Historický ústav akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i.

číslo 1

Český časopis historický
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW
1/2006

OBSAH / CONTENTS

STUDIE A MATERIÁLY / STUDIES AND ARTICLES

ŽEMLIČKA Josef, "Polská koruna" Vratislava II. aneb čím ho (ne)mohl obdařit Jindřich IV. Glosy ke středověké korunovační symbolice (The "Polish Crown" of Vratislav II. or What Henry IV Could or Could Not Bestow Upon Him. Notes on Medieval Coronation Symbolism)
s. 1-46

RYANTOVÁ Marie, Památníky raného novověku jako prostředek individuální sebeprezentace (Friendship Albums from the Early Modern Age as a Means of an Individual's Self-representation)
s. 47-80

ŠIMA Karel, Národní slavnosti šedesátých let 19. století jako performativní akty konstruování národní identity (Czech National Festivals of the 1860s as Perfomative Acts of National Identity Construction)
s. 81-110

OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEWS

Přehled bádání

PEŘINOVÁ Helena, Od patriciátu k elitě. Definice horní měšťanské vrstvy raného novověku v posledních padesáti letech
s. 111-122

Recenze

SOUKUP Pavel - ŠMAHEL František (připravili k vydání), Německá medievistika v českých zemích do roku 1945 (Jiří Štaif) s. 123 - KINTZINGER Martin - ROGGE Jörg (Hrsg.), Königliche Gewalt - Gewalt gegen Könige. Macht und Mord im spätmittelalterlichen Europa (Miloslav Polívka) s. 127 - KOUTSKÝ Karel, Draci středověkého světa (Robert Šimůnek) s. 131 - OŻÓG Krzysztof, Uczeni w monarchii Jadwigi Andegaweńskiej i Władysława Jagiełły (1384-1434), (Pavel Krafl) s. 133 - NEWITT Malyn, A History of Portuguese Overseas Expansion 1400-1668 (Michal Wanner) s. 135 - VESELÁ Lenka, Knihy na dvoře Rožmberků (Jiří Pešek) s. 138 - BEALES Derek, Enlightenment and Reform in Eighteenth-century Europe (Zdeněk R. Nešpor) s. 142 - OPATRNÝ Josef (ed.), Emigración Centroeuropea a América Latina, III. La propaganda proemigratoria y la realidad (Bohumil Baďura) s. 147 - JANČÍK Drahomír - KUBŮ Eduard, Arizace a arizátoři. Drobný a střední židovský majetek v úvěrech Kreditanstalt der Deutschen (1939-1945) (Vlastislav Lacina) s. 149


Zprávy
s. 152

Výběr ČČH
Ze zahraničních časopisů
s. 192

Z VĚDECKÉHO ŽIVOTA / CHRONICLE

KLUSÁKOVÁ Luďa, CLIOHRES.net - nové perspektivy pro výzkum a studium historie
s. 198

Nekrolog

František Kavka (21. 11. 1920-20. 10. 2005)
(Ivan Hlaváček)
s. 202

Konference a výstavy

XX. mezinárodní kongres historických věd v Sydney (3.-9. července 2005)
(Jaroslav Pánek - Jiří Kocian - Oldřich Tůma - Miloslav Polívka - Petr Vorel - Jiří Lach - Radmila Slabáková)
s. 206

Římský kongres historických věd po padesáti letech
(František Šmahel)
s. 224

Ústavní vývoj českých zemí
(Pavel Cibulka)
s. 226

Patnáctý liberecký seminář
(Robert Kvaček)
s. 228

Právní kultura ve střední Evropě
(Marie Bláhová)
s. 229

První polsko-české fórum mladých medievistů
(Mladá Holá)
s. 230

Pozdně středověké testamenty v českých zemích
(Dominik Budský)
s. 231

Vědecké kolokvium o dějinách šlechty v českých zemích na Sorbonně
(Václav Bůžek)
s. 232

Mezi ostudou a ctí - vzpomínky jako výraz kontinuity myšlení a kultury šlechty v raném novověku
(Václav Bůžek)
s. 233

