Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW
ISSN 0862-6111
roč. 107, č. 4, 2009
s. 733-956 + I-XII


OBSAH / CONTENTS


STUDIE A MATERIÁLY / STUDIES AND ARTICLES


KLIMEK Tomáš
K dobovým náhledům na les českého středověku. Literární klišé nepřátelského prostředí
[Contemporary Attitudes to the Forest in the Czech Middle Ages. The literary cliché of the Forest as a hostile environment]
s. 733-768

This work is devoted to the perception of the forest in the medieval Czech Lands and its development. It is based on analyses of primarily narrative types of written sources linked to the Czech environment from the early 12th century until the beginning of the 15th century. The author attempts to find the origins of romantic conceptions which have survived until the present day in that area of world historiography inspired by the Annales School. Its representatives view the forest as an environment, which is exclusive and, in general, to be feared.
This interpretation has its origins in the contemporary literary cliché connected to the theological-philosophical concept of some texts. This study, thanks to its territorial definition, answers the question whether this literary cliché, known especially from the interpretations of French historiography whose representatives have exclusively based their research on West European sources, can also be found in the region of the Czech Lands. The analysis of texts has shown that the cliché of the forest as a hostile environment controlled by evil forces, can be found in its purest form only in The Chronicle of Zbraslav (Kronika zbraslavská).
The author of this article further attempts to speculate on the possibilities of other interpretations of narrative texts. He summarizes current methods of interdisciplinary collaboration in the Czech Lands and on the basis of several investigations into non-narrative types of written material, he outlines further research opportunities.
Analyses of documentary materials and the so-called Execution Books, sources overlooked until now, enable us to address the issues such as the degree of real danger posed by a forest environment, the standing of the forest in the neighbouring environment, the gradual marking of its boundaries and the development of the concept of the forest linked to economic importance. The author of this article sets out to reconstruct fragments of medieval man’s attitudes to a forest environment. In summary, it can be stated that the forest fulfilled a number of function in the Middle Ages and many people were closely involved in contact with it on a daily basis. People feared particular locations and particular dangers, not the forest as such. The concept of the forest as a restricting barrier and the antithesis to civilisation has its origin in the later Medieval Ages. Yet, it obviously developed fully in the Early Modern Age and in particular during the Romantic period.

Abstrakt:
Článek se zabývá dobovým vnímáním lesa v českých středověkých zemích a jeho vývojem od počátku 12. do počátku 15. století. Ukazuje jádro romantických představ o středověké imaginaci prezentovaných některými představiteli školy Annales, a snaží se ukázat možnosti rekonstrukce dílčích střípků náhledů středověkého člověka na lesní prostředí. Autor využívá písemné i archeologické prameny a pro komparaci také závěry antropologických studií.

This article deals with the contemporary perception of the forest in the medieval Czech Lands and its development from the beginning of the 12th century until the early 15th century. It points out the very crux of romantic concepts in terms of the medieval imagination as presented by some representatives of the Annales School. It attempts to outline the possibilities of the reconstruction of fragmented attitudes to the forest environment held by medieval man. The author makes use of written and archaeological sources. For comparison purposes he also embraces the conclusions of anthropological studies.
 
Key words: the history of mentalities, medieval imagination, the forest in the Middle Ages, nature in the Middle Ages, the history of everyday life, Czech countryside, the romantic concept of the Middle Ages


HAVLÍK Jiří M.
Spor českého duchovenstva o imunity církve. K politickým aktivitám pražského arcibiskupa Jana Bedřicha z Valdštejna
[The Bohemian Clergy’s Disputes on the Immunity of the Church. On the political activities of the Prague Archbishop Jan Bedřich of Waldstein]

