Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.


ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW
3/2008

 

OBSAH / CONTENTS

 

 

STUDIE A MATERIÁLY / STUDIES AND ARTICLES

 

PÁTROVÁ Karin
Prebendy nejstarších kolegiátních kapitul do sklonku 14. století (Stará Boleslav, Litoměřice, Vyšehrad)
(The Prebends of the Earliest Collegiate Chapters until the Close of the 14th Century /Stará Boleslav, Litoměřice, Vyšehrad/)
s. 505-535

Collegiate Chapters were established as one of the Church institutions in Bohemia in the Early Mediaeval Age. At first, influenced by the early ideals of communal living, canons used chapter property jointly. In time, however, prebends were gradually assigned to individual canons, providing material security for each canon separately. Thanks to preserved written sources, including the so-called foundation charters, this development can be well observed in the case of the earliest Bohemian chapters which emerged during the 11th century at Stará Boleslav, Litoměřice and at Vyšehrad.

The resource analysis shows that at first an endowment for the provost, as representative of the chapter community, was assigned from chapter property, followed by separate endowments for other dignatories. This conclusion is particularly confirmed by the fact that the core of the provost’s prebend comprised parts of the earliest chapter property, from the times of joint ownership.

There was a different route for the formation of prebends for ordinary chapter members. Following the provisional period during which certain parts of common property were assigned to them, the significant change occurred and a new property, which did not have much in common with the original chapter property, became the core of prebends. This is evident especially with the Vyšehrad Chapter prebends. The initial assignment from around 1130, when 9 villages were divided between 1-3 ordinary canons, was replaced by new prebends comprising estates from the region of the so-called Svatavin újezd in the River Želivka Basin. The Chapter probably started its settlement during the 13th century. There were established about 20 villages which became the basis for 11 canonical prebends.

The canonical prebends of the other two Chapters were secured in their majority by newly acquired property. Similarities between the Vyšehrad prebends and the Stará Boleslav Chapter can be observed, as the latter was equipped with property on connected territory relatively close to the home Chapter. However, in this case we cannot prove whether the settlement of this space occurred thanks to the Chapter or whether the Chapter acquired the already colonized villages. Whereas the individual Vyšehrad prebends at Svatavin újezd were assigned one to three villages, the prebends of Stará Boleslav canons were scattered throughout several localities in terms of the range of the Chapter property, with one village even likely to be part of several prebends.

When expanding the number of chapter members in later times, new prebends were secured by different means. There were mergers of canonicates with incorporated churches where the property of these churches became the basis of the respective prebends. Sporadically, prebends emerged as new foundations, materially secured by independent endowment. If a canonical prebend emerged without a new endowment, its stipend depended on the existing property of the Chapter, part of which had to be assigned for the benefit of the emerging prebend. This is best illustrated by the foundation of the Litoměřice Deanship, which could only rely on the property of the existing scholastery; in addition that property was enlarged from the Provost’s prebend.

Property transaction are merely documented with Chapter provosts; only the Vyšehrad Dean was involved in a similar activity from amongst other Chapter members. No exchanges, purchases or sales of property are documented with other capitular members. It seems that an assignment of one, two villages or even some parts thereof meant that there was no reason to arrange exchanges. Indeed, canons rather had the actual prospect of securing a better prebend.

Abstrakt:
Studie se zabývá vývojem prebend v nejstarších českých kolegiátních kapitulách, založených v průběhu 11. století. Po rozpadu původně společně užívaného majetku se prebendy staly základem majetkového zázemí každého kanovníka. Dlouhodobý proces, během něhož se po určitém přechodném období definitivně ustavuje systém prebend, byl završen teprve v průběhu 13.-14. století. I přes určité rozdíly, zejména v rozsahu svého majetku, vykazuje vývoj prebend ve sledovaných kapitulách shodné rysy. Jádrem této práce je snaha postihnout, do jaké míry navazovaly jednotlivé prebendy na prvotní kapitulní zboží ještě z dob společného soužití, či zda se jejich základem stal nově nabytý majetek.

