Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW

2/2007

OBSAH / CONTENTS


STUDIE / STUDIES

ŽEMLIČKA Josef
Mocren, Mogkran, Muckern. Kde hledat říšský majetek Mocran et Mocran?
(Mocren, Mogkran, Muckern. Where are we to look for the Imperial estate Mocran et Mocran?)
s. 305-350

KUCHAŘOVÁ Hedvika – NEŠPOR Zdeněk R.
Pastor bonus, seu idea (semper) reformanda. Vzdělávání a výchova kléru pro působení ve farní správě v českých zemích v 18. a na počátku 19. století
(Pastor bonus, seu idea (semper) reformanda. The Education and Preparation of the Clergy for Parish Administration in the Czech Lands in the 18th Century and at the Beginning of the 19th Century)
s. 351-392

MATERIÁLY / ARTICLES

PÁTKOVÁ Hana
Liber Vetustissimus Antiquae Civitatis Pragensis. Život jedné středověké městské knihy
(Liber Vetustissimus Antiquae Civitatis Pragensis. The Story of One Medieval Town Book)
s. 393-405

DISKUSE / DISCUSSION

PEŠEK Jiří
České umění 1939-1958: Avantgarda mezi návratem akademismu a totalitní modernizací
(Czech Art 1939-1958: The Avant-Garde between the Return of Academism and Total Modernization)
s. 406-432

HLAVÁČEK Ivan
Nad knihou Knihy a knihovny ve středověku
s. 433

OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEWS

Recenze

OSVALDOVÁ Barbora, Česká média a feminismus; BAHENSKÁ Marie, Počátky emancipace žen v Čechách. Dívčí vzdělání a ženské spolky v Praze v 19. století; MALÍNSKÁ Jana, Do politiky prý žena nesmí - proč? Vzdělání a postavení žen v české společnosti v 19. a na počátku 20. století (Milena Lenderová) s. 434 - FELCMAN Ondřej – SEMOTANOVÁ Eva, Kladsko. Proměny středoevropského regionu. Historický atlas (Marie Ryantová) s. 437 - LABUDA Gerard, Historia Kaszubów w dziejach Pomorza, Tom I: Czasy średniowieczne (Marceli Kosman) s. 439 - CRESSY David, England on Edge. Crisis and Revolution 1640-1642 (Michal Wanner) s. 442 - BEAUVOIS Daniel, Trójkąt ukraiński. Szlachta, carat i lud na Wołyniu, Podolu i Kijowszczyźnie 1793-1914 (Maciej Górny) s. 444 - MITTLER Max, Der Weg zum Ersten Weltkrieg: Wie neutral war die Schweiz? Kleinstat und europäischer Imperialismus (Pavel Dvořák) s. 447 - ROOWAAN Ries, Im Schatten der Großen Politik. Deutsch-niederländische Beziehungen zur Zeit der Weimarer Republik 1918-1933 (Jiří Pešek) s. 450 - BAVAJ Riccardo, Die Ambivalenz der Moderne im Nationalsozialismus. Eine Bilanz der Forschung (Jiří Pešek) s. 452 - MUELLER Wolfgang, Die Sowjetische Besatzung in Österreich 1945–1955 und ihre politische Mission (Dagmar Černá) s. 459

Zprávy
s. 462

Výběr ČČH
Ze zahraničních časopisů
s. 511

Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA / CHRONICLE

Nekrolog

Jaroslava Pešková (20. 3. 1929 Plzeň – 3. 2. 2006 Praha)
(Jaroslav Pánek)
s. 517


Konference a výstavy

Osmá mezinárodní konference urbánních dějin
(Jaroslav Ira s přispěním Ludi Klusákové, Jaroslava Millera, Olgy Fejtové, Hany Svatošové, Tomáše Dvořáka a Tomáše Hanouska)
s. 526

Kongres švýcarských historiků a historická encyklopedistika
(Jaroslav Pánek)
s. 530

„Opera didactica omnia“ J. A. Komenského v Berlíně
(Jaroslav Pánek)
s. 534

11. mnichovské setkání bohemistů
(Rudolf Kučera)
s. 535

Společnost a krajina v minulosti na rekonstrukčních mapách
(Markéta Špůrová)
s. 536