s. 769-796

This study deals with the polemics between the Bohemian clergy and the state apparatus and lay estates in the first half of the 1690s. Indeed, these polemics played a key role in the development of the clergy’s status within the Bohemian Land Diet. The clergy’s representations at the 1693-1694 Diet are considered to have been a pivotal moment, though it led to the clergy’s temporary expulsion from the proceedings. This issue is usually interpreted in terms of attempts to enforce the implementation of the Estates’ freedoms; opposition to the Emperor; initiatives to implement Joseph I’s ecclesiastical policies and other matters. Yet, a closer look at the course of events at the Bohemian Land Diet in the 1690s unveils a more complex picture. The polemics which the clergy, then headed by Jan Bedřich of Waldstein (1675–1694) and the Litoměřice Bishop Jaroslav Ignác Holický of Sternberg (1676-1709), initiated, involved topics which were somewhat different. This study strives to ascertain the heart of the matter for the Bohemian clergy in the 1690s. In its conclusions this study finally comes nearer to the opinions of Church historians from the close of the 19th century, and indeed to a similar interpretation presented by Václav Bartůněk. He understood the course of events to be more of a conflict between the state and ecclesiastical powers. The clergy, contrary to the other estates, perceived its standing at the Land Diet, as rather problematic – on the one hand the Diet was for them an important platform where they could strive for the implementation of their political interests, but on the other hand it represented a thorny problem, namely the possible subordination to numerically prevailing lay estates, who, however, lacked competence, from the clergy’s point of view, over issues relating to them.
The clergy clashed with lay estates many times even as early as the first half of the 17th century. In the second half of the 17th century, when it was stronger and it also seemed much more consolidated, the strongest clashes, especially with the aristocratic estates, Imperial commissars, or possibly the Emperor’s Deputies, primarily occured in connection with the financing of the military campaigns by the House of Hapsburg between 1678–1699. In that context it seems that the polemics of 1682–1686 and 1691-1694 were the most important. They, both led to deliberations concerning the expulsion of the clergy from the sittings of the Diet, and the latter, indeed, ended in expulsion. The sessions of the Diet were influenced by frequent interventions from outside – i.e the ruler’s ambiguous letters and such like. However, the Spiritual estates also deployed external interventions to defend their own interests. It requested assistance from the Papal Secretariat of State and the Vienna nunciature with respect to individual issues. In addition to local archives, this study, therefore, draws, to a significant degree, upon foreign materials, especially those which are deposited in the Vatican archives.

Abstrakt:
Tato studie pojednává o polemice českého duchovního stavu se státním aparátem a světskými stavy z první poloviny devadesátých let 17. století. Za neuralgický bod ve vývoji postavení kléru na českém zemském sněmu je označováno jeho vystoupení na sněmu let 1693–1694, které vedlo k dočasnému vyloučení duchovenstva z jednání. Autor se s využitím pramenů, uchovávaných v domácích i zahraničních archivech snaží rozkrýt, o co v 90. letech českému kléru skutečně šlo.

This study deals with the polemics of the Bohemian ecclesiastical estates with the state apparatus and lay estates in the first half of the 1690s. The positions it adopted at the 1693-1694 Diet are considered to be the pivotal point in the development of the standing of the Bohemian clergy at the Bohemian Land Diet. They ultimately led to the temporary expulsion of clergy from the proceedings. Using sources deposited in local and foreign archives, the author attempts to unveil what the Bohemian clergy really desired and demanded in the 1690s.

Key words: spiritual estates, Bohemian Land Diet, the early Modern Age, ecclesiastical history, Jan Bedřich of Waldstein, church immunity


KUČERA Rudolf
Páni kamarádi. Gender v raném dělnickém hnutí českých zemí před rokem 1848
[Messieurs Brethren. Gender in the early labour movement in the Czech Lands before 1848]
s. 797-822