This study deals with the development of prebends in the earliest Bohemian collegiate chapters, established during the 11th century. After the collapse of original common property, prebends became the basis of each individual canon’s property background. Following the transitory period, this long-term process, during which the system of prebends was definitely established, finally culminated during the 13th and 14th centuries. Despite certain differences, especially in terms of the scope of their respective properties, the development of prebends in the Chapters under research shows similar features. The main focus of this work has been to define the degree to which individual prebends were related to the initial capitular merchandise from the era of communal living, or whether their basis was a newly acquired property.

Key words: Church, Middle Ages, collegiate chapter, prebend, provost, dean, scholastic, custodian, canon, Bohemia, Stará Boleslav, Litoměřice, Vyšehrad

 

WANNER Michal
Albrecht z Valdštejna a severní maritimní plán
(Albrecht of Wallenstein and the Northern Maritime Plan)
s. 536-561

 This Project of a Hapsburg-Hanseatic Company of merchants intended to serve as an instrument to oust the Dutch from the Baltic trade, commonly known as the Northern Maritime plan or Count-Duke de Olivares’ Grand Project, was one of the key issues of European diplomacy between 1624-1629. However, until now the fragmentation of resources has meant that historical studies have merely illustrated individual aspects of this huge theme. This contribution presents an attempt to overcome the above mentioned limitations and to provide a more comprehensive view of this Project using existing documents from Czech archives.

In the introduction the author outlines the neglected Iberian roots of the Northern Maritime Plan. At the beginning of the 17th century the Spanish-Portuguese co-state, facing Dutch and English attacks, looked for ways of mobilizing private capital and forming an efficient commercial company able to withstand the competition of the European maritime superpowers in Asia. Prior to the realization of this idea for a company, it had been involved in the broadly conceived „Grand Project“ of Count-Duke de Olivares. The Indian Company was to stand alongside a number of Iberian companies, which were to run the entire overseas trade of the Iberian co-state and were to act as the Hapsburg sword against Dutch and German Protestants. In addition to an attempt to crush the Dutch rebels, the background to this Plan was the necessity to undermine the strength of the Dutch Estates based on profits from maritime trade. Count-Duke de Olivares, therefore, tried to establish a maritime base in the North Sea and to persuade the Emperor and the Catholic League to participate in a war against the Low Countries.

This intention was firstly modified by the Polish King Sigismund III., who tried to involve the Spanish in a war with Sweden. This Plan presupposed the transfer of the Flanders fleet to the Baltic. The Polish Plan was wrecked as a result of Spain’s state bankruptcy and the inability of the Poles to break the Swedish blockade of Gdaňsk (Danzig). Thus, Albrecht of Wallenstein became Spain’s ally, as he had taken possession of extensive regions of Northern Germany and Denmark, as well as the harbour at Wismar. Wallenstein’s primary goal was to invade the Danish isles. He, therefore, held discussions on the assistance of the Spanish fleet and Spanish maritime experts in the construction of the Emperor’s fleet. At the same time he also initiated talks with the Hanse on the construction of a navy. The Spanish tried to make Wallenstein embark upon a campaign to the west; to conquer West Friesland and participate in the war against the Dutch. Wallenstein was not willing to do that. On the other side he asked for the help of the Flanders fleet in the conquest of Denmark and a financial subsidy without which it was impossible to continue the war. This discord in their intentions finally led the Spanish to abandon the Northern Maritime Plan.

Despite this situation Wallenstein succeeded in being appointed „General of the Baltic and Oceanic Seas“ on 21. April 1628. Although the help of the Hanseatic towns proved to be merely an empty promise, he succeeded in constructing a fleet, which in 1629, with Polish assistance, carried out several smaller attacks against the Swedes. The Peace of Lübeck from 22 May 1629 marked the definitive end to the Northern Maritime Plan. It banned Danish support for Protestants in Northern Germany, yet it simultaneously meant the abandonment of extensive territories occupied by the Imperial Army. It was merely the idea of the formation of a Portuguese Indian Company, established between 1628 and 1633 that survived the failure of the Northern Maritime Plan.