Město a intelektuálové od středověku do roku 1848
(Martina Maříková)
s. 538

Král a právo stavů na odpor
(Zdeněk Vybíral)
s. 540

Mezinárodní konference o Janovi Caramuelovi z Lobkovic
(Hedvika Kuchařová)
s. 541

Z domu nazývaného Karmel
(Václav Bůžek)
s. 542

Finanční elity v českých zemích (Československu) 19. a 20. století
(Aleš Zářický)
s. 543
XII. celostátní studentská vědecká konference Historie 2006
(Lucie Jelínková)
s. 544


Knihy došlé redakci
s. 546

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
s. 546


RESUMÉ A ABSTRAKTY

JOSEF ŽEMLIČKA
Mocren, Mogkran, Muckern. Where are we to look for the Imperial estate Mocran et Mocran?
One study published in the recent issue of the Czech Historical Journal (ČČH) (104, 2006, pp. 733-782) succeeded in proving quite reliably what should be understood by the term Mocran et Mocran. The „elected Emperor“ Frederick II. in his Charter dated 26th September 1212 did not grant the Moravian Margrave Vladislav Henry „double Moravia“ or even „the Margravate of Moravia“, as some historians allege, but a modest land property, in return for service to the Royal court. Thus, it was a fief. This study primarily addresses the question where this property could have been located. Earlier research (Rudolf Koss) looked for it in Möckern near Magdeburg. Some other localities can also be taken into consideration, to which Ivan Hlaváček already drew attention in 1996. In any case the following criteria have to be fulfilled: 1) Connection to a royal estate as required by the phrase salvo servitio, quod inde curie nostre debetur, 2) Morphological agreeement with the word Mocran, 3) Clarification as to why Frederick’s gift appears as a double word, 4) Reflection on how such a location is linked to real estates which Frederick II. ceded to King Przemysl on the same day.
Mocran et Mocran shows evident links to imperial property. Firstly, it was necessary to locate the territory where imperial estates were concentrated and where simultaneously names with the root Mock-, Möck-, Muck-, Mück-, derived from the Old Slavonic mok, mokry, mokrina, moča, which is the common basis with Mocran et Mocran, occurred. It means a wet, damp and soggy place. The area around the Imperial Castle at Altenburg on the Saxony-Thuringia frontier, known as historical Pleißenland immediately came to the fore. This early Slavonic settlement was overlapped in stages by German colonization. This is also reflected in local names, which are of a mixed kind. Yet, what is even more important is that historical settlement analyses established that the medieval settlement of the Saxonian-Thuringian region (like elsewhere, and in the Czech Lands, too) also underwent a deep structural change in the 12th century and especially in the 13th century, which left indelible traces in the syntax of local names. Double-barelled local names of a type similar to Mocran et Mocran were no exception before this change and they are frequent also around Altenburg. Based on these and other indications it seems that the local name Mocran et Mocran can be attached to the village of Mockern south of Altenburg. It had formed part of amenities to this important castle from the distant past. As even early sources reveal it belonged amongst the largest and evidently the most high-yielding localities in the wider neighbourhood (around 1200: 24 large tracts of land). In addition, the village of Mockern fits into a collection of estates which Frederick II granted to King Przemysl on the same day; he was Vladislav’s elder brother and thus the overlord of the whole regnum Boemie (i.e. Bohemia and Moravia). These estates lined the paths of routes from Bohemia to Bamberg, Nuremberg and Merseburg, and according to the wording of The Golden Bull of Sicily (again from 26.9.1212) the Czech King had to visit if the Emperor convened a Diet there. In fact, Mockern was situated directly on the route from Bohemia to Zwickau, Altenburg (another important site of Imperial Diets) and Merseburg. However, as the estates ceded to Przemysl and Vladislav do not appear in further developments in relation to Bohemia (or to Moravia) until the 14th century (some were later acquired by Charles IV) it remains an open question whether the Przemyslids did in fact take possession of them after September 1212.
The four criteria outlined in the introduction can be answered in the affirmative in the case of Mockern near Altenburg: 1) As part of Imperial estates tied to the Castle at Altenburg Mockern complies with the condition expressed in the phrase salvo servitio, quod inde curie nostre debetur, 2) From a morphological point of view Mockern definitely complies with local names which have a common linguistic root with Mocran et Mocran, 3) A historical settlement analysis provided evidence that double-word toponyms commonly occurred not only around Altenburg, but also in the entire supra-regional context. They were not something unusual or exceptional; they reflected complex developmental paths of medieval settlement. 4) Mockern fully fits into the complex of the Basle benefices, and is clearly linked to routes to Bamberg, Nuremberg and Merseburg.

