Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW

3/2007


OBSAH / CONTENTS


STUDIE A MATERIÁLY / STUDIES AND ARTICLES

PEŘINOVÁ Helena
Postavení „šlechty ducha“ ve Svaté říši římské v zrcadle raně novověkých oděvních řádů
(The Position of „the Nobility of the Mind“ in the Holy Roman Empire as Mirrored in Early Modern Dress Codes)
s. 561-584

FILIPOVÁ Lucie
Německo-francouzská partnerství měst a obcí (1950–1990). Příklad soupeření mezi SRN a NDR
(German-French Twinning Partnerships of Municipalities (1950–1990). An Example of Rivalry between the FRG and the GDR)
s. 585-608

DOLEŽEL Stephan
K počátkům Historické komise sudetských zemí
(On the Origins of the Historical Commission of the Sudetenland)
s. 609-618


DISKUSE / DISCUSSION

MAUR Eduard
Revoluce ve výkladu historických proměn krajiny?
s. 619-626

ŠMAHEL František
Nad knihou Martina Nodla
s. 627-632

BENEŠ Zdeněk
Společná, či společné učebnice dějepisu? Francouzsko-německá učebnice jako výsledek hledání a ukazatel možných cest. Výzva k diskusi
s. 633-642


OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEWS

Přehledy bádání a historiografických studií

HRBEK Jiří
Absolutismus. Konstrukce a dekonstrukce jednoho historického pojmu
(Absolutism. Construction and Deconstruction of One Historical Concept)
s. 643-689

NĚMEČEK Jan
Polská a česká řada dokumentů zahraniční politiky – podobnosti a rozdíly
s. 690-695


Recenze

STLUKA Martin (ed.), Život Krista Pána (Jindřich Marek) s. 696 - KROUPA Jiří, Alchymie štěstí. Pozdní osvícenství a moravská společnost 1770-1810 (Daniela Tinková) s. 698 - LENDEROVÁ Milena - RÝDL Karel, Radostné dětství? Dítě v Čechách devatenáctého století (Marie Bahenská) s. 702 - FASORA Lukáš - HANUŠ Jiří - MALÍŘ Jiří - VYKOUPIL Libor (eds.), Člověk na Moravě v první polovině 20. století (Jan Randák) s. 706 - ŠEBEK Jaroslav, Mezi křížem a národem. Politické prostředí sudetoněmeckého katolicismu v meziválečném Československu (Miroslav Kunštát) s. 709 - LONGERICH Peter, „Davon haben wir nichts gewusst!“. Die Deutschen und die Judenverfolgung 1933-1945 (Lenka Šindelářová) s. 714 - OSTERLOH Jörg, Nationalsozialistische Judenverfolgung im Reichsgau Sudetenland 1938-1945 (Daniel Putík) s. 716


Zprávy
s. 721

Výběr ČČH
Ze zahraničních časopisů
s. 778


Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA / CHRONICLE

Konference a výstavy

Svatý Vojtěch. 1010 let od mučednické smrti
(Markéta Špůrová)
s. 783

Korunní země v dějinách českého státu III.
(Jan Zdichynec - Pavlína Cermanová-Libichová)
s. 784

Církev a zrod moderní racionality
(Pavla Stuchlá)
s. 785

Nobilitace v novověku ve střední Evropě
(Jiří Brňovják)
s. 786

Orbis Helveticorum
(Olga Fejtová)
s. 788

Mors principium est. 6. zasedání k problematice sepulkrálních památek
(Robert Šimůnek)
s. 789