Abstrakt:
Studie popisuje vznik, průběh a příčiny neúspěchu tzv. severního maritimního plánu v letech 1626-1629. Šlo o španělský plán na vytvoření habsbursko-hanzovní obchodní společnosti, která by byla nástrojem k vytěsnění Nizozemců z baltského obchodu. Tento plán byl pro španělskou politiku nástrojem, jak zapojit vojska císaře a katolické ligy do zápasu proti Nizozemsku. Albrecht z Valdštejna ve společnosti viděl naopak nástroj k dokončení porážky Dánska a ovládnutí Baltského prostoru. Nesoulad mezi zájmy jednotlivých aktérů nakonec způsobil krach celého projektu. Neúspěch plánu přežila jen idea vytvoření portugalské Indické společnosti, která stála na počátku celého projektu a která došla realizace v letech 1628-1633.

This study outlines the origins, the course and causes leading to the failure of the so-called Northern Maritime Plan in the years 1626-1629. This was a Spanish plan to create a Hapsburg-Hanseatic trading company, which would be an instrument to oust the Dutch from the Baltic trade. This Plan was an instrument for Spanish diplomacy how to involve the armies of the Emperor and the Catholic League in the fight against the Low Countries. On the other side, Albrecht of Wallenstein viewed the Company as an instrument for concluding the defeat of Denmark and the conquest of the Baltic region. The discord between the interests of individual participants in the end caused the collapse of the entire Project. Yet, the idea of the establishment of a Portuguese Indian Company, which was at the very roots of the entire Project, survived the failure of this Plan and took place between the years 1628 and 1633.

Key words: Wallenstein Albrecht of, Duke 1583-1634; Thirty Years` War, 1618-1648 – history; Northern maritime plan 1624-1629; Olivares, Gaspar de Gurmán 1587-1645, Spanish statesman; Portugal - India - Business relations - 16th-17th centuries; Baltic - Trade - Thirty Years` War, 1618-1648; Spain - diplomatic relations - 17th century; Bohemia (Czech Republic) - diplomatic relations - 16th-17th centuries; Military leaders

 

FOJTEK Vít
„Uplatňovat zdrženlivost.“ Reakce Washingtonu na československou krizi v roce 1968 („Exercise Restraint.“ Washington’s Reaction to the 1968 Czechoslovak Crisis)
s. 562-597

This article deals with the consequences of the Warsaw Pact military invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. It monitors the influence of these events on the formation of United States foreign policy. Attention is paid to the actual perception of this military action in the United States, but the article also seeks to demonstrate the impact of the invasion on bilateral relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, which are most visible in the American approach towards the war in Vietnam as well as the idea of the possible initiation of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks in 1968. At the time, Washington’s attitude thus posed the problem of not entirely welcomed „bilateral cooperation.“

The Johnson Administration, however, apparently never viewed Dubček’s reform movement in 1968 as an event of vital importance to the East European policy of the United States. Washington was unwilling to compromise in order to strengthen Dubček’s moderate policies and remained silent for more than three months after Dubček assumed power. In part, the changes in Prague came too fast to be thoroughly appreciated by the administration, which was fully engaged in Vietnam. Washington then justified its slow response by arguing that it wanted to avoid any appearance of exploiting the situation in Prague in order not to increase Soviet anxiety. The article is based upon analysis of newly declassified United States and West European archival documents.

Abstrakt:
The article examines the role of the United States during the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. Johnson’s restrained policy towards Czechoslovakia together with his willingness not to give up his pursuit of at least a symbolic start of SALT along with his unsuccessful attempt to end the war in Vietnam with a „possible“ Soviet help led to a certain „discrediting“ of American foreign policy. This subsequently resulted in the fact that, in 1968, the United States was simply not able to come up with a „meaningful alternative“ to challenge the reality of the Soviet power and rule in East-Central Europe.

