Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

číslo 3

Český časopis historický
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW
3/2006

OBSAH / CONTENTS

STUDIE A MATERIÁLY / STUDIES AND ARTICLES

BŮŽEK Václav - KELLER Katrin - KOWALSKÁ Eva - PÁLFFY Géza
Společnost zemí habsburské monarchie 1526-1740 v české, maďarské, rakouské a slovenské historické vědě posledního desetiletí
(Society in the Lands of the Hapsburg Monarchy, 1526-1740, in the Czech, Hungarian, Austrian and Slovak Historiographies of the Last Decade)
s. 485-526

RAKOVÁ Svatava
Věda mezi levicí a pravicí: politika ve výkladu národních dějin USA po druhé světové válce
(Science between Left and Right: Politics in the U. S. National History Interpretations after World War II)
s. 527-557

PEŠEK Jiří
(Západo)německé dějepisectví poválečné doby mezi tradicí státně politické historiografie a "modernitou" sociálních dějin
(Die /west/deutsche Geschichtsschreibung der Nachkriegszeit zwischen der Tradition einer politischen Historiographie und der "Modernität" der Sozialgeschichte)
s. 558-592

PRÁZNÝ Aleš
Dějiny a hermeneutika
(History and Hermeneutics)
s. 593-605


DISKUSE / DISCUSSION

PELC Martin
"Kultura" a "společnost" v nedávných diskusích německých historiků
s. 606-614


OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEWS

Přehledy bádání a historiografických studií

HLAVAČKA Milan
Protokoly rakouské ministerské rady 1848-1867 před dokončením
s. 615-618


Recenze

BOGUCKA Maria, Gorsza płeć, Kobieta w dziejach Europy od antyku po wiek XXI (Olga Fejtová) s. 619 - RUSSO Lucio, The Forgotten Revolution. How Science Was Born in 300 BC and Why it Had to be Reborn (Pavel B. Kůrka) s. 623 - STERNECK Tomáš, Město, válka a daně. Brno v moravském berním systému za dlouhé války s Vysokou Portou (1593-1606), (Ludmila Sulitková) s. 625 - KILIÁN Jan, Filip Fabricius z Rosenfeldu a Hohenfallu. Život, rod a dílo defenestrovaného sekretáře (Pavel Marek) s. 628 - NEČAS Ctibor, Romové na Moravě a ve Slezsku (1740-1945); HANZAL Jiří, Cikáni na Moravě v 15. až 18. století. Dějiny etnika na okraji společnosti; JAKOUBEK Marek, Romové - konec (ne)jednoho mýtu (Nina Pavelčíková) s. 631 - KŘEN Jan, Dvě století střední Evropy (Miroslav Kunštát) s. 635 - HÖHNE Steffen - OHME Andreas (Hrsg.), Prozesse kultureller Integration und Desintegration. Deutsche, Tschechen, Böhmen im 19. Jahrhundert (Jiří Kořalka) s. 641 - SOSNOWSKA Anna, Zrozumieć zacofanie. Spory historyków o Europę Wschodnią (1947-1994), (Maciej Górny) s. 644 - MAZUREK Małgorzata, Socjalistyczny zakład pracy. Porównanie fabrycznej codzienności w PRL i NRD u progu lat sześćdziesiątych (Maciej Górny) s. 646 - HOUŽVIČKA Václav, Návraty sudetské otázky (Jiří Pešek) s. 648

Zprávy
s. 652

Výběr ČČH
Ze zahraničních časopisů
s. 690


Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA / CHRONICLE

Nekrolog

Josef Bartoš (4. 12. 1931-21. 11. 2005)
(Miroslav Kryl)
s. 695


Konference a výstavy

Šestá evropská sociálně historická konference
(Radmila Slabáková)
s. 699

Mezinárodní konference o prostorovém uspořádání středověkých měst
(Josef Žemlička)
s. 701

Přemyslovci v historické paměti
(Kateřina Jíšová)
s. 702

Církevní topografie a farní síť pražské církevní provincie v pozdním středověku
(Martina Maříková)
s. 703

Církev a smrt. Institucionalizace smrti v raném novověku?
(Martin Holý - Pavel Kůrka)
s. 705

Německo a jeho východní sousedé - příspěvky k dějinám Evropy
(Václav Pražák)
s. 707