What role did the category of gender play in the formation of the early labour movement in the Czech Lands before 1848? What influence did it have on the origins, structure and the course of the ever increasing number of working class protests, which culminated in the widespread disturbances of the summer of 1844?
This study is devoted to these questions. It appears at a time when there is practically no research carried out by Czech historiography into the history of labour and the labour movement. It provides a general survey of some fundamental theoretical and methodological starting points for the history of the labour and working class movement on the one hand and the history of gender on the other hand. Through their interlinking it then researches gender aspects of the formation of the early labour movement in the pre-March Czech Lands. Whilst doing so it primarily focuses upon the environment of the textile industry, which played a dominant role within the context of the industrialization of the Czech Lands. The majority of the working class was concentrated there and the majority of the first labour protests ocurred there, also.
When looking at the development of the gender composition of this key industry of the pre-March industrialization, and at its correlation to the structure of relevant protests, one obvious contrast comes to the fore. Despite the fact that in practically all factories both men and women were employed and although there were skilled types of work carried out by female operatives, the labour protest all over Bohemia was carried out nearly exclusively by the male workforce body or collective subject.
The forms of this protest were then an expression of masculinity specifically encoded in the environment of male friendly societies during the entire first half of the 19th century. It was the leaders of friendly societies who were pivotal in the protests and they also fundamentally influenced their nature. A peaceful, orderly protest, which emphasized legality, alongside collectively formulated standpoints exactly corresponded to the patterns of behaviour which were cultivated in the masculine environment of friendly societies. Women, as they were not entitled to strike benefits, were, thus, excluded from any labour protests, and were denied any opportunity to participate in the formation of the collective protest subject.
In addition to being the struggle for preserving the market value of workers’s skilled labour, labour unrest in pre-March Bohemia was also the manifestation of the specific subjectivity of male skilled labour, which integrally interconnected masculinity with productivity.

Abstrakt:
Studie se zabývá rolí genderu v raném dělnickém hnutí Českých zemí před rokem 1848. Zkoumá genderové složení kolektivního dělnického protestu i diskursivní praktiky, které pomáhaly konstituovat protestující subjekt. Touto analýzou dospívá studie k závěru, že složení raných dělnických protestů bylo genderově výrazně exkluzivní a diskursivní praktiky konstituující protestující dělnický subjekt byly vyjádřením kulturní reprezentace nově vzniklé formy dělnické maskulinity.

This study deals with the role of gender in the early labour movement in the Czech Lands before 1848. It analyses the gender composition of collective labour protest, as well as discourse practices which helped to constitute the protesting body. Using this analysis, the study comes to the conclusion that the composition of early labour protests was exclusive in terms of gender and that the discourse practices, which constituted the protesting labour subject were the expression of the cultural representation of the newly emerging form of working class masculinity.

Key words: The Czech Lands 1815-1848, history of labour and the labour movement, the history of gender, the history of masculinity, cultural representation, collective protest


LACH Jiří
Nakladatelství Jana Laichtera a jeho působení na českou nakladatelskou kulturu
[Jan Laichter’s Publishing House and his Influence on the Culture of Czech Publishing]
s. 823-853

This study traces the views of two generations of Czech publishers in terms of the establishment of scientific literature. Since the 1890s this House concentrated on the publication of original and translated scientific literature and no other publishers in the Czech Lands matched its efforts. Jan Laichter largely identified himself with the views of T. G. Masaryk, who worked as editor-in-chief of the magazine Naše doba (Our Times) with the Leichters. Like the future President, Jan Laichter saw the ongoing improvement of education amongst the Czech population and the case for science as principal tasks for a publisher. Both, Jan and František Laichter, also took keen interest in the problems linked to the establishment and the organization of the publishing profession. From the 1920s František Leichter’s role in the company and also in the Czech publishing environment grew increasingly. He replaced his father in the estates’organs and soon became one of the most important theoreticians in publishing culture. Indeed, fate dictated that it was František Leichter, who de facto and from 1944 also de iure directed his father’s company throughout the complex circumstances of World War II, the three post-war years and the emergence of the Communist regime. Like his father, František Leichter was primarily interested in the reliable production of first-rate Czech books; in looking after reputable authors and in the lifelong education of the nation’s population. After 1948, these principles were, obviously, vanquished, as were private publishers themeselves as bearers of these cultural ideals and premises. František Leichter’s last role was to became the passive observer of the destruction of a publishing culture in Czechoslovakia.