JOSEF ŽEMLIČKA: Mocren, Mogkran, Muckern. Kde hledat říšský majetek Mocran et Mocran?
Předkládaná studie bezprostředně navazuje na stať Mocran et Mocran, otištěnou v ČČH 104, 2006, s. 733-782. Jejím cílem bylo přispět k objasnění smyslu a obsahu tří listin, které „zvolený císař“ Fridrich II. vydal 26. září 1212 ve prospěch českého krále Přemysla Otakara I. (listiny A, B) a jeho bratra Vladislava Jindřicha, moravského markraběte (listina C). Hlavním výsledkem bylo následující zjištění: Mocran et Mocran, které Fridrich daroval markraběti Vladislavovi v listině C, není zkomoleným názvem pro „dvojí Moravu“ nebo „markrabství Moravy“, ale je třeba pod ním rozumět skromný pozemkový majetek, vázaný „službou“ ke královskému dvoru. Kde mohl tento majetek ležet, se pokouší zjistit tato práce. S pomocí sídelně historických analýz, s využitím jazykovědného bádání a s přihlédnutím k rozložení statků, které získal Přemysl Otakar I. v listině B, se s velkou dávkou pravděpodobnosti podařilo místo zvané Mocran et Mocran určit. Jak se ukazuje, respektovaly tyto statky směry cest, které mířily z Čech k vybraným místům říšských sněmů. Studie zároveň objasňuje některé detaily vztahu mezi králem Přemyslem, markrabětem Vladislavem a říšskou autoritou.

JOSEF ŽEMLIČKA: Mocren, Mogkran, Muckern. Where are we to look for the Imperial estate Mocran et Mocran?
This presentation is a follow up to the study Mocran et Mocran, published in the Czech Historical Journal (ČČH) 104, 2006, pp. 733-782. Its purpose was to clarify the meaning and contents of three charters which the „elected Emperor“ Frederick II. issued on 26th September 1212 for the benefit of the Bohemian King Przemysl Ottakar I. (Charters A, B) and his brother Vladislav Henry, the Margrave of Moravia (Charter C). The main outcome was as follows: Mocran et Mocran, which Frederick gifted to the Margrave Vladislav in Charter C, is not a clerical corruption of the correct term „double Moravia“ or „the Margravate of Moravia.“ It should, indeed, be understood as a modest land estate with „service“ to the royal court attached. This study attempts to find where this real estate might have been situated. Using both historical settlement analyses and linguistic research and also taking into account the distribution of land possessions awarded to Przemysl Ottakar I in Charter B, it has been possible to determine the location of Mocran et Mocran with a high degree of probability. As is evident, these real estates lined the directions of routes leading from Bohemia to places chosen for Imperial Diets. The study simultaneously illuminates some aspects of the relationship between King Przemysl, the Margrave of Moravia and the Imperial authority.
 