Vídeň v průběhu staletí
(Václav Bůžek)
s. 791

Komunikace a informace v 18. století
(Jiří Pokorný)
s. 792

19. století v nás
(Magdaléna Pokorná)
s. 792


Knihy došlé redakci
s. 795

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
s. 796


RESUMÉ A ABSTRAKTY

HELENA PEŘINOVÁ
The Position of „the Nobility of the Mind“ in the Holy Roman Empire as Mirrored in Early Modern Dress Codes
Formal dress codes belong amongst the most common normative regulations issued in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe. On their basis it is possible to observe some transformation processes in society, in particular the changing relationships of the populace. The same also applies in the case of bearers of academic titles. Due to the special importance of doctors of law, for the establishment of the foundations of the modern state,“the nobility of the mind“ was elevated in social hierarchy to the same status as the lower „nobility of the family“ by the end of the 15th century at the latest. This status was also codified in the dress codes which were issued for the entire Empire in the 16th century and remained in force until 1806. However, they were gradually amended in the 17th and 18th centuries by orders of the Land nobility and municipal authorities. The dress codes of territorial princes clearly show the decreased prestige of those who completed university education on the one hand and the increased importance of those who held court positions on the other hand. The end result is the social differentiation of doctors based on the offices they occupied at the court or in academia: aristocratic benefits continued to be only afforded to Privy Counsellors, personal physicians of the sovereign and holders of University Chairs. In the case of major Imperial cities, graduates as a whole were usually demoted to the ranks of aldermen families at least. The efforts of the patriciate to achieve the privileged status at least within the city state they governed, although denied to them at the Land level,i.e. equal rights with the lower nobility, undoubtedly played its role here.

HELENA PEŘINOVÁ: Postavení „šlechty ducha“ ve Svaté říši římské v zrcadle raně novověkých oděvních řádů
Příspěvek sleduje na základě sondážní analýzy oděvních řádů vydaných na úrovni Říše, jednotlivých teritoriálních knížectví a svobodných říšských měst změny, ke kterým v průběhu raného novověku došlo v postavení nositelů akademických titulů. Zatímco na úrovni Říše se doktoři po celou dobu nacházeli na stejném stupni sociální hierarchie jako nižší šlechta, na zemské úrovni došlo k jejich postupné diferenciaci na základě vykonávané funkce u dvora. V případě významných říšských měst je naproti tomu patrná snaha degradovat „šlechtu ducha“ jako celek alespoň na úroveň radních rodů. Říšský „ideál“ a místní „realita“ k sobě tedy měly velmi daleko.

HELENA PEŘINOVÁ: The Position of „the Nobility of the Mind“ in the Holy Roman Empire as Mirrored in Early Modern Dress Codes
This article studies the changes in the status of the bearers of academic titles which happened throughout the Early Modern Ages. It is based on an analysis of dress codes issued for the entire Empire, as well as individual territorial principalities and free Imperial cities. Whereas at the level of the Empire doctors continued to have the same status as the lower nobility in the social hierarchy, at the Land level they came to be gradually differentiated on the basis of their positions at the court. In addition, there was a visible effort to degrade „the nobility of the mind“ as a whole at least to the status of town aldermen in the case of important Imperial cities. Thus, there was a wide gap between the Imperial „ideal“ and local „reality“.

Key words: the Early Modern Age, the Holy Roman Empire, dress codes, social stratification, doctors, lawyers, physicians, the nobility

*  *  *

LUCIE FILIPOVÁ
German-French Twinning Partnerships of Municipalities (1950–1990). An Example of Rivalry between the FRG and the GDR
The twinning of towns and communities represents a specific example of the international co-operation, which emerged in Europe and North America in the second half of the 1940s as a response to the brutality of World War II. Although local authority co-operation until the mid-1970s had primarily developed within individual ideological blocs, representatives of French communities had established contacts both in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Such twinning partnerships, however, took on completely different forms in the West and the East German states.
In West Germany this local authority co-operation was seen as an effective means of advancing a French-German rapprochement, and it was promoted by the political leadership of France, while in East Germany town twinning served the purpose of international propaganda and a vindication of the state. The French left, especially the Communists, played a crucial role in this. West German and East German towns and communities often established contacts with a potential twin community in a similar manner – through the initiative of individuals, through the intermediary of state organs or national and international associations. Yet, the official establishment of French-West German and French-East German twinning partnerships took on different forms, not merely in both German states but in France, also.
Further differences appeared in the course of local authority co-operation. Whereas in twinning partnerships between France and the FRG, regardless of political constellations, bilateral contacts between ordinary citizens were promoted, political aims were foremost in the twinning agenda between France and the GDR. Indeed, the main bearers of this twinning co-operation were the representatives of local authorities and political activists. Meetings usually took place on GDR territory. At first, the main reason was France’s reluctance to issue visas to East German citizens, later it was the East German leadership that attempted to hinder contacts with the West. These restrictions partly resulted from the fact that twinning partnerships between East Germany and France were largely financed by the East German side. Contrary to that the costs of local authority co-operation between the FRG and France were born by the twin communities in both countries, based on the principle of reciprocity.
Finally, partnerships significantly differed also as far as numbers were concerned. Despite inaccurate statistics kept by all three parties, it is still clear that local authority co-operation between the FRG and France was much more frequent.There were approximately twenty West German twinning partnerships to one East German. Despite the fact that West German twin-partnerships clearly exceeded in numbers, co-operation between East German and French communities were perceived in the FRG as undesirable. This rivalry ended with the German re-unification when East German partnerships became (without any preparatory stage) part of the network of specific French-German relations built over a long period of time – with all the advantages, yet also responsibilities following from this reality.