Německo-ruské vztahy. Politické, ekonomické a kulturní aspekty od raného novověku do 20. století
(Pavel Szobi)
s. 707

Ukrajinsko-česká konference o Josefu Hlávkovi
(Jaroslav Pánek)
s. 710

K problematice účasti významných osobností církví a náboženských osobností v politickém životě 20. století
(Marie Makariusová)
s. 712

Církev a náboženství v nacionálním socialismu - České země 1938/39-1945
(Tetyana Pavlush)
s. 713

Nový vědecký projekt "Československé právo a právní věda v meziválečném období 1918-1939 a jejich místo ve střední Evropě"
(Josef Harna)
s. 715

Kde se pivo vaří
(Radoslav Daněk)
s. 716


Knihy došlé redakci
s. 719

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
s. 720


RESUMÉ A ABSTRAKTY



VÁCLAV BŮŽEK - KATRIN KELLER - EVA KOWALSKÁ - GÉZA PÁLFFY
Society in the Lands of the Hapsburg Monarchy, 1526-1740, in the Czech, Hungarian, Austrian and Slovak Historiographies of the Last Decade
The fundamental problem, when synthetically interpreting the history of society in the individual lands of the Hapsburg Monarchy during the period of the Early Modern Age, lies in determining the concept which mirrors dissimilar degrees in the theoretical, methodological, thematical and heuristical readiness of Czech, Hungarian, Austrian and Slovak historiographies at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries. If authors of the next synthetic work on the history of the Hapsburg Monarchy in the Early Modern Age select a comparative approach to the history of society in the individual lands of this co-state as a possible conceptual starting point, such a choice will place considerable new demands on the creators of such a work in terms of the history of social groups and their place in hierarchical societies. It is necessary to select a sufficiently broad range of common important topics so that the required penetration of structural and historical- anthropological approaches vis-a-vis the comparative grasping of the worlds (collective identities) of social groups in the individual societies of the lands of the Hapsburg Monarchy, as seen through their own and strangers'eyes, can be achieved. The heuristical anchorage of such topics can also be based on the abundance of local and regional sources. Indeed, the social history of society in a small area usually serves as a scientific laboratory in which theoretical and methodological constructs from a historian's workshop may be verified. However, theoretical starting points and research questions cannot grow from such local perspectives, since they do not usually make it possible to co-ordinate research, or to include results within the wider social context of the history of society and a comparative framework of synthesising interpretations.
In the Czech Republic and Austria research dealing with the history of the aristocracy as a social group in societies of the Early Modern Age has resulted in the first attempts to interpret them synthetically at land levels, which can be used as the starting point for a concept of a comparative history of the aristocracy in the Hapsburg Monarchy. However, Czech, Hungarian, Austrian and Slovak historiographers in their research on towns and the burghers between the 16th - 18th centuries have not gone beyond local issues, and so far methodological innovations have not fully asserted themselves. Case studies represent a stimulating tool for academic analysis, but this option is still rather underused by Czech, Hungarian, Austrian and Slovak historiographies of the Early Modern Age which deal with the burghers as a social group. On the other hand, a number of case studies, well chosen from a methodical point of view, have facilitated comparative research of the social history of rural structures by Czech and Austrian historical sciences. It will be possible to use these results when attempting a synthesis on the levels of both the individual lands and the Hapsburg Monarchy itself. Despite the fact that in recent years cultural historical concepts have penetrated research on the history of churches and the clergy in Early Modern Age societies, a number of valuable local research studies, primarily by Czech and Slovak historiographers, lack a wider interpretative context and especially international coordination, which would have made possible the use of comparative approaches.
The academic interpretation of the history of social structures should not merely mirror long-term social processes which took place between the 16th-18th centuries. Indeed, a comparative interpretation both on the level of the individual lands and the Hapsburg Monarchy itself should not simultaneously lose sight of individual man and his worlds (individual identities) being reflected through his own and other people's eyes. In order to complete the comparative ground plan of a synthetic work on the history of the Hapsburg Monarchy in the Early Modern Age, critical reflection and the assessment of a number of theoretical concepts, which Western European historiography had heatedly discussed in the last third of the 20th century, is now required. Such attempts will not merely help to embed the supporting pillars of interpretation within the comparative ground plan of the history of the individual lands of the Hapsburg Monarchy but they will undoubtedly contribute greatly towards the unequivocal definition of fundamental concepts with which European and American historiographies work. After all, it is impossible to rule out that the obstacle to the wider implementation of a comparative research approach to the history of social groups in societies of the individual lands of the Hapsburg Monarchy is not also linked to the ambiguities of concepts used by Czech, Hungarian, Austrian and Slovak historical sciences when defining historiographically processes, phenomena and trends in histories of individual societies.