* * *

HEDVIKA KUCHAŘOVÁ – ZDENĚK R. NEŠPOR
Pastor bonus, seu idea (semper) reformanda. The Education and Preparation of the Clergy for Parish Administration in the Czech Lands in the 18th Century and at the Beginning of the 19th Century
The activities of intellectual elites during the Early Modern Period have provided us with ample documentation, which can assist us in the reconstruction of their lives, and also give us an insight into their opinions and convictions. Yet, we have to rely on what has been reported by others in the case of the ordinary people. An important role in this process was played by intermediaries of the folk and elite discourse, primarily priests acting within the ecclesiastical administration. However, we often cannot approach their mind-sets directly; the knowledge of intellectual domains and mental forms which had outlined the borders and contents of their activities is crucial. In this study we pay attention to the education and preparation of Czech priests (especially Catholic ones) from the 17th to the 19th centuries, with particular regard to their pastoral work.
The education of priests underwent many changes in the period between the Council of Trent and the beginning of the 19th century, although from an ecclesiastical point of view the Tridentine regulations continued in force. However, this did not prevent the sovereign from introducing extensive institutional reforms, which from the mid-18th century onwards evidently headed towards the unification of the until then relatively disparate studies of theology and towards an increased emphasis upon the pastoral aspect of education. Striking changes occurred after the dissolution of the Jesuit Order, when the new mandatory plan of theological studies (Rautenstrauch)was prepared. Enlightenment reforms culminated in the establishment of general seminaries under Joseph II. They put an end to all other non-university studies of theology, while the instruction in terms of content was subject to the rationalistic and etatistic Enlightenment concept. Although general seminaries only existed for seven years, the reform model of theological education remained more or less in force in the university environment.
Theological education in the late 17th century and in the first half of the 18th century placed great emphasis upon speculative theology, while its graduates received instruction on pastoral care outwith the academia. Pastoral manuals, of a legal and moral-theological nature in many aspects, were only handed to priests active in the ecclesiastical administration. Yet, in connection with the Englightenment, the accent upon the social involvement and duties of the priest towards his congregation increased. It manifested itself in the institutionalisation of pastoral theology as an independent divinity discipline(1775). Several texbooks of pastoral theology appeared in the Hapsburg Lands. The Bohemian environment was influenced by a local textbook by Jilja Chládek and from the end of the 1780s the translation of Franz Giftšic’s work, which had been used in other parts of the Monarchy. The analysis of their contents, carried out in this study, together with a comparison of earlier theological literature shows that a number of their topics were not new but part and parcel of pastoral care as such for centuries. Their emphasis upon rationality, „the human“ aspect of religion and the implementation of certain state interests through pastoral care were innovative from the theological point of view – yet also controversial.
The religious tolerance of Joseph II also introduced non-Catholic clergy (1781) into Bohemia and Moravia, whose theological formation occurred primarily in Hungary (Calvinists) or in the Empire (Lutherans); a Lutheran Divinity College was set up in Vienna only in the 19th century. The Reformist clergy were rather traditionalist in their outlook; Lutherans were somewhat more influenced by the Enlightenment, yet practically speaking their activities were not too dissimilar to those of the Catholic clergy shaped by Enlightenment education.
The emphasis which the Enlightenment model of theological education placed upon pastoral care did not fail to come to fruition. Hand in hand with other content modifications, it led to changes in the scope of duties, which a priest was expected to fulfil. In addition to his religious function, he (primarily) acted as a state official in matters of discipline and education. In a Czech environment this also involved nationalistic and Enlightenment agitation. One of the reasons why priests participated in large numbers and so intensely in these Enlightenment activities was the intellectual isolation of the Hapsburg Lands under Franz Joseph I/II and the restraints on the fulfilment of the intellectual aspects of the priesthood.

HEDVIKA KUCHAŘOVÁ – ZDENĚK R. NEŠPOR: Pastor bonus, seu idea (semper) reformanda. Vzdělávání a výchova kléru pro působení ve farní správě v českých zemích v 18. a na počátku 19. století.
Studie je věnována vzdělávání a výchově českých (hlavně katolických) duchovních v 18. a na počátku 19. století, se zřetelem k jejich pastorační práci. Duchovní v tomto období sloužili jako hlavní zprostředkovatelé „vysokých“ náboženských forem a obsahů lidovým vrstvám a svým působením formovali lidovou zbožnost. Proměny teologického vzdělávání duchovních jsou sledovány od ustanovení Tridentského koncilu, jež byla naplňována různým způsobem, přes reformy Marie Terezie a Josefa II., které zavedly pastorální teologii a na čas výlučnou instituci generálních seminářů, až po změny v období „reakce“. Zvláštní důraz je kladen na obsahový rozbor učebnic praktické teologie (pastorální teologie v širokém smyslu) a v jejich rámci na rozšiřování osvícenského racionalistického a etatistického pojetí zbožnosti na úkor staršího pojetí kanonickoprávního a morálně-teologického. Komplementárně je sledováno vzdělávání nekatolických duchovních, jejichž působení v Čechách a na Moravě umožnil Toleranční patent Josefa II. (1781). 

