. However, a number of Czechoslovak Ambassadors in Western countries, among others those in the USA, France, Canada and the Latin American countries stood against the new power. The attempt of the permanent delegate at the UN, Ján Papánek to persuade the UN Security Council to consider the international aspects of the putsch was the most significant contribution. Even though he was immediately denounced by the new Communist Government, he helped to raise an awareness in the West of the real circumstances of the coup d’état.

Key words: Czechoslovakia, the Communist coup d’état in February 1948, Czechoslovak diplomacy, of the Cold War, Communist regime


ČERNUŠÁK Tomáš
Pražská nunciatura a počátky Katolické ligy
(The Prague Nunciature and the Beginnings of the German Catholic League)
s. 114-126

The Papal Nuncius at the Imperial Court, Antonio Caetani, who held this office between 1607 and 1611, also played an important role during the establishment of the German Catholic League. The first intimation of this intention, which was warmly embraced by Maximilian, Duke of Bavaria, was sent to Rome by Caetani in his dispatch from early October 1608. In fact, this was the first occasion that he met the Duke’s Envoy Dr. Forstenheuser. Their joint discussions record that there were several reasons why the Duke sought the support of the Holy See. Firstly, in order that the Pope might actively encourage the somewhat hesitant and procrastinating German ecclesiastical Princes; also in order to persuade non-German Catholic Rulers to support this strategy and finally to gain the Pope’s financial support. The Nuncius Caetani, however, treated the idea of a League of Catholic Rulers, with much caution. His main reason was the uncertainty whether such a Union had indeed been established by the German Protestants, as was the Duke of Bavaria’s assumption. In addition, there was also the issue of the involvement of the Hapsburgs in the planned League. Rome also doubted whether such a project involving Catholic Rulers was at all viable and they warned that the finances at the disposal of the Holy See were rather limited at that time. This mistrust of papal diplomacy resulted in the stalemate of joint discussions with the Bavarian side from the end of November 1608. Yet, the Nuncius Caetani attempted in the following months to ascertain, with inconsistent results, whether a Protestant Union had really been established in Germany. The papal policy towards this issue only changed in April 1609, when news about the appropriation of some part of the property belonging to the Bishop of Speyer by the Elector of Palatinate. At that time both Caetani and Rome recognized the necessity for the foundation of a Catholic League, because it seemed evident to them that the Protestants were striving to restrict the power of the Catholic Church in Germany. In addition, in May 1609 Caetani, in co-operation with the Spanish Envoy Zuñiga, began another independent initiative to strengthen the strategy of establishing the League of Catholic Rulers. They decided, in fact, to send a Capuchin preacher Lawrence of Brindisi to the Spanish king to gain his support. The Holy See subsequently approved this mission, which in the end succeeded.

Abstrakt:
Papežská diplomacie, reprezentovaná u císařského dvora nunciem Antoniem Caetanim (1607-1611), se k plánu bavorského vévody Maxmiliána na založení ligy katolických vládců stavěla zpočátku velmi rezervovaně. Ke změně postoje došlo až v dubnu 1609 v důsledku obsazení majetků špýrského biskupa falckým kurfiřtem. V květnu 1609 navíc nuncius Caetani spolu se španělským vyslancem Zuñigou vyslal za účelem získání podpory Ligy ke španělskému králi kapucína Vavřince z Brindisi.

Papal diplomacy, represented at the Imperial Court by the Nuncius Antonio Caetani (1607-1611), adopted a very cautious attitude towards the plan of Maximilian, Duke of Bavaria to establish a League of Catholic Rulers. This attitude only changed in April 1609 as a result of the appropriation of properties belonging to the Bishop of Speyer by the Elector of Palatinate. In addition, in May 1609 the Nuncius Caetani, together with the Spanish Envoy Zuñiga, dispatched a Capuchin Lawrence of Brindisi to the Spanish king in order to gain his support for the League.

Key words: Bohemia, Prague, Antonio Caetani, the German Catholic League of 1609, the Nunciature, confessionalisation, Counter-Reformation


OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEW ARTICLES AND REVIEWS


Recenze

SCHEUTZ Martin - SOMMERLECHNER Andrea - WEIGL Herwig - WEIß Alfred Stefan (Hgg.), Europäisches Spitalwesen. Institutionelle Fürsorge in Mittelalter und Früher Neuzeit / Hospitals and Institutional Care in Medieval and Early Modern Europe
(Karel Černý) s. 127-130

DRAŠAROVÁ Eva - HORKÝ Roman - ŠOUŠA Jiří - VELEK Luboš (editoři), Promarněná šance. Edice dokumentů k česko-německému vyrovnání před první světovou válkou. Korespondence a protokoly 1911-1912
(Pavel Cibulka) s. 130-132

COLE Laurence - UNOWSKY Daniel (eds.), The Limits of Loyalty. Imperial Symbolism, Popular Allegiances, and State Patriotism in the Late Habsburg Monarchy, Austrian Studies
(Veronika Sušová) s. 132-136

KOSSERT Andreas, Kalte Heimat: Die Geschichte der deutschen Vertriebenen nach 1945
(Ondřej Picka) s. 136-139


Zprávy
s. 140-165


Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA / CHRONICLE


Nekrolog

Radomír Václav Luža (17. 10. 1922 – 24. 11. 2009)
(Jaroslav Pánek)
s. 166-170

Knihy došlé redakci
s. 171

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
s. 171-179

Upozornění redakce
s. 180