Translated by Alena Linhartová


VÁCLAV BŮŽEK - KATRIN KELLER - EVA KOWALSKÁ - GÉZA PÁLFFY:
Society in the Lands of the Hapsburg Monarchy, 1526-1740, in the Czech, Hungarian, Austrian and Slovak Historiographies of the Last Decade


This study focuses on the current state of research dealing with the history of individual social structures in the societies of the Bohemian, Austrian and Hungarian Lands from the 16th to the mid-18th century. The authors applied a comparative approach when researching the history of the aristocracy (including its status at the Hapsburgs' courts); the churches and the clergy; towns and burghers; as well as the rural population in Czech, Hungarian, Austrian and Slovak historiographies. A comparative approach to the history of societies in the indiviudal lands of the Hapsburg Monarchy can become the conceptual starting point of the next synthetic work on the history of this co-state in the Early Modern Age. The penetration of structural and historical-anthropological approaches into the process of tackling comparatively the worlds (collective identities) of social groups calls simultaneously for the reflection of the worlds of an Early Modern Age man (individual identities) through both his own and someone else's eyes.

Key words: Early Modern Age; Hapsburg Monarchy; society in the Bohemian, Austrian, and Hungarian lands; social structures; aristocracy; churches and the clergy; towns and burghers; rural population; comparative approach; Czech, Hungarian, Austrian and Slovak historiographies.


* * *

SVATAVA RAKOVÁ
Science between Left and Right: Politics in the U. S. National History Interpretations after World War II
The study probes into a complex of issues concerning interaction between authority, public culture and transformation of historical paradigms in the USA during the first decades after World War II. At that time, the American intellectual mainstream was governed by sympathies towards the Roosevelt's model of liberal etatism, whose ideology and mainly its popular fruits, i. e. the cult of consumerism and the general spread of popculture, were shared by the masses. The appearance of liberal consensus, denying the existence of both radical and right-wing traditions and supported by a demand for democratic solidarity against the totalitarian Soviet threat, was disrupted by black riots in the late 1950's and by subsequent profound ideological and social upheaval in the American society. Historiography followed this development by thematic and metodological turns (the wave of "new histories") and gave birth to the New Left, an extreme wing of radical social critics of various ideological motivations. On the other side, the American public as well as some intellectuals showed increasing distrust in the broadly accepted features of the liberal establishment - value relativism, leveling of the national culture, moral and religious indifference, shattered concept of traditional family - that were perceived as dangerous to the social cohesion. Thus as early as the 1960's, these critical-to-liberalism attitudes together with an explosion of radical and revolutionary spirit created a fertile soil for the rise of a strong political Right, although the official university and academic circles, absorbed by disputes between the liberals and radicals, almost ignored this development. The author pointed out the milestones of the intellectual and historical reflection of the changing society, particularly the post-war dominance of the liberal establishment, (R. Hofstadter, L. Hartz), the rise of the New Left, the rehabilitation of the intellectual Right (L. Strauss, R. Kirk), and the later inclination of some leading liberal intellectuals, disappointed by the corruption of the Rooseveltian ideals, to the conservatives (I. Kristol, D. Bell.

Translated by Miroslav Košek


SVATAVA RAKOVÁ: Science between Left and Right: Politics in the U. S. National History Interpretations after World War II
Historical science in the United States after WW II was closely related to the political and social demand of the time. The most influential historical works that - in opposition to the consensual liberalism inherited from the Roosevelt´s era - focused on the conflict themes and discourses of race, class, and gender (new histories) were inspired by the struggle for political emancipation and equal rights in the 1960´s through 1970´s. But along with the rise of the radical academic culture (the New Left History), the principal ideological and political features of the modern Right were taking form. The rank and file of the neoconservative movement consisted of not only the defenders of traditional protestant virtues and endangered family values but also of some former liberal intellectuals, disappointed by the consumerism and popular culture of the mass affluent society. Although the most universities are still governed by left-wing and reform mainstream, critical to the social and political establishment, some historians have come to revise the prevailing strictly negative attitudes to the traces of political and social conservatism in American history.