Vita morsque et librorum historia (K výzkumu zámeckých, měšťanských a církevních knihoven)
(Marie Ryantová)
s. 234

Čechy a Horní Lužice
(Lenka Bobková - Jan Zdichynec)
s. 235

Dějiny migrací v českých zemích v novověku
(Martin Holý - Alice Velková)
s. 237

Jakou Evropu ohlašovala bitva u Slavkova?
(Milan Hlavačka)
s. 240

Národní usmíření na Moravě 1905 - vzor pro dnešek?
(Pavel Cibulka)
s. 241

Peněžní reformy a zvraty u nás po roce 1918
(Martin Krčál)
s. 243

Příhraničí a transfer. Problémy historie v Čechách a Sasku
(Jan Zdichynec)
s. 245

Slovensko a Svatá Stolice ve 20. století
(Pavel Helan)
s. 247

Moderní podnikatelské elity - metody a perspektivy bádání
(Aleš Zářický)
s. 249

omotovia 2005
(Robert Šimůnek)
s. 251

Celostátní studentská vědecká konference Historie 2005
(Jiří Kubeš)
s. 252

Knihy došlé redakci
s. 254

Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků
s. 255

RESUMÉ a ABSTRAKTY

JOSEF ŽEMLIČKA
The "Polish Crown" of Vratislav II. or What Henry IV Could or Could Not Bestow Upon Him Notes on Medieval Coronation Symbolism
In 1000 an unusual ceremony took place in Polish Gnesen. In line with earlier Polish tradition (Gallus Anonimus), the Holy Emperor Otto III then placed his Imperial diadem on the head of the Polish Prince Boleslav the Brave (Bołeslaw Chrobry) to recognize him as his brother and collaborator of the Empire. Some historians consider the so-called Act of Gnesen to be a coronation or at least an incomplete elevation to royal status, while others deny it completely. In their argument they use Boleslav's coronation in 1025, which undoubtedly took place despite the Holy Empire's opposition. After his death, Boleslav's son Mieszko II (1025-1034) had himself crowned, also without the Emperor Conrad II's consent. When he was temporarily deposed in 1031, his successror Bezprym (or Mieszko's wife Richeza) dispatched this crown and other royal insignia to the Empire. Soon afterwards Mieszko himself gave up his royal title. The alleged presence of "the original crown of Polish kings" in the Imperial Treasury has recently been linked with events of 1085, namely speculation that Henry IV crowned the Bohemian Prince Vratislav II in Mainz with this "Polish" crown. Thus, it is said, his dual title of king of Bohemia and Poland, of which we are informed by the chronicler Cosmas († 1125), could be more easily explained.
Contrary to this allegation, the present study tries to show that Vratislav's crown could be neither the Imperial diadem of Otto III, which would have been bestowed upon Vratislav, at most only temporarily, ad hoc, nor the crown with which Boleslav the Brave had himself crowned in 1025 and which his son Mieszko II probably "inherited." From a strict Imperial point of view, as shown in a number of documentary sources, this was an improper and fake crown. As such, the Emperor Henry IV could hardly have bestowed it upon his Czech ally in 1085. Not to mention the fact that after its arrival to the Empire, Emperor Conrad II would most likely have the crown destroyed (namely later sources make no mention of it at all).
The scenario of "the original crown of Polish kings" simultaneously provided for diversions to questions of the royal insignia in the early and high Middle Ages. Having analysed Gallus's report and other indications, the study has pointed out that it might be necessary to abandon the idea that the so-called Act of Gnesen had become the model for other Central European, especially Bohemian, coronations. While in Gnesen only one crown, namely Otto's "Imperial diadem," appeared on the scene, during subsequent coronations of Bohemian rulers, the Emperor (or King) placed on their temples "their own" coronation adornments, made earlier, without having to take his crown off his own head. Other sections of the study are devoted to the general function and role of "crowns" in legitimizing the reign of their wearers, or where relevant to other symbols of royal power, in particular to so-called Holy Lances. In the conclusion it is stated that different crowns were probably used during the coronation ceremonies of Vratislav II. (1085), Vladislav II. (1158) and Przemysl Ottokar I. (1198, 1203). Thus, it is not realistic to presuppose the existence of one principal "Przemyslid" crown until the 13th century.
Translated by Alena Linhartová


