Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW

4/2007


OBSAH / CONTENTS


STUDIE A MATERIÁLY / STUDIES AND ARTICLES

VELKOVÁ Alice
Proměny venkovské společnosti v letech 1700-1850
(Transformations of Rural Society between 1700–1850)
s. 809-857

RAŠKA Francis D.
Rada svobodného Československa, 1949-1956
(The Council of Free Czechoslovakia, 1949-1956)
s. 858-872


DISKUSE / DISCUSSION

JAN Libor
Skrytý půvab „středoevropského modelu“
s. 873-902

MAŤA Petr
O české aristokracii a „obvyklých pravidlech vědecké práce“ (Odpověď Jiřímu Peškovi)
s. 903-913

PEŠEK Jiří
Obrana proseminárních hodnot aneb odpověď odpovědi Petra Mati
s. 914-919


OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEWS

Recenze

LEVY Ian Christopher (ed.), A Companion to John Wyclif. Late Medieval Theologian (František Šmahel) s. 920 - LEISERING Eckhart, Die Wettiner und ihre Herrschaftsgebiete 1349-1382. Landesherrschaft zwischen Vormundschaft, gemeinschaftlicher Herrschaft und Teilung (Ivan Hlaváček) s. 924 - BŮŽEK Václav, Ferdinand Tyrolský mezi Prahou a Innsbruckem. Šlechta z českých zemí na cestě ke dvoru prvních Habsburků (Jiří Pešek) s. 926 - KIZIK Edmund (ed.), Nikolausa Volckmara Viertzig Dialogi 1612. Źródlo do badań nad źyciem codziennym w dawnym Gdańsku (Olga Fejtová) s. 933 - WIENFORT Monika, Der Adel in der Moderne (Rudolf Kučera) s. 936 - CERMANOVÁ Iveta - MAREK Jindřich, Na rozhraní křesťanského a židovského světa. Příběh hebrejského cenzora a klementinského knihovníka Karla Fischera (1757-1844), (Lenka Veselá) s. 939 - WIESEMANN Falk, Antijüdischer Nippes und populäre „Judenbilder“. Die Sammlung Finkelstein (Jiří Pešek) s. 942 - KOKEŠOVÁ Helena - QUAGLIATOVÁ Vlasta - SWIERCZEKOVÁ Lucie (edd.), Korespondence T. G. Masaryk - Karel Kramář (Hans Lemberg) s. 945 - BENEŠ Edvard, Projevy - články - rozhovory, 1935-1938. Ed. VAŠEK Richard; BENEŠ Edvard, The Fall and Rise of a Nation: Czechoslovakia 1938-1941. Ed. HAUNER Milan (Jindřich Dejmek) s. 947 - GEBHART Jan - KUKLÍK Jan, Velké dějiny zemí Koruny české, Svazek XV.a 1938-1945 (Detlef Brandes) s. 952 - KASTNER Klaus, Die Völker klagen an. Der Nürnberger Prozess 1945–1946 (Dagmar Černá) s. 955


Zprávy
s. 958

Výběr ČČH
Ze zahraničních časopisů
s. 998


Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA / CHRONICLE

HAVLÍK Jiří M. – ČORNEJOVÁ Ivana
Jezuitská jubilea roku 2006 v českém a slovenském historickém bádání
(The Jezuit Jubilees of 2006 in Czech and Slovak Historical Research)
s. 1003-1012


Nekrolog

Dušan Třeštík (1. 8. 1933 - 23. 8. 2007)
(Petr Sommer - Josef Žemlička)
s. 1013-1019


Konference a výstavy

První kongres zahraničních badatelů o dějinách Polska
(Kateřina Bicanová-Pražáková)
s. 1020

Římská konference o papežských legátech 15. století
(Zdenka Hledíková)
s. 1021
XII. kongres Mezinárodní společnosti pro výzkum 18. století
(Milena Lenderová)
s. 1023

Školní nadace a financování studií. Vzdělanostní mecenát mezi konfesí, zemským patriotismem a raně moderní národní myšlenkou v českých, rakouských a uherských zemích, 1500-1800
(Martin Holý)
s. 1025