Abstrakt:
Jan Laichter and his son František Laichter contributed to an extensive development of the Czech publishing culture in the 20th century. The article follows the milestones of this process using their own optics, comments, write-ups or correspondence in viewing the needs of publishing sector, book culture and readers. Jan Laichter publishing house aimed towards systemic production of scholarly books and soon became one the most essential resource of this genre in the Czech lands. Laichters’ reflections demonstrate clearly their dedication to a quality book which was supposed to expand cultural horizons of the Czechs. Both father and son after him subordinated a momentary financial profit to a careful and long-term publishing scheme. Jan and František Laichters are witnesses of a massive dependence of book publishing sector on momentary political settings. František Laichter in particular had to face two totalitarian regimes and sought methods how to deal with censorship and open political threatening.

Key words: Jan Laichter, František Laichter, Czech publishing culture, literature, historiography, Czechoslovakia


OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEW ARTICLES AND REVIEWS



Recenze

FUČÍKOVÁ Eliška - ČEPIČKA Ladislav (edd.), Albrecht z Valdštejna. Inter arma silent musae? (Tomáš Knoz) s. 854 - GRULICH Josef, Populační vývoj a životní cyklus venkovského obyvatelstva na jihu Čech v 16. až 18. století (Pavel Pumpr) s. 858 - JINDRA Zdeněk, Když byl Krupp „dělovým králem“… Fa Friedr. Krupp/Essen od založení ocelárny po rozšíření ve zbrojovku a koncern (1811 - počátek 90. let 19. století), (Milan Myška) s. 863 - ČAPKOVÁ Kateřina - FRANKL Michal, Nejisté útočiště. Československo a uprchlíci před nacismem 1933-1938 (Jan Benda) s. 866 - HALBRAINER Heimo - KURETSIDIS-HAIDER Claudia (Hg.), Kriegsverbrechen, NS-Gewaltverbrechen und die europäische Strafjustiz von Nürnberg bis Den Haag (Dagmar Černá) s. 870 - PETRÁŇ Josef, Dvacáté století v Ouběnicích. Soumrak tradičního venkova (Pavel Cibulka) s. 873

Zprávy
s. 877

Výběr ČČH
Ze zahraničních časopisů

s. 909


Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA / CHRONICLE



Nekrology

Jan Bistřický (12. 6. 1930 – 21. 10. 2008)
(Jana Oppeltová)
s. 914

Jan Kuklík (23. 6. 1940 - 22. 8. 2009)
(Jan Němeček)
s. 918


Konference a výstavy

XV. světový kongres hospodářských dějin
(Milan Hlavačka)
s. 922

XXIII. mezinárodní kongres pro dějiny vědy a techniky
(Milada Sekyrková)
s. 926

7. mezinárodní konference k dějinám chemie
(Milada Sekyrková)
s. 928

Rudolfův Majestát – milník v dějinách Evropy?
(Kateřina Bobková-Valentová)
s. 928

Keplerův odkaz v kosmickém věku
(Milada Sekyrková)
s. 929

Kláštery v obou Lužicích. K (re-)konstrukci kulturní krajiny. Odborná konference o dějinách, architektuře a umění
(Petr Hrachovec)
s. 930

Konference „Čest a právo“
(Petr Kreuz)
s. 931

Konference o úloze mužů v čarodějnických procesech
(Petr Kreuz)
s. 933

Vídeňské mezinárodní sympozium o Hansi Kelsenovi
(Petr Kreuz)
s. 935

Konference k výročím českých kolejí v Římě
(Jaroslav Šebek)
s. 937

Konference o stavu a perspektivách výzkumu komunistických elit
(Petr Koura)
s. 939

Liberecký česko-slovenský seminář 2009: Rok 1989 na dohled
(Jan Rychlík)
s. 941


Knihy došlé redakci
s. 942

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
s. 942