Key words: American, historiography, politics, after 1945

* * *


Die Geschichtsschreibung ist nicht nur eine strenge Wissenschaft, sondern auch eine Erscheinungsform der Ansichten jeder Gesellschaft über sich selbst. In diesem Sinne ist die Erforschung der Entwicklung der Modernisierung und Internationalisierung der deutschen Historiographie der Dezennien nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg auch eine Untersuchung einer spezifischen Aussage der Eliten der deutschen Gesellschaft über ihre Interpretation der Nachkriegsmodernisierung Deutschlands an sich. Es war der Geschichtsschreibung als einem Fach, das mit den Ansichten und Interessen der bundespolitischen Repräsentation der ersten Etappe des Kalten Krieges resonierte, das Interesse für den Staat und die Innenpolitik im "langen" 19. Jahrhundert eigen, man beschäftigte sich mit der politischen Ereignisgeschichte, der Ideengeschichte und der eng betrachteten Kriegsgeschichte. Die sozialgeschichtlichen, strukturalistischen oder kulturhistorischen Ansätze der Annales- Schule oder eines Teiles der angelsächsischen Historiographie wurden mit Vorbehalt bis Abneigung beobachtet. Eine negative Rolle spielte in diesem Zusammenhang schon allein die Tatsache, dass sich unter den einflussreichen Professoren der europäischen Geschichte an den amerikanischen Universitäten viele jüdische Emigranten aus dem nationalsozialistischen Deutschland befanden. Der Übergang von der fast unbeschränkten und auf mehreren Ebenen applizierten Dominanz der staatlich-politischen Machtgeschichte zur Akzeptanz oder gar einer Gleichstellung der sozialgeschichtlichen Betrachtung der Gesellschaft als des Hauptakteurs der Geschichtsprozesse war also einerseits sehr schwierig, anderseits aber in der deutschen Historiographie schon seit dem ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert latent anwesend. Die unmittelbaren "Wurzeln" für diese Auseinandersetzung lagen dann in der NS-Epoche - bei dem Paradigmenwechsel und den Werken vor allem von Hans Rothfels, Werner Conze und Theodor Schieder. Die - notwendige - Nachkriegskuratel der Alliierten über Deutschlands Universitäten führte aber, leider, zur Restaurierung der wilhelminischen Denkmuster bei der Professorenelite. Die Generation, die dann - in der zeitgemäß modischen Faszination durch die Werke des jungen Karl Marx oder von Max Weber bzw. aktuell durch die Denker der Frankfurter Schule verhüllt und die mit dem NS-Regime verbundenen Kontexten verdrängend - die sozialgeschichtliche Wende realisierte, wurde vor allem von Hans-Ulrich Wehler, Hans und Wolfgang J. Mommsen, die etwas jüngere dann von Jürgenn Kocka repräsentiert. Die Durchsetzung der neuen historiographischen Betrachtungsweise hing auch mit dem Paradigmenwandel in der ganzen deutschen Gesellschaft und Politik der 1960er Jahre zusammen. Der Modernisierungsprozess der deutschen Historiographie seit dem Ende der 1950er bis zur Mitte der 1970er Jahre, in dessen Rahmen die Sozial- und Strukturgeschichte der Gesellschaft das Niveau eines gleichwertigen oder für eine Zeit gar eines dominierendes Partners der traditionellen politischen Ereignisgeschichte des Staates und seiner Spitzenrepräsentanten erreicht hatte, war allerdings nicht nur eine Präsentation des methodologischen und philosophischen Fortschritts bzw. der Durchsetzung einiger thematischer Innovationen der Historiographie, sondern vor allem eine Machtetablierung einer in ihrer Ansichten neuen Generationsgarnitur der Historiker, welche einem "historiographisch alternativen Milieu" entstammten. Diese "bösen jungen Männer" (sehr oft in ihren ursprünglichen wissenschafltichen Ausrichtungen enttäuscht bzw. durch die Traditionalisten gezielt gebremst, dann aber dauerhaft durch ihre mächtigen Lehrer Rothfels, Conze und Schieder unterstützt) hatten endlich - nach mehreren Generationen - das "Kartell" der allmächtigen wilhelminischen "Mandarine", welche aus ideengeschichtlichen, politischen und persönlichen, konkurrenzbestimmten Gründen jahrzehntelang sowohl die Integrierung der Sozial- Struktur- Zivilisations- und Kulturgeschichte in den Hauptstrom der deutschen Historiographie, als auch die internationale Kontextualisierung geforschter Themen blockiert bzw. ignoriert hatten, durchbrochen.
Die Durchsetzung der sozialgeschichtlichen Richtung in der Historiographie war also eine gelungene "kumulative" Antwort auf innere Probleme und Herausforderungen des Faches (die in Konsequenz der inneren Kämpfe in der Historiographie, wie auch der in Deutschland herrschenden politischen Umstände jahrzehntelang vernachlässigt wurden), auf die internationalen Entwicklungen im herrschenden Diskurs und auf die politischen, soziokulturellen, zivilisatorischen und mentalen Entwicklungen in der Bundesrepublik der 1960er Jahre. Die Generation von Wehler, Mommsen und Kocka hatte sich also dank ihrer enormen Kompetenz, Leistungs- und Kampffähigkeit bis an die Spitze des Faches durchgesetzt und wurde im großen Maße zum internationalen Repräsentanten der modernen deutschen Historiographie - im Sinne des akademischen Faches, der Sozialwissenschaft und auch des wichtigen Teiles des gesellschaftlich-politischen Diskurses, der die neue politische Kultur der Bundesrepublik im letzten Viertel des 20. Jahrhunderts etablierte.