Key words: United States, Czechoslovakia, Vietnam, Romania, Soviet invasion, relations, 1968, NATO, Warsaw Pact

 

DISKUSE / DISCUSSION

 

MACHÁČEK Jiří
Středoevropský model a jeho archeologické testování
(The Central European Model and its Archeological Verification)

Abstrakt:
Studie rozvíjí diskusi o tzv. středoevropském modelu, který má charakterizovat první vývojovou etapu přemyslovského státu. Tento model je zde testován s pomocí vybraných archeologických pramenů z období Velké Moravy. Vychází se především z výsledků dlouhodobých systematických výzkumu významné velkomoravské aglomerace na Pohansku u Břeclavi. Ve studii jsou prezentovány prostorové sídlištní struktury z Pohanska a jejich analogie ze západní Evropy. V diskusi je tzv. středoevropský model zpochybněn, zároveň je však poukázáno na některé rozdíly mezi západní a střední Evropou v raném středověku.

This study contributes to discussions about the so-called Central European Model, which is said to define the first developmental stage of the Przemyslid State. The validity of this model is verified here using selected archeological resources from the period of Great Moravia. It is primarily based upon results from long-term research at the important Great Moravian agglomeration site at Pohansko near Břeclav. This study investigates spatial settlement structures from Pohansko and their counterparts from Western Europe. The interpretation questions the validity of the Central European Model, while it simultaneously outlines some differences between Western and Central Europe in the Early Medieval Ages.

Key words: the Early Medieval Ages, archeology, Great Moravia, Bohemia, Pohansko near Břeclav, the Central European Model

 

FANTYSOVÁ-MATĚJKOVÁ Jana
Cesta Karla IV. do Francie. Příspěvek ke kritice Velkých francouzských kronik
(The Emperor Charles IV's visit to Paris. A Contribution to Criticism of The Grandes Chroniques de France)
s. 627-650

Abstrakt:
Studie se zabývá kritikou kapitol o cestě Karla IV. do Paříže (1377-1378), které jsou součástí Velkých francouzských kronik. Navazuje na kritické postřehy tří badatelů, Heinze Thomase, Françoise Autrand a Anne D. Hedeman, kteří zkoumali Velké francouzské kroniky Karla V. Analyzuje císařovu návštěvu v Paříži z hlediska francouzského dvora a rekonstruuje v případě některých konkrétních událostí (vjezd do Paříže, slavnosti Epifanie, sliby věrnosti) možný postoj císaře Karla IV., který není v historiografii dostatečně reflektován.

This study critically reviews the chapters dealing with the journey of Charles IV to Paris (1377-1378), which are part of The Grandes Chroniques de France. It continues the critical insights of three researchers, namely Heinz Thomas, Françoise Autrand and Anne D. Hedeman, who have investigated The Grandes Chroniques de France of Charles V. It analyses the Emperor’s visit to Paris from the perspective of the French Court. It further reconstructs the possible attitude of Charles IV. to some specific events (i.e. his entry to Paris, festivities of the Epiphany, oaths of allegiance), which has not been sufficiently reflected in historiography.

Key words: Emperor Charles IV., French King Charles V., France, Paris, The Grandes Chroniques de France

 

OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEWS

 

Přehledy bádání a historiografických studií

MIKULOVÁ Soňa
Trauma let 1943/1944: Německo-italské vyrovnávání se s válečnou minulostí
(The Traumatic Years 1943/1944: Germans and Italians Coming to Terms with their Military Past)
s. 651-657

Abstrakt:
Článek přibližuje dosavadní bádání německé historiografie na téma německé okupace Apeninského poloostrova v letech 1943-1945, přičemž se soustředí na dvě studie německých historiků Kerstin von Lingenové a Joachima Starona, kteří zkoumali význam okupace a represálií na italském obyvatelstvu v kulturní paměti poválečného (západního) Německa a Itálie. Lingenová sledovala v západoněmecké společnosti vznik a životaschopnost mýtu o „čistém boji“ wehrmachtu na italské frontě na osudu generála Alberta Kesselringa, zatímco Staron se zaměřil na italský mýtus o rezistenci nesený vzpomínkami na masové zabíjení zajatců a civilistů ve Fosse Ardeatine a Marzabottu. Obě studie se věnují kulturní paměti jak v Německu, tak v Itálii a jejich vzájemné recepci – Lingenová po dobu dvou dekád od konce války, Staron až do konce devadesátých let minulého století. Vycházejí přitom z bohaté pramenné základny a přes některé uvedené výhrady představují důležitý příspěvek k poválečné historii obou států ve vztahu k jejich válečné minulosti.