JOSEF ŽEMLIČKA: "The Polish Crown" of Vratislav II or What Henry IV Could or Could Not Bestow Upon Him. Notes on Medieval Coronation Symbolism
Disputing recently published speculation that in 1085 Emperor Henry IV might have crowned the Bohemian Prince Vratislav II with "the original crown of Polish kings" in Mainz and thus simultaneously bestowed upon him the dual title of king of Bohemia and Poland, this study returns to the topic of the first coronations and coronation insignia in Central Europe. It shows that neither the diadem of Otto III, used in 1000 during the so-called Act of Gnesen, nor the crown of the Polish ruler Boleslav the Brave, with which he had himself crowned in 1025 and which his son Mieszko II lost in 1031, could come to rest on the head of Vratislav II. The author then deals with the functions and roles of medieval "crowns" in conveying the legitimacy of rule for their wearers. He states that different crowns were probably used during the coronations of Vratislav II. (1085), Vladislav II. (1158) and Przemysl Ottokar I. (1198, 1203). It is, thus, unrealistic to presume the existence of one principal "Przemyslid" crown until the 13th century (or even later)

Key words: Act of Gnesen, Bohemia, Boleslav the Brave, Coronation, Coronation Ceremony, Crown, Gnesen, Insignia, Mieszko II., Piasts´ State, Przemyslids´ State, Vratislav II.


* * *

MARIE RYANTOVÁ
Friendship Albums from the Early Modern Age as a Means of an Individual's Self-representation
One change brought about by the relatively rapid development in the first half of the 16th century was an increased emphasis on education, which also became relevant for members of the aristocracy. It was inseparably linked to journeys to universities abroad, accompanied by visits to various important and interesting places, as well as to the foremost royal and aristocratic courts. In general, these so-called cavalier journeys and also what was known as academic peregrinations were crucially important for the education of both younger noblemen and rich burghers'sons - in addition they also influenced the origins and the creation of one of the most interesting and most relevant sources for the Early Modern Age: friendship albums or "štambuchs", also called "alba amicorum". The beginnings of štambuchs were connected with the spread of the Reformation; yet, a prominent role in their creation and especially their dissemination was played by other important contemporary trends and influences, especially the growth of printing, and the development of early modern emblematology linked to it. Simultaneously, it was possible to continue some earlier forms, which were either similar or even transitional to them, especially the collections of autographs and visitors' books. The key moments for the origins and the use of these albums were two terms "amicitia" and "memoria": a wish to assure each one of their mutual friendship and the effort to preserve a keepsake of various acquaintances. These motives were important primarily in the beginnings of štambuchs; later on the effort to imitate already existing friendship albums played a prominent role, but as time went on the desirability of this phenomenon, which one cannot fail to notice, undoubtedly grew in significance and thus the original reasons for their emergence had receded to the background. In addition to the original motives for keeping štambuchs, which were purely individual, personal (even intimate) reasons, following from inner needs, external impulses were also added, and both these sources merged into the need, or (also) the requirement of outward self-representation. A greater opportunity for self-representation rested with the person who undertook the activity of establishing a friendship album, i.e. to its owner, with a wide variety of different means available. However, they were restricted in most cases to the external form of handwriting, the owner did not usually have a direct influence on its contents. He could try to outline the form of individual entries in his directions at the beginning of the štambuch; but he could then influence their contents only by the selection of persons, who were to write entries for him. The spectrum of potential persons was rather wide, however, the real representation was determined to a large extent by the environment in which the album owner moved, and by the availability of potential writers. The entries from persons who found themselves in a similar life situation as the album owner were the most common. They evoked memories of friendships and shared events, yet album owners also attempted to get entries from people whom they could barely have known in person but who occupied elevated positions in social, ecclesiastical, political, administrative or university hierarchies. In this manner, a heightened self-representation of the owner of a relevant štambuch could be achieved.
Whereas the keepsake album as a whole thus became a calling card and the means of its owner's self-representation, entries in it provided similar opportunity for individual writers. They made use of various methods, ranging from the ways dedications were formulated to the application of dates, the choice of heraldic signs or emblems, quotes and sentences or the use of foreign languages once the coats of arms or interesting pictorial illustrations on various topics were inserted. Albums belonging to women have also been preserved from the Early Modern Age period, yet in smaller numbers. They display various differences and shortcomings and thus reveal clearly the significantly different level of education of their female owners, different aspirations with regard to their future and their mission in life and corresponding opportunities, and to a large degree also the nature of the environment in which they moved.
With regard to these circumstances, friendship albums represent an important cultural and historical phenomenon of the Early Modern Age - although they also remained in existence in a somewhat altered form in subsequent years. However, different attitudes to their keeping became gradually evident already in the course of their principal use, both on the part of individuals and within social groups. Whereas, these albums diminished in importance for the nobility and as time passed for members of learned circles, also, they maintained their self-representative character in the burgher environment, yet increasingly restricted to German-speaking circles. Not only did they continue to appeal but their popularity soared towards the end of the 18th century and at the beginning of the 19th century, also in connection with the political emancipation of the bourgeoisie, the onset of the Biedermeir style, and finally with the emerging German nationalist movement. At that time, the keeping of štambuchs also came to affect another section of the society, namely women. Indeed, from the 1840s at the latest, these handwritten sources were primarily the works of women, while from the end of the 19th century they became the near-exclusive domain for school children, in particular younger girls. Translated by Alena Linhartová