HEDVIKA KUCHAŘOVÁ – ZDENĚK R. NEŠPOR: Pastor bonus, seu idea (semper) reformanda. The Education and Preparation of the Clergy for Parish Administration in the Czech Lands in the 18th Century and at the Beginning of the 19th Century
This study deals with the education and preparation of Czech (primarily Catholic) priests in the 18th century and at the beginning of the 19th century with regard to their pastoral work. In this period priests acted as the main intermediaries of „High Church“ religious forms and contents to the masses. Through their activities they shaped folk piety. This study looks at changes in the theological education of priests, starting with the regulations of the Council of Trent, which were complied with in different ways, through the reforms of Maria Theresa and Joseph II, which introduced pastoral theology and the exclusive institution of general seminaries for a period of time, up to the changes in the period of „reaction“. A particular emphasis is placed on the content analysis of practical theology textbooks (pastoral theology in the wider sense of the word) and within their framework upon the dissemination of the Enlightenment rationalistic and etatistic concept of piety to the detriment of the earlier canonic-legal and moral-theological concept of piety. In addition, a consideration is given to the education of the non-Catholic clergy whose activities were permitted in Bohemia and Moravia under the Toleration Patent of Joseph II (1781).

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HANA PÁTKOVÁ
Liber Vetustissimus Antiquae Civitatis Pragensis. The Story of One Medieval Town Book
The earliest preserved medieval town book in Bohemia is the so-called Liber Vetustissimus of the Old Town of Prague (Liber vetustissimus Starého Města pražského), a town book kept between 1310-1518. From the first half of the 14th century there are also recorded town statutes, several copies of charters, probably important for the town itself, as well as a register of new burghers accepted into the town’s community, in addition to book-keeping records, entries on the appointments of town councils, officials and other employees, leases of the collection of duties. Entries on the sealing of the charters of the town’s population clearly serve registration purposes. In addition to the Liber Vetustissimus, the existence of another book, now missing, registering a property evaluation of the burghers cannot be ruled out. Such a book would undoubtedly have been kept by the Town Court. At the time when the Liber Vetustissimus emerged, town books existed in a number of German towns (the books of the town of Nuremberg are relatively similar, contrary to that the Vetustissimus does not resemble the very old books of Mainz on the Rhine) and also in towns bordering Bohemia (Vratislav, Zhořelec). In the second half of the 14th century other town books emerged and took over some of the agenda up to this time recorded in the Liber Vetustissimus. At that time it was also stripped of a significant part of its former contents – namely statutes and copies of privileges. The merger of the Old Town and the New Town of Prague between 1367-1377 was probably a very important impulse for that. Records on the appointments to municipal offices and changes to the town council, as well as the entries of an economical nature disappeared. Yet, new circles of records appeared in the Liber Vetustissimus – in particular towards the end of the 14th century and at the beginning of the 15th century when testaments and settlements between heirs were recorded several times, as well as copies of private documents, i.e. the private-legal affairs of burghers and institutions residing in the town. Hussitism – another significant intervention into the life and functioning of the town – occurred approximately in the 1420s and the 1430s. This changeable and insecure situation called for legal acts to be put in writing rather than the limitations of written records. However, the hiatus in keeping town books in the early 1420s is conspicuous. At that time the books could have been kept as a form of manuals; their contents became antiquated in part; they were in part transferred into authentic books, so that these manuals could have easily gone missing. Even the Liber Vetustissimus, which at the beginning of the 15th century fluctuated between being a book of the rights of burghers (records from between 1391-1419 have probably not been preserved), a book of testaments and a book of copies, has a gap from 1419 until 1451. A comparison with other preserved books points out that at the beginning of the 1450s the new or renewed system of keeping town books was created; within it the Vetustissimus became a specialised book of the rights of burghers. It functioned alongside other specialised books – debtor books, commemorative books, testament books, market books and books recording the judicial agenda of the council. The books of the Town Court receded into the background and over time the town council gradually came to deal with most of the agenda. This brief, and in many aspects, hypothetical outline of the fortunes of this earliest preserved town book in Bohemia demonstrates that the Liber Vetustissimus was not a static volume of „official record“, but a very changeable document. It expressly mirrored the development of the town community in which it was used, as well as the political, economic and cultural framework in which this community existed throughout the course of two centuries. As far as the concrete developmental stages of the Liber Vetustissimus are concerned, they cannot be mechanically applied to other books in other localities. Speaking more generally, the development of the Vetustissimus bears testimony to the marked developmental dynamics of this group of sources.