Vom Verfasser

Die (west)deutsche Geschichtsschreibung der Nachkriegszeit zwischen der Tradition einer politischen Historiographie und der "Modernität" der Sozialgeschichte


JIŘÍ PEŠEK


JIŘÍ PEŠEK: (West) German Historiography of the Post-War Period from between the State Political Historiographical Tradition and the "Modernity" of Social History

This study deals with the fundamental trends and their proponents in the development of post-war West German historiography from between conservative historiographical tradition and the "modernization" of social history.

Key words: Historiography, Conservative political historiography, Modernisation, Social History, Post-war West German Historiography

* * *

The article History and Hermeneutics deals with the origin of the historical consciousness and its concept of history especially in relation to Gadamer´s philosophy. The main task of this issue is a question of a new paradigm in history and a sense of historical consciousness. Gadamer radicalizes Dilthey's demand whether history and other humanities have to conceive their own methodologies to be considered sciences. Gadamer wishes to point out that interpretation of works of art and historical texts cannot proceed according to the method of the natural sciences, and that the truths contained in these works and texts are of a different nature than those discovered in science. The objects of the interpretation of works of art and historical texts are totally distinguished from scientific reasoning, they are essentially a manifestation of the human spirit, which is impossible to objectify; therefore scientific methodology can not be a right approach to the principles of culture and its history - it has its own distinct way of relating to the truth. Hermeneutics shows, that we can better understand this kind of reality through a humanistic concept of education. It is not especially a question of the collection of different facts and methods, but the focal task is, what those objects cause with us - cognizant. This is a major consideration for hermeneutics, which is an endeavour to demonstrate a difference between epistemology and ontology in social sciences. Gadamer documents, that hermeneutics reopen ontological dimensions and understanding and not just in history; it is a movement from epistemology to ontology, i.e. from method (Dilthey) to truth (Heidegger), as described in the main book of Gadamer Truth and Method.

Translated by the author

ALEŠ PRÁZNÝ: History and Hermeneutics
History and Hermeneutics deals with the philosophical principles of historical research within the framework of the humanities. This study outlines the fundamental methodological differences between the humanitarian and natural sciences, and focuses attention on an attempt to originally construct the humanities in line with the positivist model of natural science. Gadamer's hermeneutics, which questions the nature of truth in the humanities - and thus history - is particularly authoritative with reference to this article.

Key words: Philosophy, History, Hermeneutics, Methodology, Humanities

History and Hermeneutics


ALEŠ PRÁZNÝ