Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

číslo 2

Český časopis historický
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW

2/2006

OBSAH / CONTENTS

STUDIE A MATERIÁLY / STUDIES AND ARTICLES

ŽUPANIČ Jan, Cesty k urozenosti. Nová šlechta v Rakousko-Uhersku
(Paths to Ennoblement. A New Nobility in Austria-Hungary)
s. 269-303

HOUSKA Ondřej, Československo, Itálie a projekty k upevnění nezávislosti Rakouska v roce 1925
(Czechoslovakia, Italy and Projects Designed to Strengthen the Independence of Austria in 1925)
s. 304-332

DISKUSE / DISCUSSION

RANDÁK Jan, Revoluční kultura roku 1848. Pokus o možné vnímání revoluce
s. 333-349

OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEWS

Přehled bádání

ADÁMKOVÁ Iva, Suger ze Saint-Denis znovu? Od Panofského k dnešku
s. 350-363

KLAMKOVÁ Hana, Holokaust slovenských Židov: interpretácie v slovenskej historiografii
s. 364-374

Recenze

FLODR Miroslav (ed.), Pamětní kniha města Brna z let 1343-1376 (1379) (František Hoffmann) s. 375 - HOUSLEY Norman (ed.), Crusading in the Fifteenth Century. Message and Impact (Antonín Kalous) s. 378 - BOHATCOVÁ Mirjam, Obecné dobré podle Melantricha a Veleslavínů, Studie k završení knižní tvorby Mistra D aniela Adama z Veleslavína (Olga Fejtová) s. 382 - MIKULEC Jiří, 31. 7. 1627. Rekatolizace šlechty v Čechách. Čí je země, toho je i náboženství (Marie Ryantová) s. 384 - CORBIN Alain - COURTINE Jean-Jacques - VIGARELLO Georges, Histoire du corps, I. De la Renaissance aux Lumi?res; II. De la Révolution ? la Grande guerre (Milena Lenderová) s. 388 - SANFILIPPO Matteo, KOLLER Alexander e PIZZORUSSO Giovanni (edd.), Gli archivi della Santa Sede e il mondo asburgico nella prima et? moderna (Alessandro Catalano) s. 392 - MÜLLER Leoš, Consuls, Corsairs, and Commerce: The Swedish Consular Service and Long-distance Shipping, 1720-1815 (Michal Wanner) s. 394 - DUHAMELLE Christophe - SCHLUMBOHM Jürgen (red.), Eheschließungengen im Europa des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts. Muster und Strategien (Eduard Maur) s. 397 - ČAPKOVÁ Kateřina, Češi, Němci, Židé? Národní identita Židů v Čechách 1918-1938 (Miloš Pojar) s. 400 - REE van Erik, The Political Thought of Joseph Stalin. A Study in twentieth-century revolutionary patriotism; MCLOUGHLIN Barry - MCDERMOTT Kevin (edd.), Stalin´s Terror. High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union; CHLEVNJUK O. V. - DEVIS R. U. - KOŠELEVA L. P. - RIS E. A. - ROGOVAJA L. A. (sost.), Stalin i Kaganovič. Perepiska. 1931-1936 gg. (Bohuslav Litera) s. 404 - PIPER Ernst, Alfred Rosenberg. Hitlers Chefideologe (Miloslav Szabo) s. 408 - KOKOŠKA Stanislav, Praha v květnu 1945. Historie jednoho povstání (Jiří Pešek) s. 410

Zprávy
s. 415

Výběr ČČH
Ze zahraničních časopisů
s. 450

Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA / CHRONICLE

Nekrolog

Emil Skála (20. 11. 1928-17. 8. 2005)
(Miloslav Polívka)
s. 455

Konference a výstavy

Pouť a reformace jako mezinárodní téma církevních dějin raného novověku
(Martin Klapetek)
s. 459

Prameny k dějinám šlechtického cestování 1550-1800 (4. pardubický adventní kulatý stůl)
(Martin Holý)
s. 460

Identity evropské aristokracie (1600-1850). Mezi kosmopolitismem a lokalismem
(Ivo Cerman)
s. 462

Občanské elity a obecní samospráva 1848-1948
(Tomáš W. Pavlíček)
s. 463

Druhé česko-slovenské historické fórum - Slovenská historiografie po roce 1989
(Josef Harna)
s. 466

Historická krajina a mapové bohatství Česka. Prameny, evidence, zpřístupňování, využívání
(Eva Bílková)
s. 468