MARIE RYANTOVÁ: Friendship Albums from the Early Modern Age as a Means of an Individual's Self-representation
The study researches an important source for the Early Modern Age period in particular - i.e. friendship albums or štambuchs, or alba amicorum, which underwent an interesting development from their emergence in the mid-16th century. Through their contents and form they gradually became a valuable means of self-representation for both their keepers and individual contributors. As time went by and the Modern Age arrived this characteristic feature became restricted to a bourgeois environment and increasingly to women in particular and to schoolchildren by the end.

Key Words: Friendship albums, štambuchs, alba amicorum, the Early Modern Age, the development of printing and education, the Reformation, self-representation, memory (memoria), friendship (amicitia)


* * *

KAREL ŠIMA
Czech National Festivals of the 1860s as Perfomative Acts of National Identity Construction
In the 1860s the new type of festive culture began to play the crucial role in the process of construction of modern Czech nation. As I shall try to show in this article, the Czech national festivals could be interpreted as spatial and temporal locus of concentrated production of meaning in the public sphere. The rise of festive activities accelerated the process of sedimentation of national identity. However, this process cannot be simply explicated as a story of linear progress from traditional (estate, church, guild) to modern (nation, citizenship, profession) identities. Moreover, the Czech national festivities of the sixties show how the clash of both constructed complex heterogenic net of different symbolic expressions. In this transitive period, the modes of representation of identities were getting increasingly performative in accordance with theoretical approaches of John Austin, Judith Butler and Erika Fischer-Lichte.
By focusing on the dominant festive gestures as exposing of memorials, foundation stones, statues of national heroes or collective singing and "spontaneous" reactions of audience I analyse three important symbolic fields which characterize the culture of national movements and a modern festive culture in general. The central performative acts of the festivals are contextualized within the framework of personification (symbolic role of national heroes, "warriors"), collectiveness (visualisation of the body of the Nation) and symbolic permanence of nation (temporal continuity as a part of "the eternal history of the Nation").
Translated by the author


KAREL ŠIMA: Czech National Festivals of the 1860s as Perfomative Acts of National Identity Construction
By focusing on the dominant festive gestures it should be demonstrated that the Czech national festivals played a crucial role in the process of national identity construction and "performing the Nation" in the 1860s.

Key words: Festivals, national identity, Czech national movement, performative act, festive gestures, 19th century, 1860s.