Hospodářské elity v českých zemích a v Německu ve srovnávací perspektivě
(Jakub Rákosník)
s. 1027

Post tenebras spero lucem? Duchovní tvář českého a moravského osvícenství
(Denisa Nečasová)
s. 1029

T. G. Masaryk a česká státnost
(Denisa Nečasová)
s. 1030


Knihy došlé redakci
s. 1032

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
s. 1032


RESUMÉ A ABSTRAKTY

ALICE VELKOVÁ
Transformations of Rural Society between 1700–1850
Throughout the 18th century and in the first half of the 19th century rural society underwent the striking transformation which one can observe not only on economic, social and legal levels but changes also impacted upon the lifestyles of the individual members of a rural family and they simultaneously influenced people’s outlook. The author illustrates the cause, the scope and consequences of this process on three fundamental levels – on the social stratification of rural society; on the tranformation of the meaning of kinship community and on the changes which accompanied proprietary–legal relationships and also their retroactive influence upon the life-cycles of the members of a rural family. The author adopts the comparative method; she compares the conclusions of both foreign and local specific studies with her own research carried out in four localities on the West Bohemian Estate of Šťáhlava.
During the 150 years under review, a significant transformation of the social spectrum took place. Its main feature was the growth of the landless class. However, the intensity and concrete manifestations of this develepment differed in individual regions. One could say that they depended upon the respective ecotype and the means of earning one’s livelihood. The dynamics of this process were at their highest in regions with proto-industrial textile manufacture. Yet, the landless house-owning class also appeared and subsequently grown in agricultural regions. It gradually became the numerically strongest social category in a number of locations and overshadowed the until then dominant groups of farmers and smallholders. At the same time these changes impacted greatly upon the social mobility of the rural population. It might be said that individual social classes developed as somewhat enclosed entities and it was practically impossible for the non-settled population to penetrate into the economically-active categories throughout the 18th century. From the point of future prospects, social origin thus became a key factor.
Suitable conditions for the settlement of families were constituted at the beginning of the 18th century. Whereas we can observe that in the 16th century and also in the 17th farmers often changed their place of work, this migration practically ceased in the 18th century. Farmers, smallholders, and house-owners, also, started to create a sort of family prosperity, which they passed down the generations. As a consequence settled people simultaneously created a relatively stable social network which they could rely upon in case of need and which comprised both neighbours and relatives. The role of the wider family was much more significant in the 18th century; indeed more crucial than ever before or after. At this time the attempts of farmers to keep the farmstead in the hands of the members of this wider family at any cost can be observed. This state of affairs again changes throughout the 19th century. The people living at that period are primarily focused on their own immediate family, not on a wider generic community. Hand in hand with an increased social differentiation, there appears a class of economically strong individuals for whom family property becomes the brake on their economic and social rise. These people do not hesitate to abandon paternal homesteads, which consequently leads to a greater migration than that which was typical for the 18th century.
A rural family was influnced not merely by social and economic conditions but the legal reforms of Joseph II also significantly impacted upon it. Between the years 1786-87 an important change regarding the right to inherit was introduced. For the first time farmers were allowed to choose freely their successor. If they did not exercise this right themselves, it was stipulated that the farmer’s oldest son would become an heir instead of the youngest son as was customary until then. This change of the right to inherit consequently influenced the circumstances of the transfer of serf farmsteads and it also changed the standing of individual members of the farmer’s family. In addition to the change of the right to inherit, Joseph II’s reforms also strengthened the proprietary-legal status of farmers’ wives. In the 19th century women become co-owners of their husbands’ farmsteads more often than before that time. They could, contrary to their former position, become effectual farm managers with real decision-making powers.

ALICE VELKOVÁ: Proměny venkovské společnosti v letech 1700–1850
Studie se zabývá proměnami venkovské společnosti v letech 1700-1850, jejichž projevy sleduje ve třech rovinách. První z nich se týká sociální stratifikace společnosti – v průběhu sledovaného období narůstají neselské vrstvy obyvatel a zároveň dochází i k uzavřenosti jednotlivých sociálních kategorií. Druhou rovinou jsou proměny v rodinných vazbách. Autorka ukazuje, že v 18. století hrála v životě hospodářů důležitou roli širší rodina, v 19. století svůj zájem koncentrují již pouze na vlastní užší rodinu. Třetí oblast postihuje změny, k nimž došlo v majetkoprávní sféře a které ovlivnily životní cyklus příslušníků venkovské rodiny.