HANA PÁTKOVÁ: Liber Vetustissimus Antiquae Civitatis Pragensis. Život jedné středověké městské knihy
Nejstarší dochovanou středověkou městskou knihou v Čechách je tzv. Liber vetustissimus Starého Města pražského, radní kniha vedená v letech 1310-1518. Studie sleduje jeho osudy během dvou století používání a ukazuje, že Vetustissimus nebyl statickým svazkem „úřední knihy“, ale výrazně zrcadlil vývoj městské komunity, v níž byl užíván, i politický, ekonomický a kulturní rámec, v němž tato komunita v průběhu dvou staletí existovala. Vývoj Vetustissimu je svědectvím značné dynamiky rozvoje této skupiny pramenů.

HANA PÁTKOVÁ: Liber Vetustissimus Antiquae Civitatis Pragensis. The Story of One Medieval Town Book
The earliest preserved medieaval town book in Bohemia is the so-called Liber vetustissimus of the Old Town of Prague, a town book kept between 1310-1518. This study traces its fortunes during two centuries of usage. It demonstrates that the Vetustissimus was not a static volume of „official record“, but mirrored to a significant degree the development of the town community in which it was used, as well as the political, economic and cultural framework in which this community existed during the course of two centuries. The progress of the Vetustissimus is testimony to the marked developmental dynamics of this group of sources.

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JIŘÍ PEŠEK: České umění 1939-1958: Avantgarda mezi návratem akademismu a totalitní modernizací
Článek diskutuje problematiku kontinuity české kultury a speciálně výtvarného umění mezi druhou polovinou třicátých let a dobou poúnorového stalinismu. V kontextu evropského vývoje se toto dramatické období, velice podnětně v nedávné době osvětlené V. svazkem velkých akademických Dějin českého výtvarného umění (1939-1958) jeví podstatně méně rozdrobené a vykazuje celou řadu návazností, reagujících na „smrt avantgardy“ ve třicátých letech a silné celoevropské tendence k návratu k různým formám postavantgardního realismu. Tyto procesy nebyly vlastní jen umění, ale lze je vystopovat i ve válečných a poválečných konceptech společenských, urbanistických, hospodářských i politických plánů, reforem či „revolučních oprav“ liberálně demokratické společnosti, která v očích mnohých neobstála v konfrontaci s hospodářskou krizí a s nacismem. Jestliže část umělců, resp. celé společnosti alespoň na čas přitakala radikálnímu stalinismu a jen nevelké skupiny tvůrců zejména mladé generace od konce třicátých až do šedesátých let rozvíjely transformované dědictví surrealismu, začal se již po konci nejtvrdší stalinistické epochy v polovině padesátých let rodit pragmatický, konzumními ideály okřídlený nový „socialistický modernismus“ – východisko reformních procesů šedesátých let.

JIŘÍ PEŠEK: Czech Art 1939-1958: The Avant-Garde between the Return of Academism and Total Modernization
This article discusses the continuity of Czech culture, namely of applied arts between the second half of the 1930s and the period of post-February 1948 Stalinism. Within the context of European developments this dramatic period, which has recently been illuminated in a very inspirational manner in Volume V of the large academic History of Czech Applied Arts (1939-1958), appears to be substantially less fragmented than previously thought. It shows the entire range of connections, which responded to „the death of the avant-garde“ in the 1930s, together with strong European-wide trends returning to various forms of post-avant-garde realism. These processes were not merely typical for art. They can also be traced in the war and post-war concepts of social, urbanistic, economic and political plans, reforms and „revolutionary corrections“ of a liberal democratic society, which, in the eyes of many, failed when confronted with economic crisis and with Nazism. If some artists, or even the whole of society, at least for a period of time embraced radical Stalinism, and only small groups of artists, especially from the younger generation, developed a transformed heritage of surrealism, new pragmatic, consumer-led „socialist modernism“ – the starting point of the reform processes of the 1960s – came to be born in the mid 1950s in the aftermath of the harshest Stalinist period.