LUCIE FILIPOVÁ: Německo-francouzská partnerství měst a obcí (1950–1990). Příklad soupeření mezi SRN a NDR
Studie zkoumá partnerství, která vznikla v letech 1950–1990 mezi západoněmeckými a francouzskými městy a obcemi na jedné straně a mezi východoněmeckými a francouzskými komunami na straně druhé. Práce analyzuje odlišná východiska, která spočívala v různém ideologickém zdůvodnění této spolupráce, ve zcela jiném mezinárodněprávním postavení obou německých států i v rozdílných kompetencích příslušných komunálních orgánů. Text dále ukazuje, že rozdíly panovaly rovněž ve způsobu, jakým byla partnerství uzavírána, a poté udržována a rozvíjena. Studie upozorňuje i na odlišný způsob financování a značné rozdíly v počtu západoněmeckých a východoněmeckých partnerství. Současně je přiblížena role, kterou hrála německo-francouzská komunální partnerství ve vztazích mezi SRN a NDR.

LUCIE FILIPOVÁ: German-French Twinning Partnerships of Municipalities (1950–1990). An Example of Rivalry between the FRG and the GDR
This study researches twinning partnerships which emerged between 1950–1990 amongst West German and French towns and communities on the one hand and between East German and French communities on the other hand. It analyses diverse starting points, which had their foundations in differing ideological reasons for this co-operation; in the completely different international-legal standing of both German states; and also in dissimilar competences of relevant local authorities. This study further shows that there were also differences in the manner in which twinning partnerships were concluded and then maintained and advanced. This study also outlines the different means of financing and the considerable difference in numbers of West German and East German twinning partnerships. At the same time, the clarification of the role played by German-French town twinning in the relationships between the FRG and the GDR, is provided.

Key words: The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the German Democratic Republic (GDR), France, international co-operation, town twinning, local authorities, „Locarno from below“, contemporary history (1950–1990)

*  *  *

STEPHAN DOLEŽEL
On the Origins of the Historical Commission of the Sudetenland
On 30. 4. 1954 the founding members of the Historical Commission of the Sudetenland met for an inaugural meeting in Heidelberg. The proclaimed aim was „to ensure the continuation of the historical and national historical and geographical research of the Sudetenland by the German side, also, not merely leaving it in the hands of the Czechs“; so that exceptional problems caused by a lack of sources and literature were counter-balanced by research sponsorship; and the creation of publication opportunities which would promote work on such themes and present the results in a serious and realistic manner.
Before the Commission was founded the representatives of the former Prague Historische Kommission der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften and the Liberec Kommission für Geschichte bei der Sudetendeutschen Anstalt für Landes-und Volksforschung were reluctant to give up their own identities. It was only the establishment of Johann-Gottfried-Herder-Forschungrates (1950), „the top-level co-ordination centre of all the forces for Eastern research“, that demonstrated that it was necessary to try to attempt to establish a new „united“ Historical Commission for the Sudetenland, which would be, together with the historical commissions of „other East German regions“ represented in the working alliance of the Herder Institute’s Board. In 1954, 39 members were elected onto this Commission, including some who were resident in the GDR. Half the members of the Commission were university teaching staff. A number of them owed their career to the Third Reich; hardly any of the Commission members had been persecuted by the Nazi regime. A forty seven year old Rudolf Schreiber was elected the first chairman of the Commission. After his premature death, the leadership of the Commission passed to Henlein’s former deputy in the leadership of the Sudetenland administrative region Kurt Oberdorffer. Both Schreiber and Oberdorffer had been influenced, ever since their undergraduate days, by the historical paradigm based on the existence of permanent German-Czech nationalistic struggle.
The Commission’s relatively intense publication activity has got under way from 1955. Most of these works, which have exclusively dealt with the Sudeten German questions, have relied upon copies of archive material originating in the old homeland. None of the authors focused upon the Protectorate period or historiographical and personal self-reflection. The Commission focused its attention upon the issue of sources for the history of the Sudetenland alongside its interest in alternative sources from German and European archives. From the very beginning, work progressed on biographical and bibliographical handbooks. From 1955 onwards expert and political discussions took place about the possibility of establishing a research institute of Sudetenland history. One year later these resulted in the establishment of the Collegium Carolinum. However, the intense efforts of the political circles to exercise influence over the new Institute caused problems. Its independent and increasingly liberal character was determined by the strong personality of Karl Bosl. He headed the CC from 1958 until 1980, when another outstanding historian, Ferdinand Seibt, already the Chairman of the Historical Commission from 1965, took over and led it until his death in 2003. He encouraged both the Commission and the CC to take an interest in the Czech regions of the Czech Lands.