This article outlines contemporary research on the German occupation of the Apennine Peninsula between 1943-1945 in German historiography. It focuses upon two studies by German historians, Kerstin von Lingen and Joachim Staron, who have investigated the impact of the occupation and repressions upon the Italian population in terms of the cultural memory of post-war (West) Germany and Italy. Lingen has followed the origins of the enduring myth of the Wermacht’s “clean war” on the Italian Front in West German society regarding the life of General Albert Kesselring. Staron, on the other hand, focuses upon the Italian myth of resistance, fed by memories of the massacre of prisoners and civilians at Fosse Ardeatine and Marzabotto. Both studies are devoted to cultural memories in both Germany and Italy and how they are perceived – Lingen concentrates upon the period of the two post-war decades, while Staron examines events until the 1990s. They base their work upon considerable resources and despite some of the above-mentioned reservations, their work provides a serious contribution to the post-war history of both states in relation to their military pasts.

Key words: a post-war culture of reminiscing in Germany and Italy, German historiography, the myth of the clean war of the Wermacht, General Kesselring, the myth of resistance, Fosse Ardeatine and Marzabotto

 

Recenze

KOS Dušan, In Burg und Stadt. Spätmittelalterlicher Adel in Krain und Untersteiermark (Robert Šimůnek) s. 658 – HROCH Miroslav, Das Europa der Nationen. Die moderne Nationsbildung im europäischen Vergleich (Milan Hlavačka) s. 661 – GEBHART Jan – KUKLÍK Jan, Velké dějiny zemí koruny české, Svazek XV.b 1938-1945 (Detlef Brandes) s. 666 – PEŠEK Jiří - TŮMA Oldřich - KITTEL Manfred – MÖLLER Horst (připravili k vydání), Německé menšiny v právních normách 1938-1948. Československo ve srovnání s vybranými evropskými zeměmi; KITTEL Manfred – MÖLLER Horst – PEŠEK Jiří – TŮMA Oldřich, Deutschsprachige Minderheiten 1945. Ein europäischer Vergleich (Detlef Brandes) s. 669

Zprávy
s. 674

Výběr ČČH
Ze zahraničních časopisů
s. 717

Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA / CHRONICLE

 

HLEDÍKOVÁ Zdeňka
Český historický ústav v Římě v letech 2006-2007
(The Czech Historical Institute in Rome between 2006-2007)
s. 721-725

Nekrology

Josef Kollmann (27. 6. 1920 – 17. 6. 2007), (Eva Drašarová)
s. 726

Werner Korthaase (4. 5. 1937 – 6. 5. 2008), (Jaroslav Pánek)
s. 729

 

Konference a výstavy

Chronicon Aulae Regiae / Zbraslavská kronika – bilance (Marie Bláhová)
s. 732

Konec dynastie. A co dál? Disputatio magistrorum II. (Markéta Marková)
s. 734

Poděbradové v českých dějinách (Josef Žemlička)
s. 734

1918: Model komplexního transformačního procesu? (Ota Konrád - Michal Pehr - Josef Tomeš - Richard Vašek)
s. 735

Zasedání českých právních historiků v rámci mezinárodní konference Nové jevy v právu na počátku 21. století (René Petráš)
s. 738

„Život plný střetů“ – konference věnovaná životu a dílu Jana Slavíka (Lukáš Babka)
s. 739

Sekularizace venkovského prostoru v 19. století (Milan Řepa)
s. 741

 

Knihy došlé redakci
s. 743

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
s. 743