ALICE VELKOVÁ: Transformations of Rural Society between 1700–1850
This study deals with the transformations of rural society between 1700-1850, and observes their manifestations on three levels. The first of them concerns the social stratification of society – in the course of the period under review the non-farming classes of population grew in numbers and at the same time individual social categories became enclosed. The second level is the transformation in family relationships. The author documents that a wider family played an important role in the lives of farmers in the 18th century; in the 19th century they came to focus their attention merely upon their own immediate family. The third one reflects transformations which occured in the proprietary-legal area and which influenced the life-cycles of the members of a rural family.

Key words: countryside, family, mobility, property transfers, social stratification, family relationships, the right to inherit, life-cycle, Bohemia, the 18th century, the first half of the 19th century.

*  *  *

FRANCIS D. RAŠKA
The Council of Free Czechoslovakia, 1949-1956
The Council of Free Czechoslovakia was founded in 1949 as a unified political body of Czechoslovak democratic exile in the USA. Its structure was based on the principle of political parties. Parties of the National Front and the Agrarian (Republican) party, which was reconstituted in exile, were represented on it. In addition to the representatives of these parties, the Council also included several important personalities without any political affiliation. The Council’s activities were hindered by the rivalry of the political parties and disputes between the Czechs and Slovaks. The Council was financed by the American National Committee for a Free Europe; existing expatriate organisations did not provide support for the Council.
In January 1951 the first split of the Council occurred. Thirteen members of the Executive Committee left the Council because of their disagreement with the length of office for office bearers. They set up an independent organization, called the National Committee of Free Czechoslovakia. Efforts to re-unite the two organisations lasted eighteen months. In July 1952 a re-unification took place, but the Republicans were not at first represented on the new Council. During the next few years internal disagreements within the Council continued. Despite these disagreements, the Council remained united on the issue of the irreversibility of the post-war re-settlement of ethnic Germans outwith Czechoslovakia.
The most important activity in the fight against communism was the direct participation of the Council’s members in the broadcasting of Radio Free Europe. The members of the Council also actively worked in international organisations. Their role in the Assembly of Captive European Nations (ACEN) was especially important. In their first years of its activity the members of the Council radically influenced the activities of ACEN and played a key role during the formulation of ACEN’s plans for the unification of Europe.

FRANCIS D. RAŠKA: Rada svobodného Československa, 1949-1956
Rada svobodného Československa, založená v roce 1949 na principu politických stran, byla prvním jednotným orgánem politické emigrace ze zemí východní Evropy za studené války. Rada byla podporována americkou vládou, ale nezískala podporu existujících krajanských organizací. Její činnost byla komplikována řevnivostí politických stran i osobností a rozpory mezi Čechy a Slováky. Nejúčinnějším prostředkem Rady v boji proti komunismu byla přímá účast členů ve vysílání Rádia Svobodná Evropa a působení v mezinárodních organizacích, zejména v Assembly of Captive European Nations.

FRANCIS D. RAŠKA: The Council of Free Czechoslovakia, 1949-1956
The Council of Free Czechoslovakia, founded in 1949 on the principle of political parties, was the first unified body of political emigration from the countries of Eastern Europe during the Cold War. The Council was supported by the American Government, but it did not gain support from existing expatriate organisations. Its activities were hindered by the rivalry of political parties and personalities and disputes between the Czechs and Slovaks. The most efficient tool of the Council in its fight against communism was the direct participation of its members in the broadcasting of Radio Free Europe and their participation in international organisations, especially in the Assembly of Captive European Nations.

Key words: Czechoslovakia, Cold War, The Council of Free Czechoslovakia, exile, political parties, the National Committee for a Free Europe (NCFE), the Assembly of Captive European Nations (ACEN), the National Committee of Free Czechoslovakia