STEPHAN DOLEŽEL: K počátkům Historické komise sudetských zemí
Dne 30. 4. 1954 se v Heidelberku ustavila Historická komise sudetských zemí. Proklamovala cíl „pečovat o to, aby na německé straně pokračoval historický a vlastivědný výzkum sudetských zemí a nebyl přenechán pouze Čechům“, vyrovnávat mimořádné problémy, způsobené nedostatkem pramenů a literatury podporou výzkumu a vytvářením publikačních možností. Řada z 39 členů komise vděčila za svoji kariéru Třetí říši. Prvým předsedou komise byl zvolen Rudolf Schreiber. Po jeho smrti převzal vedení Kurt Oberdorffer, oba ovlivněni dějepisným paradigmatem německo-českého národnostního boje. Od roku 1955 se rozeběhla publikační aktivita komise. Většina prací se soustřeďovala na sudetoněmeckou tematiku. V centru zájmu komise stála otázka pramenů k dějinám Sudet a zájem o alternativní zdroje v německých archivech. Od počátku běžely práce na biografických a bibliografických příručkách. Odborné i politické diskuse o zřízení výzkumného ústavu pro sudetské dějiny vyústily 1956 v založení Collegia Carolina. Jeho nezávislý a stále liberálnější charakter určila silná osobnost Karla Bosla. Ten roku 1980 předal vedení Ferdinandu Seibtovi, od roku 1965 předsedovi Historické komise. Ten převedl komisi i CC k zájmu také o české oblasti českých zemí.

STEPHAN DOLEŽEL: On the Origins of the Historical Commission of the Sudetenland
On 30. 4. 1954 the Historical Commission of the Sudetenland was founded in Heidelberg. It proclaimed the aim „of ensuring the continuation of the historical and national historical and geographical research of the Sudetenland by the German side, also, not merely leaving it in the hands of the Czechs“; of balancing exceptional problems caused by a lack of sources and literature through research sponsorship and the creation of publication opportunities. A number of the 39 Commission members owed their careers to the Third Reich. Rudolf Schreiber was elected the first chairman of the Commission. After his death, the leadership passed to Kurt Oberdorffer, both of them having been influenced by the historical paradigm of German-Czech nationalist struggle. The Commission’s publication activity got under way from 1955. Most works focused upon Sudeten German themes. The Commission focused its attention upon the issue of sources for the history of the Sudetenland alongside its interest in alternative sources from German and European archives. From the very beginning, work progressed on biographical and bibliographical handbooks. Expert and political discussions about the establishment of a research institute of Sudetenland history resulted in the foundation of the Collegium Carolinum in 1956. Its independent and increasingly liberal character was determined by the strong personality of Karl Bosl. In 1980 he passed the leadership to Ferdinand Seibt, who had also been Chairman of the Historical Commission from 1965. He also encouraged the Commission and the CC to take an interest in the Czech regions of the Czech Lands.

Key words: the Historical Commission of the Sudetenland, German research of the Czech Lands, the 1950s, the Nazi past of the members, the Collegium Carolinum