Knihy došlé redakci
s. 470

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
s. 470

RESUMÉ A ABSTRAKTY

JAN ŽUPANIČ
Paths to Ennoblement. A New Nobility in Austria-Hungary
In constrast with research undertaken in the Czech Republic on the nobility in the Early Modern Age, the issue of a new aristocratic community in the Danubian Monarchy remains, but with a few exceptions, outwith the focus of Czech researchers. Alternatively, this is merely interpreted from certain points of view. The present study deals with the question of the formation of a new aristocracy and, in particular, with opportunities for the acquisition of aristocratic titles (with the exception of a title being conferred by sovereign authority). At the same time, more detailed research of this social group offers ample opportunities for further investigations into the history of the Danubian Empire. It primarily examines the somewhat complicated matter of varied ways in which persons of humble origins were ennobled. Some were raised to a noble rank thanks to their business acumen combined with their increasing wealth, which took them to the threshold of the elite high society of the Hapsburg Monarchy; with others their elevation to an aristocratic rank was linked to their exemplary performance of administrative duties, military service or achievements in science and the arts. Whereas the latter groups of nobles became part of the aristocracy merely through their titles and lifestyles, they remained linked to a bourgeois environment through their family relationships and everyday customs, also. However, the former often managed to transform their significant wealth into political and social capital.
Translated by Alena Linhartová

JAN ŽUPANIČ: Paths to Ennoblement. A New Nobility in Austria-Hungary
The present study deals with the question of the formation of a new aristocracy and, in particular, with opportunities for the acquisition of aristocratic titles (with the exception of a title being conferred by sovereign authority). It primarily examines the somewhat complicated matter of varied ways in which persons of humble origins were ennobled. Some were raised to a noble rank thanks to their business acumen combined with their increasing wealth, which took them to the threshold of the elite high society of the Hapsburg Monarchy; with others their elevation to an aristocratic rank was linked to their exemplary performance of administrative duties, military service or achievements in science and the arts.

Key words: New nobility, Austria-Hungary, forms of ennoblement, aristocratic privileges, titles

* * *

ONDŘEJ HOUSKA
Czechoslovakia, Italy and Projects Designed to Strengthen the Independence of Austria in 1925
As a consequence of the unfavourable economic situation in Austria towards the end of 1924 and in the early months of 1925 propaganda for union with Germany resurfaced. At that time Czechoslovakia and Italy strictly opposed the Anschluss; they were bound to strive for the maintenance of status quo in Central Europe by the provisions of a joint Treaty of Cordiale Co-operation from 1924. Yet, the question was whether they would move beyond their shared rejection of the Anschluss to an active joint policy which would prevent a union between Austria and Germany.
In 1925 the Czechoslovak Minister of Foreign Affairs Eduard Beneš proposed a project of preferential customs tariffs between his country and Austria. This plan based on Article 222 of the Peace Treaty of St.Germain-en-Laye was to improve the economic situation in Austria and thus to remove one of the justifications for Anschluss propaganda. For Beneš this represented the rationale for the foundation of a bloc of the small and medium-sized successor states of Austria-Hungary, from which the super-powers would be excluded and in which Czechoslovakia was to play a major role.
Italy, which also wanted to occupy a dominant position in Austrian affairs, did not intend to accept her exclusion from the project. Austria did not agree with this plan either because it would mean close links with Czechoslovakia and it would hinder the Anschluss. Both countries, therefore, advocated the transformation of the original project into tri-lateral Czechoslovak-Italian-Austrian discussions on levying lower customs tariffs between Czechoslovakia and Austria and Italy and Austria. In the end these talks collapsed formally due to a Czechoslovak demand that its products were afforded the same status in Italy as Austrian products. However, the primary reason was the fact that Beneš strove to implement his original project and rejected Italy's involvement in it. Although Rome supported the tri-lateral plan, it did not want to share its influence over Austria. On the other hand, major decision-makers in Austria seemed to view their negotiations with Czechoslovakia rather as a tactical means of gaining economic advantages. Differences in the attitudes of all three participants thus meant that a project to introduce preferential customs tariffs for the benefit of Austria failed. In addition, these tariffs were not elaborated in any detail and they also faced a number of opponents both on the international scene and within the participating countries themselves.
Translated by Alena Linhartová

ONDŘEJ HOUSKA: Czechoslovakia, Italy and Projects Designed to Strengthen the Independence of Austria in 1925
This study deals with Czechoslovak and Italian policies with regard to plans to levy preferential customs tariffs between Czechoslovakia and Austria and Italy and Austria in 1925, which were to improve the economic standing of Austria and thus prevent its union with Germany. Czechoslovakia and Italy were political rivals in their attitudes towards Austria and thus could not transform their shared rejection of the Anschluss into a united policy which would have prevented it.

Key words: Czechoslovakia, Italy, Anschluss, preferential customs tariffs, 1925, Eduard Beneš