*  *  *

JIŘÍ HRBEK
Absolutism. Construction and Deconstruction of One Historical Concept
In the last two decades historiographical discussions on the meaning and justification of the term „absolutism“ has again re-surfaced. This is not the first time in the history of European historiography that this concept is being discussed. Such discussions have always reflected a wider range of problems and have touched upon the key questions considered to be burning issues for contemporary historical science. Depending on the results of these periodically recurring discussions, the contents of the notion of absolutism have also varied. The original German concept, which had dominated historiographical discourse until the end of World War II, linked absolutism with the formation of the modern state, namely through the transfer of Hegel’s ideas into the realm of history. After 1945 we come across a fundamental re-assessment of this interpretation; scholars, such as Fritz Hartung and Roland Mousnier separated in their work Early Modern Absolutism from tyranny and despotism by pointing out the self-restraining elements which followed from Early Modern political philosophy. Contrary to that Gerhard Oestreich, though following the same agenda, emphasised the existence of non-absolutist powers in absolutism. During the 1980s Anglo-Saxon historiography, originally aiming to purify the notion of absolutism from layer upon layer of ideological (nationalistic) deposits, gave rise to a revisionist stream represented by William Beik and Roger Mettam, the end-result of which is Nicholas Henshall’s book. Through gradual deconstruction of individual components of the Absolutist system (a permanent army, the ruling court, financial bureaucracy), the term absolutism itself was rejected and denounced as a myth, which did not correspond to Early Modern reality.
Contemporary discussions have also touched upon the issue of the Hapsburg Monarchy, which for long stood outside discussions, as they have primarily concentrated upon France, Brandenburg-Prussia and England. The question of absolutism in the Hapsburg Monarchy is much more complex because it involves a set of countries, each with its own historical tradition, which significantly complicates the methodological approach to the Central European orbit. In addition to researching the relationship of the centre and individual countries, it is important to search for elements of integration in the Monarchy. For this reason, researchers’ attention is primarily drawn to the Viennese Court and to the functioning of central institutions. In future, other themes are likely to become topical, such as state finances, political thinking, the formation of a permanent army and a unified image of the Monarchy through culture and art.
In Czech historiography the problem of absolutism has for long remained subsumed to ideologically biased conceptions. First, it was intentionally used in a dispute about the meaning of Czech history and later in line with the spirit of a Marxist philosophy of history, which in addition to the incoherent views of Marx and Engels on the given topic, also incorporated in itself much of Czech nationalism at the end of the 19th century. Yet, the term itself was not defined and theoretical deliberations on this theme only emerged in the 1970s and the 1980s (Bedřich Šindelář, Pavel Bělina, Miroslav Hroch). Indeed, even after the fall of the Communist regime, the theme of absolutism has not been thrown wide open; it is only the article of Tomáš Knoz in the Journal of Matice Moravská (Časopis Matice moravské), published in 2002, that offers a first comprehensive survey of this research. The only important contribution of Czech historiography towards the theoretical definition of the concept of absolutism is its linkage with the adjective „baroque“, which Josef Válka has been advocating for many years. Válka’s conception links the political level and the cultural level, and thus creates an interesting conception which corresponds to the current need of historical science to research history through the prism of culture.
In my opinion, it is unnecessary to reject the concept of absolutism, even though in recent years it has been unmasked as a historiographical construct which is used by many historians only because there is a shortage of other adequate terms which could describe the trends and qualities of the Early Modern Monarchy. Its importance lies in the fact that it is a construct. Thus, it is for academic discussion to decide what contents this term will be filled with and which processes in the past will be labelled as absolutist. Only thus deconstruction will be followed by a reflected construction; the re-building of a notion while fully aware that it is an auxiliary term, not a mandatory canon.
Translated by Alena Linhartová

JIŘÍ HRBEK: Absolutismus. Konstrukce a dekonstrukce jednoho historického pojmu
Pojem absolutismus byl užíván v historické vědě od 19. století pro označení určité formy monarchického panství v raně novověké Evropě a během této doby se jeho význam několikrát proměnil. Jeden z hlavních komponentů vývoje moderního státu se v anglosaské, francouzské a německé oblasti postupně změnil v prázdný pojem, jenž byl odhalen některými historiky jako pouhý mýtus. V posledních desetiletích nově vstupuje do diskuse o tomto pojmu i problematika habsburské monarchie, která se soustředí zejména kolem zkoumání vídeňského dvora jako hlavního integračního bodu tohoto složeného státu. Česká historiografie se dosud sémantikou pojmu absolutismus příliš nezabývala, ačkoli ho používala jak v období sporu o smysl českých dějin, tak i v následujícím čase nadvlády marxistické filozofie dějin.


JIŘÍ HRBEK: Absolutism. Construction and Deconstruction of One Historical Concept
The concept of absolutism has been used in historical science since the 19th century to label a certain form of monarchical rule in Early Modern Europe. Its meaning has changed several times throughout this period. One of the main components in the development of the modern state in the Anglo-Saxon, French and German contexts have gradually changed into an empty concept, which some historians have unmasked as a mere myth. In recent decades, the discussion of this concept has been broadened to include the theme of the Hapsburg Monarchy, primarily focused upon research of the Viennese Court as the main point of integration for this composite state. Czech historiography has not until now devoted itself greatly to the semantics of the concept of absolutism, although it has made use of it both in the period of disputes about the meaning of Czech history and later in the period of dominance of Marxist philosophy of history.

Key words: absolutism, historiography, Early Modern Age, the Hapsburg Monarchy, deconstruction, the history of concepts